Pride parades are outdoor events celebrating lesbian, bisexual and queer social and self acceptance, legal rights, pride. The events at times serve as demonstrations for legal rights such as same-sex marriage. Most pride events occur annually, many take place around June to commemorate the 1969 Stonewall riots in New York City, a pivotal moment in modern LGBTQ social movements; each year new members of the LGBT community are welcomed into this long tradition as part of the education needed to better know the history of this community and the elders who helped shape it as all endured social and constitutional discriminations many of which have yet to be remedied. In 2019, New York and the world celebrated the largest international Pride celebration in history: Stonewall 50 - WorldPride NYC 2019, produced by Heritage of Pride commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots, with five million spectators attending in Manhattan alone. New York’s 2018 event included more than 750 contingents from six continents marched in the official WorldPride March along with over 150 floats.
It took 12 hours and 30 minutes for the 150,000 participants in march formation to complete the short route assisted by four shifts of volunteers. All helped to ensure this longest Pride March in the world was a peaceful protest march. There were 4 million spectators for the March in addition to the broadcast audience; the other million were in attendance at other events produced by NYC Pride. Additional protesters began earlier that day on a second route. WorldPride March route went south on 7th ave made its way over to 5th where is moved north. At the beginning of the gay rights protest movement, news on Cuban prison work camps for homosexuals inspired the Mattachine Society to organize protests at the United Nations and the White House, in 1965. Early on the morning of Saturday, June 28, 1969, LGBTQ people rioted following a police raid on the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, New York City; the Stonewall Inn was a gay bar which catered to an assortment of patrons, but, popular with the most marginalized people in the gay community: transvestites, transgender people, effeminate young men and homeless youth.
On Saturday, June 27, 1970, Chicago Gay Liberation organized a march from Washington Square Park to the Water Tower at the intersection of Michigan and Chicago avenues, the route planned, many of the participants spontaneously marched on to the Civic Center Plaza. The date was chosen because the Stonewall events began on the last Saturday of June and because organizers wanted to reach the maximum number of Michigan Avenue shoppers. Subsequent Chicago parades have been held on the last Sunday of June, coinciding with the date of many similar parades elsewhere; the West Coast of the United States saw a march in Los Angeles on June 28, 1970, a march and'Gay-in' in San Francisco. In Los Angeles, Morris Kight, Reverend Troy Perry and Reverend Bob Humphries gathered to plan a commemoration, they settled on a parade down Hollywood Boulevard. But securing a permit from the city was no easy task, they named their organization Christopher Street West, "as ambiguous as we could be." But Rev. Perry recalled the Los Angeles Police Chief Edward M. Davis telling him, “As far as I’m concerned, granting a permit to a group of homosexuals to parade down Hollywood Boulevard would be the same as giving a permit to a group of thieves and robbers.”
Grudgingly, the Police Commission granted the permit. After the American Civil Liberties Union stepped in, the commission dropped all its requirements but a $1,500 fee for police service. That, was dismissed when the California Superior Court ordered the police to provide protection as they would for any other group; the eleventh hour California Supreme Court decision ordered the police commissioner to issue a parade permit citing the “constitutional guarantee of freedom of expression.” From the beginning, L. A. parade organizers and participants knew. Kight received death threats right up to the morning of the parade. Unlike editions, the first gay parade was quiet; the marchers convened on McCadden Place in Hollywood, marched north and turned east onto Hollywood Boulevard. The Advocate reported "Over 1,000 homosexuals and their friends staged, not just a protest march, but a full-blown parade down world-famous Hollywood Boulevard."On Sunday, June 28, 1970, at around noon, in New York gay activist groups held their own pride parade, known as the Christopher Street Liberation Day, to recall the events of Stonewall one year earlier.
On November 2, 1969, Craig Rodwell, his partner Fred Sargeant, Ellen Broidy, Linda Rhodes proposed the first gay pride parade to be held in New York City by way of a resolution at the Eastern Regional Conference of Homophile Organizations meeting in Philadelphia. That the Annual Reminder, in order to be more relevant, reach a greater number of people, encompass the ideas and ideals of the larger struggle in which we are engaged-that of our fundamental human rights-be moved both in time and location. We propose that a demonstration be held annually on the last Saturday in June in New York City to commemorate the 1969 spontaneous demonstrations on Christopher Street and this demonstration be called CHRISTOPHER STREET LIBERATION DAY. No dress or age regulations shall be made for this demonstration. We propose that
The Iliupersis known as The Sack of Troy, is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. It was one of the Epic Cycle, that is, the Trojan cycle, which told the entire history of the Trojan War in epic verse; the story of the Iliou persis comes chronologically after that of the Little Iliad, is followed by the Nostoi. The Iliou persis was sometimes attributed by ancient writers to Arctinus of Miletus; the poem comprised two books of verse in dactylic hexameter. The Iliou persis was composed in the seventh century BCE, but there is much uncertainty. Ancient sources date Arctinus to the eighth century BCE, but evidence concerning another of his poems, the Aethiopis, suggests that he lived later than that. Only ten lines of the original text of the Iliou persis survive. For its storyline we are entirely dependent on a summary of the Cyclic epics contained in the Chrestomathy written by an unknown Proclus. A few other references give indications of the poem's storyline. A further impression of the poem's content may be gained from book 2 of Virgil's Aeneid, which tells the story from a Trojan point of view.
Note that different sources record some details differently: for example the manner of Aeneas' departure from Troy, or the identity of Astyanax's killer. The version told here follows what is known of the early epic poem, rather than any other source; the poem opens with the Trojans discussing what to do with the wooden horse which the Greeks have left behind. Cassandra and Laocoön proclaim that there is an armed force of Greeks inside, but others say it is a holy relic of Athena; the latter opinion prevails, the Trojans celebrate their apparent victory. The god Poseidon, sends an ill omen of two snakes which kill Laocoön and his sons; when night comes, the Greek warriors inside the horse emerge, open the city gates to let in the Greek army, which has sailed back from Tenedos. The Trojans are massacred, the Greeks set fire to the city. Neoptolemus kills king Priam though he has taken refuge at the altar of Zeus; the gods consider whether they should stone Ajax in retribution, but he in turn takes refuge at the altar of Athena.
When the Greeks are sailing home, Athena kills him at sea. Odysseus kills Hector's baby son Neoptolemus takes Hector's wife Andromache captive; the Greeks make a human sacrifice of Priam's daughter Polyxena at Achilles's tomb, to placate his angry spirit. Online editions: Fragments of the Iliou persis translated by H. G. Evelyn-White, 1914 Fragments of complete Epic Cycle translated by H. G. Evelyn-White, 1914. L. West 2003, Greek Epic Fragments Abrantes, M. C. Themes of the Trojan Cycle: Contribution to the study of the greek mythological tradition. ISBN 978-1530337118 Burgess, Jonathan S; the Tradition of the Trojan War in Homer and the Epic Cycle, The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6652-9.. Davies, Malcolm. ISBN 1-85399-039-6. Evelyn-White, Hugh G. Hesiod the Homeric Hymns and Homerica, BiblioBazaar. ISBN 1-4264-7293-5
Water Engineers for the Americas is a 501 nonprofit, founded in Santa Fe, New Mexico, in 2002. In rural populations around the world 15% of people do not have access to improved water systems, between 30-50% have unimproved sanitation systems. Focusing on Latin American communities, WEFTA's mission is to ensure access to potable water and proper sanitation, reduce waterborne diseases, protect the environment, lessen the burden of hauling and disinfecting water on families the women and children. WEFTA is an all-volunteer organization; the volunteer board of directors is made up of water engineers and community development professionals from several firms in the southwest United States, most notably Souder Miller & Associates and Aqua Engineering. Engineers from these and other firms donate their expertise to help communities in Latin America build and maintain simple, inexpensive potable water and basic sanitation systems. Volunteers are on loan from their companies while on assignment. WEFTA works only when requested by the benefitting community, which covers the volunteer’s expenses on the ground.
Transportation to projects is donated by individuals and through grants to cover overhead expenses through the Wallace Genetic Foundation. WEFTA partners with UniversalGiving to raise fund for projects. 100% of any other donations received by WEFTA go directly to fund material costs for projects. A community needing water or sanitation hears about WEFTA through word of mouth. A leader of that community fills out an application and submits it to WEFTA in Santa Fe or to a local WEFTA volunteer. Before committing to a project, a WEFTA member meets with the entire community to identify the community leader who will manage the role of the beneficiaries of the project; the local community must collect 30-40% of the material cost of the project or apply for these funds from their municipalities or regional governments. WEFTA matches these funds, which are low due to the low-tech nature of the projects; the community performs all unskilled labor and collects materials such as gravel or sand, depending on the project.
One or more water engineers visit and live within the community and design the simplest, most easy to maintain system possible to provide potable water and/or basic sanitation. The volunteer stays until the project is completed and WEFTA returns every two years to ensure that the system is still functioning and is well maintained. Once a community is engaged with WEFTA, WEFTA guarantees to maintain and repair the water system for life with the help of the community. In 2011, WEFTA was invited by a group of municipalities in the Urubamba Valley of Peru—the Sacred Valley of the Incas and site of a developing tourism industry—to devise a simple solution for waste water treatment of the polluted Urubamba river. WEFTA representatives have made several trips there and submitted plans to use cheap, effective organic biodigesters to replace the costly and inefficient traditional chemical or filtration plants. In November 2013, WEFTA entered into a partnership with USAID-ACCESO to promote health and livelihoods of over 300,000 residents of western Honduras with WEFTA upgrading and building new water system worth US$350,000 to achieve those ends.
As of May 2014, WEFTA has completed 62 projects in seven countries. These projects have directly provided 3,400 families with potable water and/or basic sanitation or waste water treatment. WEFTA has worked with partners around the country and at the request of Save the Children in Honduras, Habitat for Humanity in Guatemala and Peru, Lutheran World Relief, Homes from the Heart. In addition to designing and building water systems, WEFTA provides training and education to partners in the countries it serves, seeking to empower local engineers and technicians to carry forward the work WEFTA has started with community-based, self-help projects. WEFTA has held several WASH-in-Schools programs and built toilet and drinking-water facilities for regional schools in Peru and Bolivia. Water Engineers for the Americas Official Web site
Modern rhetoric has gone through many changes since the age of ancient Rome and Greece to fit the societal demands of the time. Kenneth Burke, credited for defining the notion of modern rhetoric, described modern rhetoric as, "Rooted in an essential function of language itself, a function, wholly realistic, is continually born anew. Burke's theory of rhetoric directed attention to the division between modern rhetoric; the intervention of outside academic movements, such as structuralism and critical theory, made important contributions to a modern sense of rhetorical studies. Some critics disagree with a changing definition of rhetoric, including Brian Vickers, who argued that modern rhetoric demeans classical rhetoric: "It first reduces its scope, applies it to purposes that it never dreamt of." He critiques Burke’s writing on modern rhetoric, saying it is, "A system that rearranges the components of classical rhetoric so idiosyncratically as to be unusable." Kenneth Burke was influenced by modern social stratification and the way which symbols allow social unification and polarization in A Rhetoric of Motives.
Burke sees these social changes as a social drama, acted out in rhetorical performance. Burke employs Freudian principles in his works on modern rhetoric, he highlights the importance of modern psychology, where identification of the audience plays a key role. The principle of identification, as Burke explains, is the speaker appealing to the audience’s opinions and ideals. Identification is crucial for the principal of constitutive rhetoric. A significant event, deemed the "linguistic turn," drastically changed how modern rhetoric was theorized and practiced; the linguistic turn linked different areas of study by their common concern for symbol-systems in shaping the way humans interpret the world and create meaning. Interpreting the world and creating meaning is the basis for Richard E. Vatz's "Myth of the Rhetorical Situation," Philosophy and Rhetoric, Summer: 1973 and The Only Authentic Book of Persuasion, Kendall Hunt, 2012, 2013; this is a change from the traditional understanding of words being labels for ideas and concepts, to the notion of language constituting social reality.
The public sphere was studied by scholars such as Gerard A. Hauser. Jürgen Habermas described the public sphere as the sphere of private people coming together as a public, accessible by all, to discuss the general rules governing society. Gerard Hauser described the public sphere differently in terms of rhetoric. Hauser explained it to be formed by the dialogue surrounding issues, emphasizing how the members of society that engage in the dialogue were the components of the public sphere; the public sphere grows by attaining more members. Hauser’s definition of the rhetorical public sphere still shares the notion of open debate and accessibility, assuming that the participants are engaged in the discourse; some scholars that support the notion of modern rhetoric offer normative models that differ from classical rhetoric. Modern rhetorical study, some say, should stress two-way communication based on mutual trust and understanding to improve the speaker’s ability to persuade. Acknowledging that all communication and symbols are rhetorical, scholars of the field call for a continued expansion of the objects of study, in order to improve communicative practices and bring about more egalitarian speech
Van der Waerden's theorem is a theorem in the branch of mathematics called Ramsey theory. Van der Waerden's theorem states that for any given positive integers r and k, there is some number N such that if the integers are colored, each with one of r different colors there are at least k integers in arithmetic progression whose elements are of the same color; the least such N is the Van der Waerden number W, named after the Dutch mathematician B. L. van der Waerden. For example, when r = 2, you have two colors, say red and blue. W is bigger than 8, because you can color the integers from like this: and no three integers of the same color form an arithmetic progression, but you can't add a ninth integer to the end without creating such a progression. If you add a red 9 the red 3, 6, 9 are in arithmetic progression. Alternatively, if you add a blue 9 the blue 1, 5, 9 are in arithmetic progression. In fact, there is no way of coloring 1 through 9 without creating such a progression. Therefore, W is 9.
It is an open problem to determine the values of W for most values of k. The proof of the theorem provides only an upper bound. For the case of r = 2 and k = 3, for example, the argument given below shows that it is sufficient to color the integers with two colors to guarantee there will be a single-colored arithmetic progression of length 3, but in fact, the bound of 325 is loose. Any coloring of the integers will have three evenly spaced integers of one color. For r = 3 and k = 3, the bound given by the theorem is 7, or 4.22·1014616. But you don't need that many integers to guarantee a single-colored progression of length 3. Anyone who can reduce the general upper bound to any'reasonable' function can win a large cash prize. Ronald Graham has offered a prize of US$1000 for showing W<2k2. The best upper bound known is due to Timothy Gowers, who establishes W ≤ 2 2 r 2 2 k + 9, by first establishing a similar result for Szemerédi's theorem, a stronger version of Van der Waerden's theorem; the best-known bound was due to Saharon Shelah and proceeded via first proving a result for the Hales–Jewett theorem, another strengthening of Van der Waerden's theorem.
The best lower bound known for W is that for all positive ε we have W > 2 k / k ε, for all sufficiently large k. The following proof is due to Ron Graham and B. L. Rothschild. Khinchin gives a simple proof of the theorem without estimating W. We will prove the special case mentioned above, that W ≤ 325. Let c be a coloring of the integers. We will find three elements of in arithmetic progression. Divide into the 65 blocks... thus each block is of the form for some b in. Since each integer is colored either red or blue, each block is colored in one of 32 different ways. By the pigeonhole principle, there are two blocks among the first 33 blocks that are colored identically; that is, there are two integers b1 and b2, both in, such that c = cfor all k in. Among the three integers 5b1 + 1, 5b1 + 2, 5b1 + 3, there must be at least two that are of the same color. Call these 5b1 + a1 and 5b1 + a2, where the ai are in and a1 < a2. Suppose that these two integers are both red. Let a3 = 2a2 − a1. If 5b1 + a3 is red we have found our arithmetic progression: 5b1 + ai are all red.
Otherwise, 5b1 + a3 is blue. Since a3 ≤ 5, 5b1 + a3 is in the b1 block, since the b2 block is colored identically, 5b2 + a3 is blue. Now let b3 = 2b2 − b1. B3 ≤ 64. Consider the integer 5b3 + a3, which must be ≤ 325. What color is it? If it is red 5b1 + a1, 5b2 + a2, 5b3 + a3 form a red arithmetic progression, but if it is blue 5b1 + a3, 5b2 + a3, 5b3 + a3 form a blue arithmetic progression. Either way, we are done. A similar argument can be advanced to show that W ≤ 7. One begins by dividing the integers into 2·37· + 1 groups of 7 integers each. Divide each of these two groups into 2·37+1 subgroups of 7 integers each. Within each of these identical subgroups, two of the first four integers must be the same color, say red. Since we have two identically-colored subgroups, there is a third subgroup, still in the same group that contains an element w
Edward Benjamin Evans, a British army officer known as "Major Evans", was a distinguished philatelist, stamp collector, philatelic journalist. His philatelic specialization included Mauritius, the Confederate States of America, the Mulready envelopes, the Indian feudatory states. Evans was born at Norwich and commenced collecting stamps as a student at Uppingham Grammar School in 1861, he was commissioned as an officer in the Royal Artillery in 1867. Posted to Malta, he met Lieutenant Speranza Secretary of the London Philatelic Society, studied Italian, which enabled him to translate and introduce Dr. Emilio Diena's work on the postal history of the Italian States to English speaking philatelists. Posted to Mauritius in 1876, Evans assembled an extraordinary collection of that country's stamps; these included a famous example of the One Penny Red "Post Office" Mauritius postmarked on an envelope, which may have contained an invitation to the governor's ball, several unused Two Pence "Post Paid" in indigo and dark blue.
He sent a paper on these issues to the "Congrès International des Timbrophiles" at Paris in 1878, which earned an award from the Société Française de Timbrologie. In 1885, when Evans' collection was broken up, these were bought by Thomas Tapling, they are now in the British Library. After giving up his general collection, Evans specialized in the stamps of the Confederate States, published many articles on this subject in the Stanley Gibbons Monthly Journal, which he edited for 23 years, his Confederate States collection was purchased by a New York City dealer, John Klemann of Nassau Stamp Co. about 1914. He wrote a series of excellent articles on the Indian feudatory states. Evans' study of the Mulready envelopes and satires was described in The Philatelic Record in 1891. Evans' Mulready collection, purchased by King George V, resides in the Royal Collection. Evans became a member of the Royal Philatelic Society London in 1875, he was one of the original three members of the RPS' Expert Committee in 1894, helped edit and publish many of the Society's handbooks.
Evans was Chairman of the Permanent Committee of the Philatelic Congress of Great Britain, 1911-1919. He served as one of the judges at the London Philatelic Exhibition 1890, 1897 and 1906, he received the Lindenberg Medal of the Berliner Philatelisten-Klub in 1908, Major Evans was one of the first twenty on the Roll of Distinguished Philatelists in 1921. Evans died at his residence at Cantley, Norfolk on 22 March 1922. "On Stamp Collecting" as "Cheth" in the North of England Stamp Review and Advertizer, Nov. 1864. "The Stamps of Mauritius" in The Philatelic Record, Vol. 2, No. 13, February 1880, pp. 6-8. 14, March 1880, pp. 17-20. 15, April 1880, pp. 31-34.. 16, May 1880, pp. 48-52. A Catalogue for Collectors of Postage Stamps, Stamped Envelopes and Postcards, Pemberton Wilson & Co. London, 1882-83. E. L. Pemberton, The Philatelic Handbook, new ed. Edward B. Evans, Stanley Gibbons & Co. Catalogue of the Postage Stamps of Peru, C. H. Mekeel, St. Louis The Philatelic Catalogue of Postage Stamps, Envelopes and Cards, Up to 1 January 1890, C. H. Mekeel, St. Louis.
Stanley Gibbons Monthly Journal, edited by Edward B. Evans The Mulready Envelope and its Caricatures, Stanley Gibbons Philatelic Handbooks. Emilio Diena, A History of the Postage Stamps of Sicily, tr. Edward B. Evans, London. British Philatelic Trust, Who Was Who in British Philately. "Major Edward B. Evans", Encyclopedia Mauritiana