Emergency power system
An emergency power system is an independent source of electrical power that supports important electrical systems on loss of normal power supply. A standby power system may include a standby generator and other apparatus. Emergency power systems are installed to protect life and property from the consequences of loss of primary electric power supply, it is a type of continual power system. They find uses in a wide variety of settings from homes to hospitals, scientific laboratories, data centers, telecommunication equipment and ships. Emergency power systems can rely on generators, deep-cycle batteries, flywheel energy storage or fuel cells. Emergency power systems were used as early as World War II on naval ships. In combat, a ship may lose the function of its boilers, which power the steam turbines for the ship's generator. In such a case, one or more diesel engines are used to drive back-up generators. Early transfer switches relied on manual operation. A rod is placed in between. In order to operate the switch one source must be turned off, the rod moved to the other side and the other source turned on.
Mains power can be lost due to downed lines, malfunctions at a sub-station, inclement weather, planned blackouts or in extreme cases a grid-wide failure. In modern buildings, most emergency power systems are still based on generators; these generators are Diesel engine driven, although smaller buildings may use a gasoline engine driven generator and larger ones a gas turbine. However more use is being made of deep cycle batteries and other technologies such as flywheel energy storage or fuel cells; these latter systems do not produce polluting gases, thereby allowing the placement to be done within the building. As a second advantage, they do not require a separate shed to be built for fuel storage. With regular generators, an automatic transfer switch is used to connect emergency power. One side is connected to both the emergency power feed. If no electricity comes in on the normal side, the transfer switch uses a solenoid to throw a triple pole, single throw switch; this switches the feed from normal to emergency power.
The loss of normal power triggers a battery operated starter system to start the generator, similar to using a car battery to start an engine. Once the transfer switch is switched and the generator starts, the building's emergency power comes back on. Unlike emergency lights, emergency lighting is not a type of light fixture. Exit signs, Fire alarm systems and the electric motor pumps for the fire sprinklers are always on emergency power. Other equipment on emergency power may include smoke isolation dampers, smoke evacuation fans, handicap doors and outlets in service areas. Hospitals use emergency power outlets to monitoring equipment; some buildings may use emergency power as part of normal operations, such as a theater using it to power show equipment because "the show must go on." Localizer and other instrument landing aids are both high power consumers and mission-critical, cannot be reliably operated from a battery supply for short periods. Hence, when absolute reliability is required it is usual to run the system from a diesel generator with automatic switchover to the mains supply should the generator fail.
This avoids any interruption to transmission. This is opposed to the typical view of emergency power systems, where the backup generators are seen as secondary to the mains electrical supply. Computers, communication networks, other modern electronic devices need not only power, but a steady flow of it to continue to operate. If the source voltage drops or drops out these devices will fail if the power loss is only for a fraction of a second; because of this a generator back-up does not provide protection because of the start-up time involved. To achieve more comprehensive loss protection, extra equipment such as surge protectors, inverters, or sometimes a complete uninterruptible power supply is used. UPS systems may extend building-wide. A local UPS is a small box that fits under a desk or a telecom rack and powers a small number of devices. A building-wide UPS may take any of several different forms, depending on the application, it directly feeds a system of outlets designated as UPS feed and can power a large number of devices.
Since telephone exchanges use DC, the building's battery room is wired directly to the consuming equipment and floats continuously on the output of the rectifiers that supply DC rectified from utility power. When utility power fails, the battery carries the load without needing to switch. With this simple though somewhat expensive system, some exchanges have never lost power for a moment since the 1920s. In recent years, large units of a utility power station are designed on a unit system basis in which the required devices, including the boiler, the turbine generator unit, its power and unit transformer are solidly connected as one unit. A less common set-up consists of two units grouped together with one common station auxiliary; as each turbine generator u
The secondary market called the aftermarket and follow on public offering is the financial market in which issued financial instruments such as stock, bonds and futures are bought and sold. Another frequent usage of "secondary market" is to refer to loans which are sold by a mortgage bank to investors such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac; the term "secondary market" is used to refer to the market for any used goods or assets, or an alternative use for an existing product or asset where the customer base is the second market. With primary issuances of securities or financial instruments, or the primary market, investors purchase these securities directly from issuers such as corporations issuing shares in an IPO or private placement, or directly from the federal government in the case of treasuries. After the initial issuance, investors can purchase from other investors in the secondary market; the secondary market for a variety of assets can vary from loans to stocks, from fragmented to centralized, from illiquid to liquid.
The major stock exchanges are the most visible example of liquid secondary markets - in this case, for stocks of publicly traded companies. Exchanges such as the New York Stock Exchange, London Stock Exchange and Nasdaq provide a centralized, liquid secondary market for the investors who own stocks that trade on those exchanges. Most bonds and structured products trade “over the counter,” or by phoning the bond desk of one’s broker-dealer. Loans sometimes trade online using a Loan Exchange. In the secondary market, securities are sold by and transferred from one investor or speculator to another, it is therefore important that the secondary market be liquid. As a general rule, the greater the number of investors that participate in a given marketplace, the greater the centralization of that marketplace, the more liquid the market. Fundamentally, secondary markets mesh the investor's preference for liquidity with the capital user's preference to be able to use the capital for an extended period of time.
Accurate share price allocates scarce capital more efficiently when new projects are financed through a new primary market offering, but accuracy may matter in the secondary market because: 1) price accuracy can reduce the agency costs of management, make hostile takeover a less risky proposition and thus move capital into the hands of better managers, 2) accurate share price aids the efficient allocation of debt finance whether debt offerings or institutional borrowing. The term may refer to markets in things of value other than securities. For example, the ability to buy and sell intellectual property such as patents, or rights to musical compositions, is considered a secondary market because it allows the owner to resell property entitlements issued by the government. Secondary markets can be said to exist in some real estate contexts as well; these have similar functions as secondary stock and bond markets in allowing for speculation, providing liquidity, financing through securitization.
It facilitates marketability of the long term instrument. It provides instant valuation of securities caused by changes in the environment. Private equity secondary market refers to the buying and selling of pre-existing investor commitments to private equity funds. Sellers of private equity investments sell not only the investments in the fund but their remaining unfunded commitments to the funds. Due to the increased compliance and reporting obligations enacted in the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, private secondary markets began to emerge, such as SecondMarket and SecondaryLink; these markets are only available to institutional or accredited investors and allow trading of unregistered and private company securities. Digital currency exchanges are being regarded as secondary markets. Aftermarket Clean Energy Bank Grey market Primary market Third market Fourth market Original equipment manufacturer Private equity secondary market Reseller
State law (United States)
In the United States, state law refers to the law of each separate U. S. state. The fifty American states are separate sovereigns, with their own state constitutions, state governments, state courts. All states have a legislative branch which enacts state statutes, an executive branch that promulgates state regulations pursuant to statutory authorization, a judicial branch that applies and overturns both state statutes and regulations, as well as local ordinances. States retain plenary power to make laws covering anything not preempted by the federal Constitution, federal statutes, or international treaties ratified by the federal Senate. State supreme courts are the final interpreters of state institutions and state law, unless their interpretation itself presents a federal issue, in which case a decision may be appealed to the U. S. Supreme Court by way of a petition for writ of certiorari. State laws have diverged in the centuries since independence, to the extent that the United States cannot be regarded as one legal system as to the majority of types of law traditionally under state control, but must be regarded as 50 separate systems of tort law, family law, property law, contract law, criminal law, so on.
Most cases involve claims and defenses under state laws. In a 2012 report, the National Center for State Courts' Court Statistics Project found that state trial courts received 103.5 million newly filed cases in 2010, which consisted of 57.8 million traffic cases, 20.4 million criminal cases, 19.0 million civil cases, 5.9 million domestic relations cases, 1.9 million juvenile cases. In 2010, state appellate courts received 272,795 new cases. By way of comparison, all federal district courts in 2010 together received only about 282,000 new civil cases, 77,000 new criminal cases, 1.5 million bankruptcy cases, while federal appellate courts received 56,000 new cases. The law of most of the states is based on the common law of England; the passage of time has led to state courts and legislatures expanding, overruling, or modifying the common law. Thus, as noted above, the U. S. must be regarded as 50 separate systems of tort law, family law, property law, contract law, criminal law, so on. A typical example of the diversity of contemporary state law is the legal test for finding a duty of care, the first element required to proceed with a lawsuit for negligence.
A 2011 article found that 43 states use a multifactor balancing test consisting of four to eight factors, but there are 23 various incarnations because so few states use the same test, consolidating those into a single list results in 42 unique factors. The laws of different states come into conflict with each other, which has given rise to a huge body of law regulating the conflict of laws in the United States; the diversity of U. S. state law first became a notable problem during the late 19th century era known as the Gilded Age, when interstate commerce was nurtured by new technologies like the telegraph, the telephone, the railroad. Many lawyers during the Gilded Age complained about how the diversity and volume of state law hampered interstate trade and introduced complexity and inconvenience into any interstate transaction. There have been three major reactions to this problem, none of which were successful: codification, uniform acts, the Restatements; the United States, with the exception of Louisiana inherited a common law system in which the law was not organized and restated such that it could be identified as relevant to a particular legal question and in force.
The process of organizing the law, called codification, was borrowed from the civil law through the efforts of American lawyer David Dudley Field. Field, in turn, was building upon early foundational work by the English legal philosopher Jeremy Bentham, who coined the verb "to codify" for the process of drafting a legal code; the earliest attempt at codification occurred in Massachusetts with a 1648 publication. Today, all states but Pennsylvania have completed the process of codifying all of their general statutory law into legal codes. There is much diversity in the structure of the state codes, reflecting the diversity of the statutory law on which they were built. New York's codes are known as "Laws." California and Texas call them "Codes." Other states use terms such as "Code of ", "Revised Statutes", or "Compiled Statutes" for their compilations. California, New York, Texas use separate subject-specific codes. Louisiana is a unique hybrid in that it has five subject-specific codes and a set of Revised Statutes for everything else.
A poorly drafted 1864 anti-corruption amendment to Pennsylvania's constitution prevented its legislature from starting comprehensive codification until 1970. The advantage of codification is that once the state legislature becomes accustomed to writing new laws as amendments to an
In the social sciences, unintended consequences are outcomes that are not the ones foreseen and intended by a purposeful action. The term was popularised in the twentieth century by American sociologist Robert K. Merton. Unintended consequences can be grouped into three types: Unexpected benefit: A positive unexpected benefit. Unexpected drawback: An unexpected detriment occurring in addition to the desired effect of the policy. Perverse result: A perverse effect contrary to what was intended; this is sometimes referred to as'backfire'. The idea of unintended consequences dates back at least to John Locke who discussed the unintended consequences of interest rate regulation in his letter to Sir John Somers, Member of Parliament; the idea was discussed by Adam Smith, the Scottish Enlightenment, consequentialism. Sociologist Robert K. Merton popularised this concept in the twentieth century. In "The Unanticipated Consequences of Purposive Social Action", Merton tried to apply a systematic analysis to the problem of unintended consequences of deliberate acts intended to cause social change.
He emphasized that his term purposive action, " concerned with'conduct' as distinct from'behavior.' That is, with action that involves motives and a choice between various alternatives". Merton's usage included deviations from what Max Weber defined as rational social action: instrumentally rational and value rational. Merton stated that "no blanket statement categorically affirming or denying the practical feasibility of all social planning is warranted." More the law of unintended consequences has come to be used as an adage or idiomatic warning that an intervention in a complex system tends to create unanticipated and undesirable outcomes. Akin to Murphy's law, it is used as a wry or humorous warning against the hubristic belief that humans can control the world around them. Possible causes of unintended consequences include the world's inherent complexity, perverse incentives, human stupidity, self-deception, failure to account for human nature, or other cognitive or emotional biases; as a sub-component of complexity, the chaotic nature of the universe—and its quality of having small insignificant changes with far-reaching effects —applies.
Robert K. Merton listed five possible causes of unanticipated consequences in 1936: Ignorance, making it impossible to anticipate everything, thereby leading to incomplete analysis. Errors in analysis of the problem or following habits that worked in the past but may not apply to the current situation. Immediate interests overriding long-term interests. Basic values which may require or prohibit certain actions if the long-term result might be unfavourable. Self-defeating prophecy, or, the fear of some consequence which drives people to find solutions before the problem occurs, thus the non-occurrence of the problem is not anticipated. In addition to Merton's causes, psychologist Stuart Vyse has noted that groupthink, described by Irving Janis, has been blamed for some decisions that result in unintended consequences; the creation of "no-man's lands" during the Cold War, in places such as the border between Eastern and Western Europe, the Korean Demilitarized Zone, has led to large natural habitats.
The sinking of ships in shallow waters during wartime has created many artificial coral reefs, which can be scientifically valuable and have become an attraction for recreational divers. Retired ships have been purposely sunk in recent years, in an effort to replace coral reefs lost to global warming and other factors. In medicine, most drugs have unintended consequences associated with their use. However, some are beneficial. For instance, aspirin, a pain reliever, is an anticoagulant that can help prevent heart attacks and reduce the severity and damage from thrombotic strokes; the existence of beneficial side effects leads to off-label use—prescription or use of a drug for an unlicensed purpose. Famously, the drug Viagra was developed to lower blood pressure, with its use for treating erectile dysfunction being discovered as a side effect in clinical trials; the implementation of a profanity filter by AOL in 1996 had the unintended consequence of blocking residents of Scunthorpe, North Lincolnshire, England from creating accounts due to a false positive.
The accidental censorship of innocent language, known as the Scunthorpe problem, has been repeated and documented. The objective of microfinance initiatives is to foster micro-entrepreneurs but an unintended consequence can be informal intermediation: That is, some entrepreneurial borrowers become informal intermediaries between microfinance initiatives and poorer micro-entrepreneurs; those who more qualify for microfinance split loans into smaller credit to poorer borrowers. Informal intermediation ranges from casual intermediaries at the good or benign end of the spectrum to'loan sharks' at the professional and sometimes criminal end of the spectrum. In 1990, the Australian state of Victoria made. While there was a reduction in the number of head injuries, there was an unintended reduction in the number of juvenile cyclists—fewer cyclists lead
A disaster is a serious disruption, occurring over a short time, of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, economic or environmental loss and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. In contemporary academia, disasters are seen as the consequence of inappropriately managed risk; these risks are the product of a combination of vulnerability. Hazards that strike in areas with low vulnerability will never become disasters, as in the case of uninhabited regions. Developing countries suffer the greatest costs when a disaster hits – more than 95 percent of all deaths caused by hazards occur in developing countries, losses due to natural hazards are 20 times greater in developing countries than in industrialized countries; the word disaster is derived from Middle French désastre and that from Old Italian disastro, which in turn comes from the Ancient Greek pejorative prefix δυσ-, "bad" and ἀστήρ, "star".
The root of the word disaster comes from an astrological sense of a calamity blamed on the position of planets. Researchers have been studying disasters for more than a century, for more than forty years disaster research; the studies reflect a common opinion when they argue that all disasters can be seen as being human-made, their reasoning being that human actions before the strike of the hazard can prevent it developing into a disaster. All disasters are hence the result of human failure to introduce appropriate emergency management measures. Hazards are divided into natural or human-made, although complex disasters, where there is no single root cause, are more common in developing countries. A specific disaster may spawn a secondary disaster. A classic example is an earthquake. A natural disaster is a natural process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services and economic disruption, or environmental damage.
Various phenomena like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, blizzards and cyclones are all natural hazards that kill thousands of people and destroy billions of dollars of habitat and property each year. However, the rapid growth of the world's population and its increased concentration in hazardous environments has escalated both the frequency and severity of disasters. With the tropical climate and unstable landforms, coupled with deforestation, unplanned growth proliferation, non-engineered constructions make the disaster-prone areas more vulnerable. Developing countries suffer more or less chronically from natural disasters due to ineffective communication combined with insufficient budgetary allocation for disaster prevention and management. Human-instigated disasters are the consequence of human hazards. Examples include stampedes, transport accidents, industrial accidents, oil spills, nuclear explosions/nuclear radiation. War and deliberate attacks may be put in this category.
Other types of man-made disasters include the more cosmic scenarios of catastrophic global warming, nuclear war, bioterrorism. The following table notes first response initiatives. Note that whereas the sources of a disaster may be natural or man-made, the results may be similar; the Disaster Roundtable of the National Academy of Sciences EM-DAT International Disaster Database of the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System – The Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System is a joint initiative of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and the European Commission UN-SPIDER – UN-SPIDER, the United Nations Programme for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response], a project of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
A price ceiling is a government-imposed price control, or limit, on how high a price is charged for a product, commodity, or service. Governments use price ceilings to protect consumers from conditions that could make commodities prohibitively expensive; such conditions can occur during periods of high inflation, in the event of an investment bubble, or in the event of monopoly ownership of a product, all of which can cause problems if imposed for a long period without controlled rationing, leading to shortages. Further problems can occur if a government sets unrealistic price ceilings, causing business failures, stock crashes, or economic crises. In unregulated market economies, price ceilings do not exist. Rent control is a system; when soldiers returned from World War II and started families, which increased demand for apartments, but stopped receiving military pay, many of them could not deal with higher rents. The government put in price controls so that soldiers and their families could pay their rents and keep their homes.
However, it increased the quantity demand for apartments and lowered the quantity supplied, so the number of available apartments decreased until none were available for latecomers. Price ceilings create shortages when producers are allowed to abdicate market share or go unsubsidized. According to professors Niko Määttänen and Ari Hyytinen, price ceilings on Helsinki City Hitas apartments are inefficient economically, they cause queuing and discriminate against the handicapped, single parents and others who are not able to queue for days. They cause inefficient allocation, as apartments are not bought by those willing to pay the most for them; those who get an apartment are unwilling to leave it when their family or work situation changes, as they may not sell it at what they feel the market price should be. The inefficiencies raise the market price of other apartments. Uniform wage ceilings were introduced in Australian rules football to address uneven competition for players. In the Victorian Football League a declining competitive balance followed a 1925 expansion that had admitted Footscray and North Melbourne.
The effects on financially-weaker clubs were exacerbated in 1929 by the beginning of the Great Depression. In 1930, a new ceiling system, formulated by VFL administrator George Coulter, stipulated that individual players were to be paid no more than A£3 for a regular home-and-away match, that they must be paid if they were injured, that they could be paid no more than A£12 for a finals match, that the wages could not be augmented with other bonuses or lump-sum payments; the "Coulter law", as it became known, remained a strictly-binding price ceiling through its history. During its early years, the Coulter law adversely affected only a minority of players, such as stars and players at wealthier clubs; those individuals experienced, in effect, a drastic cut in wages. For instance, from 1931 the ceiling payment of £3 per game fell below the legal minimum award wage. While players at the more successful clubs of the day, such as Richmond, had paid higher average wages, clubs that were struggling financially could not meet the ceiling under the Coulter law.
Clubs with a longstanding amateur ethos became more competitive under the Coulter law, such as Melbourne, which had long attracted and retained players by indirect or non-financial incentives. The Coulter law led to at least one VFL star of the 1930s, Ron Todd, moving to the rival VFA, because he was dissatisfied with the maximum pay that he could receive at Collingwood,As a result of World War II, the wage for a regular game was halved for the 1942–45 seasons. After the war, the ceilings were modified several times in line with inflation. During the 1950s, the "Coulter law" was blamed for shortening the careers of star players such as John Coleman and Brian Gleeson, as they and their clubs could not pay for the private surgery that the players required to continue their careers; the Coulter law was abolished in 1968. However, in 1987 a club-level salary cap was introduced by the VFL and has been retained by its successor, the Australian Football League. On February 4, 2009, a Wall Street Journal article stated, "Last month State Farm pulled the plug on its 1.2 million homeowner policies in Florida, citing the state's punishing price controls....
State Farm's local subsidiary requested an increase of 47%, but state regulators refused. State Farm says that since 2000, it has paid $1.21 in claims and expenses for every $1 of premium income received." On January 10, 2006, a BBC article reported that since 2003, Venezuela President Hugo Chávez had been setting price ceilings on food and that the price ceilings had caused shortages and hoarding. A January 22, 2008, article from Associated Press stated, "Venezuelan troops are cracking down on the smuggling of food... the National Guard has seized about 750 tons of food.... Hugo Chavez ordered the military to keep people from smuggling scarce items like milk.... He's threatened to seize farms and milk plants...." On February 28, 2009, Chávez ordered the military to seize control of all the rice processing plants in the country temporarily and to force them to produce at full capacity. He alleged. On January 3, 2007, an International Herald Tribune article reported that Chávez's price ceilings were causing shortages of materials used in the construction indust