Wayne County, Kentucky
Wayne County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,813, its county seat is Monticello. The county was named for Gen. Anthony Wayne, it is dry county. The first white settlers to visit the area were longhunters who arrived in the 1770s, establishing a temporary camp near Mill Springs on the Cumberland River. Benjamin Price built a log cabin in 1775, Price's Station became one of the earliest Kentucky settlements. Many Revolutionary War veterans soon arrived, including Joshua Jones, who arrived in 1794, Jonathan and James Ingram in 1796, Cornelius Phillips in 1798, Isaac West in 1799. Wayne County was formed December 1800 from Pulaski and Cumberland Counties, it was the 43rd county and is named for General "Mad Anthony" Wayne, a hero of the American Revolution and the Northwest Indian War. Wayne's victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers ended the Indian threat against Kentucky settlers. Early in the Civil War, Confederate Army General Felix Zollicoffer made his headquarters in the Brown-Lanier House at Mill Springs.
Gen. Zollicoffer was killed at the Battle of Mill Springs on January 19, 1862, when he mistook some Union troops for his own and approached them; the Union men shot him dead, without their leader the Confederate were defeated.. During the winter of 1861, an act was passed by the Confederate government of Kentucky to change the name of Wayne County to Zollicoffer County in honor of the general. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 484 square miles, of which 458 square miles is land and 26 square miles is water; the county's elevation ranges from 723 feet to 1,788 feet, at the Monticello/Wayne County Airport the elevation is 963 feet. Wayne County is located in the Pennyrile Eastern Coal Field regions of Kentucky. Russell County Pulaski County McCreary County Scott County, Tennessee Pickett County, Tennessee Clinton County Daniel Boone National Forest Wayne County is on Eastern Time, it has the tz database zone identifier America/Kentucky/Monticello. As of the census of 2000, there were 19,923 people, 7,913 households, 5,808 families residing in the county.
The population density was 43 per square mile. There were 9,789 housing units at an average density of 21 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.98% White, 1.49% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.47% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races. 1.46% of the population were Hispanic or Latino any race. There were 7,913 households out of which 33.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 10.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.60% were non-families. 23.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 13.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 97.80 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $20,863, the median income for a family was $24,869. Males had a median income of $24,021 versus $18,102 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,601. About 24.60% of families and 29.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.90% of those under age 18 and 31.50% of those age 65 or over. Shelby M. Cullom, Governor of Illinois. Senator Preston H. Leslie - Governor of Kentucky. William Crenshaw Kennedy, Jr. Memorial Museum and Genealogy Library The Quilte Shoppe, 24 North Main, Monticello, Ky and Linda's Quilt Shop, 627 Michigan Avenue, Monticello, Ky Doughboy Monument located on the Monticello town square, a tribute to World War I soldiers. Conley Bottom Resort and Marina on Lake Cumberland Mill Springs Mill and Park - a water-powered overshot gristmill built in 1877 and still in operation today. Brown-Lanier House - Historic home associated with the Civil War Battle of Mill Springs/Logan's Crossroads.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Wayne County, Kentucky Ken Upchurch - member of the Kentucky House of Representatives from Wayne County Wayne County History Wayne County Historical Museum Battle of Mill Springs Wayne County KYGenWeb Site General City of Monticello, Kentucky Website Monticello/Wayne County Chamber of Commerce My Kentucky World School Systems Monticello Independent School Wayne County School District
John G. Carlisle
John Griffin Carlisle was a prominent American politician in the Democratic Party during the last quarter of the 19th century. He served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, from 1883 to 1889 and afterward served as Secretary of the Treasury, from 1893 to 1897, during the Panic of 1893; as a Bourbon Democrat he was a leader of the conservative, pro-business wing of the party, along with President Grover Cleveland. Carlisle was born in what is now Kenton County and began his public life as a lawyer in Covington, under John W. Stevenson. Carlisle married Mary Jane Goodson on January 15, 1857, they had two sons: William Kinkead Carlisle and Logan Griffin Carlisle. Mary Jane Goodson was born in Covington, August 2, 1835, her father, Major John Adam Goodson, served in the war of 1812, for several terms represented his district in the House of Representatives. Both William Kinkead Carlisle and Logan Griffin Carlisle were lawyers by profession. William Carlisle had three children.
Despite the political difficulties that taking a neutral position during the American Civil War caused him, Carlisle spent most of the 1860s in the Kentucky General Assembly, serving in the Kentucky House of Representatives and two terms in the Kentucky State Senate, was elected Lieutenant Governor of Kentucky in 1871, succeeding his former law mentor Stevenson. After Carlisle's term as Lieutenant Governor ended in 1875, he ran for and won a seat in the United States House of Representatives for Kentucky's 6th district. On the main issues of the day, Carlisle was in favor of coining silver, but not for free coinage, favored lower tariffs, he became a leader of the low-tariff wing of the Democratic Party, was chosen by House Democrats to become Speaker in 1883 over Samuel J. Randall, a leader of the party's protectionist wing. Carlisle became a leader of the conservative Bourbon Democrats and was mentioned as a presidential candidate but the Democrats passed him over at their conventions for Winfield S. Hancock in 1880 and Grover Cleveland in 1884.
Discomfort with nominating a southerner after the Civil War played a role in Carlisle's failure to win either nomination. In 1892 Carlisle was again proposed as a candidate for president at the Democratic convention, but this time Carlisle asked that he not be considered, it was reported at the time that Carlisle dropped out with the understanding that Cleveland, once nominated, would appoint him to his Cabinet. In 1890, Carlisle was appointed to the United States Senate to fill the unexpired term of James B. Beck; when Cleveland was again elected to the Presidency in 1892, he chose Carlisle as his Secretary of the Treasury. Carlisle's tenure as Secretary was marred by the Panic of 1893, a financial and economic disaster so severe that it ended Carlisle's political career. In response to a run on the American gold supply, Carlisle felt forced to end silver coinage, he felt compelled to oppose the 1894 Wilson-Gorman Tariff bill. These two stands were unpopular among agrarian Democrats. In 1896 Carlisle strenuously opposed Democratic presidential nominee William Jennings Bryan, supporting a splinter Gold Democrat candidate, once-Illinois Governor Palmer, instead.
By 1896, the once remarkably popular Carlisle was so disliked due to his stewardship of the currency that he was forced to leave the stage in the middle of a speech in his home town of Covington due to a barrage of rotten eggs. By May 1899, the North American Trust Company had directors such as John G. Carlisle, Adlai E. Stevenson, Wager Swayne, he moved to New York City, where he practiced law, died on July 31, 1910, at age 75, is buried in Linden Grove Cemetery in Covington, Kentucky. Carlisle County, Kentucky was established in 1886. United States Congress. "John G. Carlisle". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Barnes, James A. John G. Carlisle: Financial Statesman. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1931. Beito, David T. and Linda Royster Beito. Gold Democrats and the Decline of Classical Liberalism from 1896 to 1900, Independent Review 4, 555-75. Encyclopedia of Kentucky. New York, New York: Somerset Publishers. 1987. Pp. 127–129. ISBN 0-403-09981-1. Garraty, John A. and Mark C. Carnes. American National Biography, vol.
4, "Carlisle, John G.". New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. McAfee, John J.. Kentucky politicians: sketches of representative Corncrackers and other miscellany. Louisville, Kentucky: Press of the Courier-Journal job printing company. Pp. 44–47. Williams, R. Hal. Years of Decision: American Politics in the 1890s. New York: Wiley, 1978. John G. Carlisle at Linden Grove Cemetery "Carlisle, John Griffin". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900
Benjamin Harrison was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 23rd president of the United States from 1889 to 1893. He was a grandson of the ninth president, William Henry Harrison, creating the only grandfather–grandson duo to have held the office, he was a great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, a founding father. Before ascending to the presidency, Harrison had established himself as a prominent local attorney, Presbyterian church leader, politician in Indianapolis, Indiana. During the American Civil War, he served in the Union Army as a colonel, was confirmed by the U. S. Senate as a brevet brigadier general of volunteers in 1865. Harrison unsuccessfully ran for governor of Indiana in 1876; the Indiana General Assembly elected Harrison to a six-year term in the U. S. Senate, where he served from 1881 to 1887. A Republican, Harrison was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the Democratic incumbent, Grover Cleveland. Hallmarks of Harrison's administration included unprecedented economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff, which imposed historic protective trade rates, the Sherman Antitrust Act.
Harrison facilitated the creation of the national forest reserves through an amendment to the Land Revision Act of 1891. During his administration six western states were admitted to the Union. In addition, Harrison strengthened and modernized the U. S. Navy and conducted an active foreign policy, but his proposals to secure federal education funding as well as voting rights enforcement for African Americans were unsuccessful. Due in large part to surplus revenues from the tariffs, federal spending reached one billion dollars for the first time during his term; the spending issue in part led to the defeat of the Republicans in the 1890 mid-term elections. Cleveland defeated Harrison for re-election in 1892, due to the growing unpopularity of the high tariff and high federal spending. Harrison returned to his law practice in Indianapolis. In 1899 Harrison represented the Republic of Venezuela in their British Guiana boundary dispute against the United Kingdom. Harrison traveled to the court of Paris as part of the case and after a brief stay returned to Indianapolis.
He died at his home in Indianapolis in 1901 of complications from influenza. Although many have praised Harrison's commitment to African Americans' voting rights and historians regard his administration as below-average, rank him in the bottom half among U. S. presidents. Historians, have not questioned Harrison's commitment to personal and official integrity. Benjamin Harrison was born on August 20, 1833, in North Bend, the second of Elizabeth Ramsey and John Scott Harrison's ten children, his paternal ancestors were the Harrison family of Virginia, whose immigrant ancestor, Benjamin Harrison I, arrived in Jamestown, circa 1630 from England. Harrison was of English ancestry, all of his ancestors having emigrated to America during the early colonial period; the future President was a grandson of U. S. President William Henry Harrison and a great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, a Virginia planter who signed the Declaration of Independence and succeeded Thomas Jefferson as governor of Virginia.
Harrison was seven years old when his grandfather was elected U. S. president, but he did not attend the inauguration. Although Harrison's family was distinguished, his parents were not wealthy. John Scott Harrison, a two-term U. S. congressman from Ohio, spent much of his farm income on his children's education. Despite the family's modest resources, Harrison's boyhood was enjoyable, much of it spent outdoors fishing or hunting. Benjamin Harrison's early schooling took place in a log cabin near his home, but his parents arranged for a tutor to help him with college preparatory studies. Fourteen-year-old Harrison and his older brother, enrolled in Farmer's College near Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1847, he attended the college for two years and while there met his future wife, Caroline "Carrie" Lavinia Scott, a daughter of John Witherspoon Scott, the school's science professor, a Presbyterian minister. In 1850, Harrison transferred to Miami University in Oxford and graduated in 1852, he joined the Phi Delta Theta fraternity.
He was a member of Delta Chi, a law fraternity which permitted dual membership. Classmates included John Alexander Anderson, who became a six-term U. S. congressman, Whitelaw Reid, Harrison's vice presidential running mate in 1892. At Miami, Harrison was influenced by history and political economy professor Robert Hamilton Bishop. Harrison joined a Presbyterian church at college and, like his mother, became a lifelong Presbyterian. After his college graduation in 1852, Harrison studied law with Judge Bellamy Storer of Cincinnati, but before he completed his studies, he returned to Oxford, Ohio, to marry Caroline Scott on October 20, 1853. Caroline's father, a Presbyterian minister, performed the ceremony; the Harrisons had Russell Benjamin Harrison and Mary "Mamie" Scott Harrison. Harrison and his wife returned to live at The Point, his father's farm in southwestern Ohio, while he finished his law studies. Harrison was admitted to the Ohio bar in early 1854, the same year he sold property that he had inherited after the death of an aunt for $800, used the funds to move with Caroline to Indianapolis, Indiana.
Harrison began practicing law in the office of John H. Ray in 1854 and became a crier for the federal court in Indianapolis, for which he was paid $2.50 per day. He served as a Commissioner for the U. S. Court of Claims. Harrison bec
John L. Helm
John LaRue Helm was the 18th and 24th governor of the U. S. Commonwealth of Kentucky, although his service in that office totaled less than fourteen months, he represented Hardin County in both houses of the Kentucky General Assembly and was chosen to be the Speaker of the Kentucky House of Representatives four times. In 1838 his sole bid for federal office ended in defeat when his opponent, Willis Green, was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives. Helm was first elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1826. In 1844 he was elected to the state senate, where he served continuously until he was chosen as the Whig Party nominee for lieutenant governor on a ticket with John J. Crittenden, famous for the Crittenden Compromise; the Whigs won the general election and Helm was elevated to governor on July 31, 1850, when Crittenden resigned to accept an appointment as United States Attorney General in President Millard Fillmore's cabinet. After his service as governor Helm became president of the struggling Louisville and Nashville Railroad.
He invested thousands of dollars of his own money in the project and convinced residents along the line's main route to buy stock in the company. In 1859 the line was completed, but the next year Helm resigned over of differences with the board of directors regarding a proposed branch that would extend the line to Memphis, Tennessee. Although he opposed secession during the American Civil War, federal military forces labeled Helm a Confederate sympathizer. In September 1862, he was arrested for this alleged sympathy, but Governor James F. Robinson recognized him as he was being transported to a prison in Louisville and had him released. After the war Helm identified with the Democratic Party, in 1865 Hardin County voters returned him to the state senate. In 1867 he was the state's Democratic candidate for governor. Despite his failing health, Helm won the general election, he was too weak to travel to Frankfort for his inauguration, so state officials administered the oath of office at his home on September 3, 1867.
He died five days later. In 1780 Helm's grandfather, Thomas Helm, emigrated to Kentucky from Prince William County and founded the settlement of Helm Station near Elizabethtown, Kentucky in Hardin County, where John L. Helm was born on July 4, 1802, he was the eldest of nine children born to George B. Helm, a farmer and politician, Rebecca LaRue Helm, a descendant of a prominent local pioneer family. Helm studied with noted educator Duff Green; when Helm was 14 his father fell on hard financial times and Helm returned to work on the family farm. In 1818 he took a better-paying job in the office of Samuel Haycraft, the circuit court clerk of Hardin County. While there he read law with Haycraft entered the law office of Ben Tobin in 1821. At about this time Helm's father traveled to Texas to enter into business and rebuild his finances, but he died there in 1822, leaving Helm responsible for his mother and siblings, he was admitted to the bar in 1823, the same year Meade County, Kentucky was formed.
There were no lawyers in the county yet, so although Helm continued living in Hardin County he was made Meade's county attorney. His practice grew and he was soon able to pay off his father's debts and purchase the Helm homestead. Between 1832 and 1840 he built "Helm Place" on this land and it remained his home for the rest of his life. In 1823 Helm called on Representative Benjamin Hardin. While Hardin and Helm discussed business, Hardin's 14-year-old daughter, entered the room to show her father a map she had drawn. Helm claimed it was love at first sight, began to pursue Lucinda's affections, they five sons together. One of his sons, Benjamin Hardin Helm, was a Confederate general in the Civil War and was killed at the Battle of Chickamauga; the major political issue in Kentucky during Helm's legal training was the Old Court-New Court controversy. Reeling from the panic of 1819, Kentuckians had demanded debt relief. In response, the Kentucky General Assembly passed an act that granted debtors a grace period of two years in repaying their debts unless their creditors would accept payment in the devalued notes of the Bank of the Commonwealth.
The Kentucky Court of Appeals struck down the law, claiming it was in violation of the Contract Clause of the U. S. Constitution; the angered legislature attempted to impeach the justices on the Court of Appeals, but lacked the necessary two-thirds majority. Instead, they abolished the Court of Appeals and replaced it with a new court, stocked with more sympathetic justices by pro-relief governor John Adair. Both courts claimed to be Kentucky's court of last resort. Throughout 1825 Helm made speeches and distributed pamphlets in Hardin and surrounding counties, espousing the Old Court position. In 1826 he campaigned as a Whig for a seat in the Kentucky House of Representatives. Helm won the election, at the age of twenty-four became one of the youngest members to serve in the Kentucky General Assembly. An Old Court majority was elected to both houses of the General Assembly in 1826, which passed legislation abolishing the New Court. Helm was re-elected to the state House in 1827 and 1830, was re-elected every year from 1833 to 1837.
He served as Speaker of the House in 1835 and 1836. In 1837 there was a three-way race for speaker between Helm, James Turner Morehead and Robert P. Letcher. After nine ballots Helm withdrew, Letcher was elected speaker. Helm made his only run for federal office in 1838 and was defeated by Willis Green for a seat in the United States
Kentucky House of Representatives
The Kentucky House of Representatives is the lower house of the Kentucky General Assembly. It is composed of 100 Representatives elected from single-member districts throughout the Commonwealth. Not more than two counties can be joined to form a House district, except when necessary to preserve the principle of equal representation. Representatives are elected to two-year terms with no term limits; the Kentucky House of Representatives convenes at the State Capitol in Frankfort. The first meeting of the Kentucky House of Representatives was in Lexington, Kentucky, in 1792, shortly after statehood. During the first legislative session, legislators chose Frankfort, Kentucky to be the permanent state capital. After women gained suffrage in Kentucky, Mary Elliott Flanery was elected as the first female member of the Kentucky House of Representative, she took her seat January 1922 and was the first female legislator elected south of the Mason–Dixon line. In 2017, the Republican party became the majority party in the House.
Section 47 of the Kentucky Constitution stipulates that all bills for raising revenue must originate in the House of Representatives. According to Section 32 of the Kentucky Constitution, a state representative must: be a citizen of Kentucky, be at least 24 years old at the time of election, have resided in the state at least 2 years and the district at least 1 year prior to election. Per section 30 of the Kentucky Constitution, representatives are elected every two years in the November following a regular session of the General Assembly; the Speaker of the Kentucky House of Representatives is the chief presiding officer of the Kentucky House. The Speaker's official duties include maintaining order in the House, recognizing members during debate, appointing committee chairs and determining the composition of committees, determining which committee has jurisdiction over which bill. Traditionally, the Speaker has served as Chair of the Rules Committee and the Committee on Committees; when the Speaker is absent from the floor or otherwise unavailable, the Speaker pro tempore fills in as the chief presiding officer of the House.
In addition to the Speaker and Speaker pro tem, each party caucus elects a floor leader, a whip, caucus chair. † Winner of a special election Kentucky Legislature Kentucky Senate Government of Kentucky American Legislative Exchange Council members Legislative Research Commission
Whig Party (United States)
The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States. Four presidents belonged to the party while in office, it emerged in the 1830s as the leading opponent of Jacksonian democracy, pulling together former members of the National Republican and the Anti-Masonic Party. It had some links to the upscale traditions of the long-defunct Federalist Party. Along with the rival Democratic Party, it was central to the Second Party System from the early 1840s to the mid-1860s, it formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. It became a formal party within his second term, receded influence after 1854. In particular terms, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism to stimulate manufacturing, it appealed to entrepreneurs, planters and the emerging urban middle class, but had little appeal to farmers or unskilled workers. It included many active Protestants and voiced a moralistic opposition to the Jacksonian Indian removal.
Party founders chose the "Whig" name to echo the American Whigs of the 18th century who fought for independence. The political philosophy of the American Whig Party was not related to the British Whig party. Historian Frank Towers has specified a deep ideological divide: The Whig Party nominated several presidential candidates in 1836. General William Henry Harrison of Ohio was nominated in 1840, former Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky in 1844, General Zachary Taylor of Louisiana in 1848, General Winfield Scott of New Jersey in 1852 and the last nominee, former President Millard Fillmore from New York in 1856. In its two decades of existence, the Whig Party had two of its candidates and Taylor, elected president and both died in office. John Tyler succeeded to the presidency after Harrison's death in 1841, but was expelled from the party that year. Millard Fillmore, who became President after Taylor's death in 1850, was the last Whig President; the party fell apart because of internal tension over the expansion of slavery to the territories.
With deep fissures in the party on this question, the anti-slavery faction prevented the nomination for a full term of its own incumbent President Fillmore in the 1852 presidential election—instead, the party nominated General Scott. Most Whig Party leaders quit politics or changed parties; the Northern voter base gravitated to the new Republican Party. In the South, most joined the Know Nothing Party, which unsuccessfully ran Fillmore in the 1856 presidential election, by which time the Whig Party had become defunct having endorsed Millard Fillmore's candidacy; some former Whigs became Democrats. The Constitutional Union Party experienced significant success from conservative former Whigs in the Upper South during the 1860 presidential election. Whig ideology as a policy orientation persisted for decades, played a major role in shaping the modernizing policies of the state governments during Reconstruction; the name "Whig" repeated the term that Patriots used to refer to themselves during the American Revolution.
It indicated hostility to the king. Despite the identical name it did not directly derive from the British Whig Party; the American Whigs were modernizers who saw President Andrew Jackson as "a dangerous man on horseback"—like a king—with a "reactionary opposition" to the forces of social and moral modernization. The Democratic-Republicans who formed the Whig Party, led by Kentucky Senator Henry Clay, drew on a Jeffersonian tradition of compromise, balance in government and territorial expansion combined with national unity and support for a Federal transportation network and domestic manufacturing. Casting their enemy as "King Andrew", they sought to identify themselves as modern-day opponents of governmental overreaching. Despite the apparent unity of Jefferson's Democratic-Republicans from 1800 to 1824, the American people preferred partisan opposition to popular political agreement; as Jackson purged his opponents, vetoed internal improvements and killed the Second Bank of the United States, alarmed local elites fought back.
In 1831, Henry Clay started planning a new party. He defended national rather than sectional interests. Clay's plan for distributing the proceeds from the sale of lands in the public domain among the states was intended to serve the nation by providing the states with funds for building roads and canals, which would stimulate growth and knit the sections together. However, his Jacksonian opponents distrusted the federal government and opposed all federal aid for internal improvements and they again frustrated Clay's plan. Jacksonians promoted opposition to the National Bank and internal improvements and support of egalitarian democracy, state power and hard money; the Tariff of Abominations of 1828 had outraged Southern feelings—the South's leaders held that the high duties on foreign imports gave an advantage to the North. Clay's own high tariff schedule of 1832 further disturbed them as did his stubborn defense of high duties as necessary to his American System. However, Clay moved to pass the Compromise of 1833, which met Southern complaints by a gradual reduction of the rates on imports to a maximum of twenty percent.
Controlling the Senate for a while, Whigs passed a censure motion denouncing Jackson's arrogant assumption of executive power in the face of the true will of the people as represented by Congress. The Whig Party began to take shape in 1833. Clay had run as a National Republican against J
In law, the bar is the legal profession as an institution. The term is a metonym for the line that separates the parts of a courtroom reserved for spectators and those reserved for participants in a trial such as lawyers; the origin of the term bar is from the barring furniture dividing a medieval European courtroom, similar to the origin of the term bank for the bench-like location of financial transactions in medieval Europe. In the USA, Europe and many other countries referring to the law traditions of Europe, the area in front of the barrage is restricted to participants in the trial: the judge or judges, other court officials, the jury, the lawyers for each party, the parties to the case, witnesses giving testimony; the area behind the bar is open to the public. This restriction is enforced in nearly all courts. In most courts, the bar is represented by a physical partition: a railing or barrier that serves as a bar; the bar may refer to the qualifying procedure by which a lawyer is licensed to practice law in a given jurisdiction.
In the United States, this procedure is administered by the individual U. S. states. In general, a candidate must graduate from a qualified law school and pass a written test: the bar examination; some states use the Multistate Bar Examination with additions for that state's laws. The candidate is admitted to the bar. A lawyer whose license to practice law is revoked is said to be disbarred. In the United Kingdom, the practice of law is divided between solicitors, it is the former who appear in an advocacy role before the court. When a lawyer becomes an advocate or barrister, he/she is called to the bar. In Britain the bar is differentiated between the outer bar; the bar refers to the legal profession as a whole. With a modifier, it may refer to a branch or division of the profession: as, for instance, the tort bar—lawyers who specialize in filing civil suits for damages. In conjunction with bench, bar may differentiate lawyers who represent clients from judges or members of a judiciary. In this sense, the bar advocates and the bench adjudicates.
Yet, judges remain members of the bar and lawyers are referenced as Officers of the Court. The phrase bench and bar denotes all lawyers collectively. Admission to practise law Admission to the bar in the United States Bar Association Bench Call to the bar Courtroom Importance of Bar & Bench relationship, Available at learningthelaw.in