Pride is an emotional state deriving positive affect from the perceived value of a person or thing with which the subject has an intimate connection. It may be outwardly directed. With a negative connotation pride refers to a foolishly and irrationally corrupt sense of one's personal value, status or accomplishments, used synonymously with hubris. With a positive connotation, pride refers to a content sense of attachment toward one's own or another's choices and actions, or toward a whole group of people, is a product of praise, independent self-reflection, a fulfilled feeling of belonging. Philosophers and social psychologists have noted that pride is a complex secondary emotion which requires the development of a sense of self and the mastery of relevant conceptual distinctions through language-based interaction with others; some social psychologists identify the nonverbal expression of pride as a means of sending a functional, automatically perceived signal of high social status. In contrast, pride could be defined as a lowly disagreement with the truth.

One definition of pride comes from St. Augustine: "the love of one's own excellence". A similar definition comes from Meher Baba: "Pride is the specific feeling through which egoism manifests."Pride is sometimes viewed as corrupt or as a vice, sometimes as proper or as a virtue. While some philosophers such as Aristotle consider pride a profound virtue, some world religions consider pride's fraudulent form a sin, such as is expressed in Proverbs 11:2 of the Hebrew Bible. In Judaism, pride is called the root of all evil; when viewed as a virtue, pride in one's abilities is known as virtuous pride, greatness of soul or magnanimity, but when viewed as a vice it is known to be self-idolatry, sadistic contempt, vanity or vainglory. Pride can manifest itself as a high opinion of one's nation and sexual identity. Proud comes from late Old English prut from Old French prud "brave, valiant", from Late Latin term prodis "useful", compared with the Latin prodesse "be of use"; the sense of "having a high opinion of oneself", not in French, may reflect the Anglo-Saxons' opinion of the Norman knights who called themselves "proud".

Aristotle identified pride as the crown of the virtues, distinguishing it from vanity and humility, thus: Now the man is thought to be proud who thinks himself worthy of great things, being worthy of them. The proud man is the man we have described. For he, worthy of little and thinks himself worthy of little is temperate, but not proud, he concludes that Pride seems to be a sort of crown of the virtues. Therefore it is hard to be proud. By contrast, Aristotle defined the vice of hubris as follows: to cause shame to the victim, not in order that anything may happen to you, nor because anything has happened to you, but for your own gratification. Hubris is not the requital of past injuries; as for the pleasure in hubris, its cause is this: naive men think that by ill-treating others they make their own superiority the greater. Thus, although pride and hubris are deemed the same thing, for Aristotle and many philosophers hubris is altogether an different thing from pride. Since pride is classified as an emotion or passion, it is pride both cognitive and evaluative and that its object, that which it cognizes and evaluates, is the self and its properties, or something the proud individual identifies with.

Like guilt and shame, it is described in the field as a self-conscious emotion that results from the evaluations of the self and one's behavior according to internal and external standards. This is further explained by the way pride results from satisfying or conforming to a standard while guilt or shame is an offshoot of defying it. An observation cites the lack of research that addresses pride because it is despised as well as valued in the individualist West where it is experienced as pleasurable. In psychological terms, positive pride is "a pleasant, sometimes exhilarating, emotion that results from a positive self-evaluation", it was added by Tracy et al. to the University of California, Set of Emotion Expressions in 2009, as one of three "self-conscious" emotions known to have recognizable expressions. The term "fiero" was coined by Italian psychologist Isabella Poggi to describe the pride experienced and expressed in the moments following a personal triumph over adversity. Facial expressions and gestures that demonstrate pride can involve a lifting of the chin, smiles, or arms on hips to demonstrate victory.

Individuals may implicitly grant status to others based on their expressions of pride in cases in which they wish to avoid doing so. Indeed, some studies show that the nonverbal expression of pride conveys a message, automatically perceived by others about a person's high social status in a group. Behaviorally, pride can be expressed by adopting an expanded posture in which the head is tilted back and the arms extended out from the body; this postural display is innate as it is shown in congenitally blind individuals who have lacked the opportunity to see it in oth

Pablo Canavosio

Pablo Canavosio is an Italian Argentine rugby union footballer. Canavosio played for Rovigo, Castres Olympique and Aironi, his usual position is at scrum wing. Canavosio has been capped by Italy, he made his international debut as a substitute against Australia in Melbourne. He started in all Italy's games in the 2006 Six Nations Championship, was a replacement in two 2007 Rugby World Cup - Europe qualification matches and started in the 2006 Autumn internationals against Australia and Argentina. Canavosio played only once against Portugal, he was selected in Italy's squad for the 2008 Six Nations Championship and the 2009 Six Nations Championship. Pablo was selected in Italy's squad for the 2010 Six Nations Championship and he scored a late try as a substitute for Italy in their loss to France, he played at the 2011 Rugby World Cup. RBS 6 Nations profile Pablo Canavosio on Scrum profile

Boerestaat Party

The Boerstaat Party is a right wing South African political party founded on 30 September 1986 by Robert van Tonder. It was never registered as a political party because it was unable to rally 500 persons under one roof, a requirement under South African electoral law for official political party status, it was never represented in the South African Parliament, neither in the apartheid era nor after democratisation. In 1989, it joined the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging in declaring support for Jaap Marais, the leader of the Herstigte Nasionale Party and has worked with the HNP on occasion since; the party was a charter member of the Afrikaner Volksfront coalition group. It has operated with the paramilitary group, the Boere Weerstandsbeweging led by Andrew Ford; the BSP were the third group in South Africa to advocate the restoration of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State and call for the secession of these territories from the Union of South Africa. Other groups advocated this notion in the past, with the Maritz Rebellion of 1914 and the Ossewa Brandwag of the 1940s being the most notable.

This policy was taken on board by the AWB and other rightist movements. The BSP further argued that the Boer citizens of these nineteenth century republics should be considered as a distinct nation from the Afrikaners, known as a Boerestaat; the BSP has been noted for adopting controversial views on AIDS and came out in support of the views on the subject expressed by Thabo Mbeki. The party has taken an active role in ensuring that the Voortrekker Monument is cared for, with current leader Coen Vermaak a leading advocate in this campaign. Coen Vermaak has become noted for his controversial statements, arguing that it is official policy to drive white people to extinction through the widespread availability of contraceptives whilst he has further argued that'I am convinced the abortion law is aimed at getting rid of white babies'. Vermaak has claimed that AIDS was a hoax designed to promote the use of condoms among whites, claiming that'no Boer had Aids, it doesn't exist. It's the biggest scam that can take place'.

Whilst the party does not call for voting rights to be restricted to whites only, it rejects the post-apartheid doctrine of universal suffrage. For Vermaak, it is ridiculous that a doctor and a vagrant should have an equal say in how the country is governed, he has argued that'any logical person should understand some people's votes should count more than others'. Official site