Middlesex is an ancient county in southeast England. It is now within the wider urbanised area of London, its area is now mostly within the ceremonial county of Greater London, with small sections in other neighbouring ceremonial counties. It was established in the Anglo-Saxon system from the territory of the Middle Saxons, existed as an official unit until 1965; the historic county includes land stretching north of the River Thames from 17 miles west to 3 miles east of the City of London with the rivers Colne and Lea and a ridge of hills as the other boundaries. The low-lying county, dominated by clay in its north and alluvium on gravel in its south, was the second smallest county by area in 1831; the City of London was a county in its own right from the 12th century and was able to exert political control over Middlesex. Westminster Abbey dominated most of the early financial and ecclesiastical aspects of the county; as London grew into Middlesex, the Corporation of London resisted attempts to expand the city boundaries into the county, which posed problems for the administration of local government and justice.
In the 18th and 19th centuries the population density was high in the southeast of the county, including the East End and West End of London. From 1855 the southeast was administered, with sections of Kent and Surrey, as part of the area of the Metropolitan Board of Works; when county councils were introduced in England in 1889 about 20% of the area of Middlesex, along with a third of its population, was transferred to the new County of London and the remainder became an administrative county governed by the Middlesex County Council that met at the Middlesex Guildhall in Westminster, in the County of London. The City of London, Middlesex, became separate counties for other purposes and Middlesex regained the right to appoint its own sheriff, lost in 1199. In the interwar years suburban London expanded further, with improvement and expansion of public transport, the setting up of new industries. After the Second World War, the population of the County of London and inner Middlesex was in steady decline, with high population growth continuing in the outer parts.
After a Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London all of the original area was incorporated into an enlarged Greater London in 1965, with the rest transferred to neighbouring counties. Since 1965 various areas called. Middlesex was the former postal county of 25 post towns; the name refers to the tribal origin of its inhabitants. The word is formed from the Old English,'middel' and'Seaxe'. In 704, it is recorded as Middleseaxon in an Anglo-Saxon chronicle, written in Latin, about land at Twickenham; the Latin text reads: "in prouincia quæ nuncupatur Middelseaxan Haec". The Saxons derived their name from a kind of knife for which they were known; the seax has a lasting symbolic impact in the English counties of Essex and Middlesex, both of which feature three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem. Their names, along with those of Sussex and Wessex, contain a remnant of the word "Saxon". There were settlements in the area of Middlesex that can be traced back thousands of years before the creation of a county.
Middlesex was part of the Kingdom of Essex It was recorded in the Domesday Book as being divided into the six hundreds of Edmonton, Gore, Hounslow and Spelthorne. The City of London has been self-governing since the thirteenth century and became a county in its own right, a county corporate. Middlesex included Westminster, which had a high degree of autonomy. Of the six hundreds, Ossulstone contained the districts closest to the City of London. During the 17th century it was divided into four divisions, along with the Liberty of Westminster took over the administrative functions of the hundred; the divisions were named Finsbury, Holborn and Tower. The county had parliamentary representation from the 13th century; the title Earl of Middlesex was created twice, in 1622 and 1677, but became extinct in 1843. The economy of the county was dependent on the City of London from early times and was agricultural. A variety of goods were provided for the City, including crops such as grain and hay and building materials.
Recreation at day trip destinations such as Hackney, Islington and Twickenham, as well as coaching, inn-keeping and sale of goods and services at daily shops and stalls to the considerable passing trade provided much local employment and formed part of the early economy. However, during the 18th century the inner parishes of Middlesex became suburbs of the City and were urbanised; the Middlesex volume of John Norden's Speculum Britanniae of 1593 summarises: This is plentifully stored, as it seemeth beautiful, with many fair and comely buildings of the merchants of London, who have planted their houses of recreation not in the meanest places, which they have cunningly contrived, curiously beautified with divers devices, neatly decked with rare inventions, environed with orchards of sundry, delicate fruits, gardens with delectable walks, alleys and a great variety of pleasing dainties: all of which seem to be beautiful ornaments unto this country. Thomas Cox wrote in 1794: We may call it all London, being chiefly inhabited by the citizens, who fill the towns in it with their country houses, to which they resort that they may breathe a little sweet air, free from the fogs and smoke of the City.
In 1803 Sir John Sinclair, president of the Board of Agr
English country house
An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were owned by individuals who owned a town house; this allowed them to spend time in the country and in the city—hence, for these people, the term distinguished between town and country. However, the term encompasses houses that were, still are, the full-time residence for the landed gentry that ruled rural Britain until the Reform Act 1832; the formal business of the counties was transacted in these country houses. With large numbers of indoor and outdoor staff, country houses were important as places of employment for many rural communities. In turn, until the agricultural depressions of the 1870s, the estates, of which country houses were the hub, provided their owners with incomes. However, the late 19th and early 20th centuries were the swansong of the traditional English country house lifestyle. Increased taxation and the effects of World War I led to the demolition of hundreds of houses. While a château or a Schloss can be a fortified or unfortified building, a country house, similar to an Ansitz, is unfortified.
If fortified, it is called a castle. The term stately home is subject to debate, avoided by historians and other academics; as a description of a country house, the term was first used in a poem by Felicia Hemans, The Homes of England published in Blackwood's Magazine in 1827. In the 20th century, the term was popularised in a song by Noël Coward, in modern usage it implies a country house, open to visitors at least some of the time. In England, the terms "country house" and "stately home" are sometimes used vaguely and interchangeably. In his book Historic Houses: Conversations in Stately Homes, the author and journalist Robert Harling documents nineteen "stately homes"; the book's collection of stately homes includes George IV's Brighton town palace, the Royal Pavilion. The country houses of England have evolved over the last five hundred years. Before this time, larger houses were fortified, reflecting the position of their owners as feudal lords, de facto overlords of their manors; the Tudor period of stability in the country saw the building of the first of the unfortified great houses.
Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries saw many former ecclesiastical properties granted to the King's favourites, who converted them into private country houses. Woburn Abbey, Forde Abbey and many other mansions with abbey or priory in their name became private houses during this period. Other terms used in the names of houses to describe their origin or importance include palace, court, mansion, house and place, it was during the second half of the reign of Elizabeth I, under her successor, James I, that the first architect-designed mansions, thought of today as epitomising the English country house, began to make their appearance. Burghley House, Longleat House, Hatfield House are among the best known examples of the showy prodigy house built with the intention of attracting the monarch to visit. By the reign of Charles I, Inigo Jones and his form of Palladianism had changed the face of English domestic architecture with the use of turrets and towers as an architectural reference to the earlier castles and fortified houses disappearing.
The Palladian style, in various forms, interrupted by baroque, was to predominate until the second half of the 18th century when, influenced by ancient Greek styles, it evolved into the neoclassicism championed by such architects as Robert Adam. Some of the best known of England's country houses were built by one architect at one particular time: Montacute House, Chatsworth House, Blenheim Palace are examples. While the latter two are ducal palaces, although built by a Master of the Rolls to Queen Elizabeth I, was occupied for the next 400 years by his descendants, who were gentry without a London townhouse, rather than aristocracy, they ran out of funds in the early 20th century. However, the vast majority of the lesser-known English country houses owned at different times by gentlemen and peers, are an evolution of one or more styles with facades and wings in different styles in a mixture of high architecture as interpreted by a local architect or surveyor, determined by practicality as much as by the whims of architectural taste.
An example of this is Brympton d'Evercy in Somerset, a house of many periods, unified architecturally by the continuing use of the same mellow, local Ham Hill stone. The fashionable William Kent redesigned Rousham House only to have it and drastically altered to provide space for the owner's twelve children. Canons Ashby, home to poet John Dryden's family, is another example of architectural evolution: a medieval farmhouse enlarged in the Tudor era around a courtyard, given grandiose plaster ceilings in the Stuart period, having Georgian façades added in the 18th century; the whole is a glorious mismatch of fashions that seamlessly blend together. These could be called the true English country house. Wilton House, one
Hindlip Hall is in Worcestershire. The first major hall was built before 1575, it played a significant role in both the Gunpowder plots. It was Humphrey Littleton who told the authorities that Edward Oldcorne was hiding here after he had been heard saying Mass at Hindlip Hall. Four people were executed and the owner at that time escaped execution himself due to the intercession of Lord Monteagle. Afterwards it was owned by a poet and was for a while a girls' school before being rebuilt by Lord Southwell in 1820; the Hall was designated as a potential home for the war cabinet in 1940. It is now home to the West Mercia Police and Hereford and Worcester Fire and Rescue Service headquarters; the house was built before 1575 to replace an earlier timber framed manor house in a brick construction with towers and large windows, by John Abington, an official in the court of Elizabeth I. John, his wife Catherine, his three children Edward and Dorothy were all Catholic Recusants. After their father's death in 1582, Sir Edward and Sir Thomas were involved in the Babington plot which hoped to put a Catholic queen on the throne.
Edward was beheaded but Thomas was shown mercy due to his youth. After imprisonment and his wife, retired to Hindlip Hall, which they had adapted as a refuge with priest holes constructed for Catholic priests including some built by Nicholas Owen. Mary was the sister-in-law of Lord Monteagle; when the Gunpowder plot was discovered, as a result of Lord Monteagle's letter, the Jesuit priest Edward Oldcorne was at Hindlip. Oldcome recounted, under interrogation, that on the 8 November 1605 there arrived Oswald Tesimond from Robert Wintour's who told Mr Abington and himself that "he brought them the worst news that they had heard, they were all undone." Tesimond said that certain people had intended to blow up the parliament house but they had been discovered a few days before. In December, Oldcorne was joined by Nicholas Owen, Henry Garnet and Ralph Ashley who were hiding because they were under suspicion of involvement; the hall was searched on 20 January 1606 but no one was discovered and Abington denied that there was anyone hiding.
The four were not discovered though Garnet and Oldcorne were in one hiding place whilst the two lay brothers were in another. However the house continued to be searched for the next twelve days. A document written at the time records they "found two cunning and artificial conveyances in the main brick-wall, so ingeniously framed, with such art, as it cost much labour ere they could be found. Three other secret places, contrived with no less skill and industry, were found in and about the chimneys, in one whereof two of the traitors were close concealed; these chimney-conveyances being so strangely formed, having the entrances into them so curiously covered over with brick and made fast to planks of wood, coloured black, like the other parts of the chimney, that diligent inquisition might well have passed by, without throwing the least suspicion upon such unsuspicious places."There were in fact eleven hiding places discovered. Two of the Jesuits came out after a few days but Oldcorne and Garnet survived for eight days before they surrendered.
Oldcorne and Garnet were arrested by Sir Henry Bromley and held at the castle at Holt before being taken to the Tower of London en route to execution in Worcester. Thomas was again arrested, sentenced, but spared, he spent the rest of his life writing. It is said in several sources that he was not allowed outside the county, but there is evidence that this is unlikely. Thomas's son, William Habington, was a minor poet and his son, died without a natural heir and left the hall to Sir William Compton; the old hall was destroyed by fire and was demolished in 1820. The new hall was built by Viscount Southwell in a Greek Revival style. In the 19th century after his death in 1860 the hall was bought by the Burton-on-Trent brewer, Henry Allsopp, who became the first Baron Hindlip in 1886; the house and gardens continued to be improved. In 1887 Lord Hindlip had a new 6-acre lake created and the old one was filled in and 4,000 fish were taken out; the Allsopp family moved to Wiltshire early in the 20th century.
The Hall went through a number of uses including about twenty five years as a girls' school. During the Second World War it was taken over by the Ministry of Works. There were emergency plans drawn up to move Cabinet-level Ministers of the Crown to Hindlip Hall if required, with the Prime Minister's office based nearby at Spetchley Court. In 1947 after the war it came into the ownership of Worcestershire County Council and the land was set aside for future use as a college, with the main house turned into the headquarters of the County Police. Since 1967 the Hall has been the West Mercia Police police headquarters, it is close to junction six of the M5 motorway. The church of St. James is no longer supported by the Church of England, but is now the church for the constabulary. In 2018, Hereford and Worcester Fire and Rescue Service relocated its headquarters to Hindlip Park, co-locating with West Mercia Police. In 1985 the Hall was designated a Grade II* listed building. Whilst the building is not open to the general public and surveillance is monitored, access to the grounds can be gained via public footpaths from Hindlip Lane to the south and Pershore Lane to the northeast.
Baron Hindlip West Mercia Police
The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, in earlier centuries called the Gunpowder Treason Plot or the Jesuit Treason, was a failed assassination attempt against King James I by a group of provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby. The plan was to blow up the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament on 5 November 1605, as the prelude to a popular revolt in the Midlands during which James's nine-year-old daughter, was to be installed as the Catholic head of state. Catesby may have embarked on the scheme after hopes of securing greater religious tolerance under King James had faded, leaving many English Catholics disappointed, his fellow plotters were John and Christopher Wright and Thomas Wintour, Thomas Percy, Guy Fawkes, Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, Sir Everard Digby and Francis Tresham. Fawkes, who had 10 years of military experience fighting in the Spanish Netherlands in the failed suppression of the Dutch Revolt, was given charge of the explosives.
The plot was revealed to the authorities in an anonymous letter sent to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, on 26 October 1605. During a search of the House of Lords at about midnight on 4 November 1605, Fawkes was discovered guarding 36 barrels of gunpowder—enough to reduce the House of Lords to rubble—and arrested. Most of the conspirators fled from London as they learned of the plot's discovery, trying to enlist support along the way. Several made a stand against the pursuing Sheriff of his men at Holbeche House. At their trial on 27 January 1606, eight of the survivors, including Fawkes, were convicted and sentenced to be hanged and quartered. Details of the assassination attempt were known by the principal Jesuit of England, Father Henry Garnet. Although he was convicted of treason and sentenced to death, doubt has been cast on how much he knew of the plot; as its existence was revealed to him through confession, Garnet was prevented from informing the authorities by the absolute confidentiality of the confessional.
Although anti-Catholic legislation was introduced soon after the plot's discovery, many important and loyal Catholics retained high office during King James's reign. The thwarting of the Gunpowder Plot was commemorated for many years afterwards by special sermons and other public events such as the ringing of church bells, which have evolved into the Bonfire Night of today. Between 1533 and 1540, King Henry VIII took control of the English Church from Rome, the start of several decades of religious tension in England. English Catholics struggled in a society dominated by the newly separate and Protestant Church of England. Henry's daughter, Queen Elizabeth I, responded to the growing religious divide by introducing the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, which required anyone appointed to a public or church office to swear allegiance to the monarch as head of the Church and state; the penalties for refusal were severe. Catholicism became marginalised, but despite the threat of torture or execution, priests continued to practise their faith in secret.
Queen Elizabeth and childless, steadfastly refused to name an heir. Many Catholics believed that her Catholic cousin, Queen of Scots, was the legitimate heir to the English throne, but she was executed for treason in 1587; the English Secretary of State, Robert Cecil, negotiated secretly with Mary's son and successor, King James VI of Scotland. In the months before Elizabeth's death on 24 March 1603, Cecil prepared the way for James to succeed her; some exiled Catholics favoured Philip II of Isabella, as Elizabeth's successor. More moderate Catholics looked to James's and Elizabeth's cousin Arbella Stuart, a woman thought to have Catholic sympathies; as Elizabeth's health deteriorated, the government detained those they considered to be the "principal papists", the Privy Council grew so worried that Arbella Stuart was moved closer to London to prevent her from being kidnapped by papists. Despite competing claims to the English throne, the transition of power following Elizabeth's death went smoothly.
James's succession was announced by a proclamation from Cecil on 24 March, celebrated. Leading papists, rather than causing trouble as anticipated, reacted to the news by offering their enthusiastic support for the new monarch. Jesuit priests, whose presence in England was punishable by death demonstrated their support for James, believed to embody "the natural order of things". James ordered a ceasefire in the conflict with Spain, though the two countries were still technically at war, King Philip III sent his envoy, Don Juan de Tassis, to congratulate James on his accession. In the following year both countries signed the Treaty of London. For decades, the English had lived under a monarch who refused to provide an heir, but James arrived with a family and a clear line of succession, his wife, Anne of Denmark, was the daughter of a king. Their eldest child, the nine-year-old Henry, was considered a handsome and confident boy, their two younger children and Charles, were proof that James was able to provide heirs to continue the Protestant monarchy.
James's attitude towards Catholics was more moderate than that of his predecessor even tolerant. He promised that he would not "persecute any that will be quiet and give an outward obedience to the law", believed that exile was a better solution than capital punishment: "I would be glad to have both their heads and their bodies separated from this whole island and transported beyond seas." Some Catholics believed that the martyrdom of James's m
A stairway, stairwell, flight of stairs, or stairs, is a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps. Stairs round, or may consist of two or more straight pieces connected at angles. Special types of stairs include ladders; some alternatives to stairs are elevators and inclined moving walkways as well as stationary inclined sidewalks. A stair, or a stairstep, is one step in a flight of stairs. In buildings, stairs is a term applied to a complete flight of steps between two floors. A stair flight is a run of steps between landings. A staircase or stairway is one or more flights of stairs leading from one floor to another, includes landings, newel posts, handrails and additional parts. A stairwell is a compartment extending vertically through a building. A stair hall is the stairs, hallways, or other portions of the public hall through which it is necessary to pass when going from the entrance floor to the other floors of a building.
Box stairs are stairs built between walls with no support except the wall strings. Stairs may be in a straight run, leading from one floor to another without a turn or change in direction. Stairs may change direction by two straight flights connected at a 90 degree angle landing. Stairs may return onto themselves with 180 degree angle landings at each end of straight flights forming a vertical stairway used in multistory and highrise buildings. Many variations of geometrical stairs may be formed of circular and irregular constructions. Stairs may be a required component of egress from buildings. Stairs are provided for convenience to access floors, roofs and walking surfaces not accessible by other means. Stairs may be a fanciful physical construct such as the stairs that go nowhere located at the Winchester Mystery House. Stairs are a subject used in art to represent real or imaginary places built around impossible objects using geometric distortion, as in the work of artist M. C. Escher. "Stairway" is a common metaphor for achievement or loss of a position in the society.
Each step is composed of riser. Tread The part of the stairway, stepped on, it is constructed to the same specifications as any other flooring. The tread "depth" is measured from the outer edge of the step to the vertical "riser" between steps; the "width" is measured from one side to the other. Riser The vertical portion between each tread on the stair; this may be missing for an "open" stair effect. Nosing An edge part of the tread that protrudes over the riser beneath. If it is present, this means that, measured horizontally, the total "run" length of the stairs is not the sum of the tread lengths, as the treads overlap each other. Many building codes require stair nosings for commercial, industrial, or municipal stairs as they provide anti-slip properties and increase pedestrians safety. Starting step or Bullnose Where stairs are open on one or both sides, the first step above the lower floor or landing may be wider than the other steps and rounded; the balusters form a semicircle around the circumference of the rounded portion and the handrail has a horizontal spiral called a "volute" that supports the top of the balusters.
Besides the cosmetic appeal, starting steps allow the balusters to form a wider, more stable base for the end of the handrail. Handrails that end at a post at the foot of the stairs can be less sturdy with a thick post. A double bullnose can be used. Stringer, Stringer board or sometimes just String The structural member that supports the treads and risers in standard staircases. There are three stringers, one on either side and one in the center, with more added as necessary for wider spans. Side stringers are sometimes dadoed to receive treads for increased support. Stringers on open-sided stairs are called "cut stringers". Winders Winders are steps, they are used to change the direction of the stairs without landings. A series of winders form a spiral stairway; when three steps are used to turn a 90° corner, the middle step is called a kite winder as a kite-shaped quadrilateral. Trim Various moldings are used in some instances support stairway elements. Scotia or quarter-round are placed beneath the nosing to support its overhang.
A decorative step at the bottom of the staircase which houses the volute and volute newel turning for a continuous handrail. The balustrade is the system of railings and balusters that prevents people from falling over the edge. Banister, Railing or Handrail The angled member for handholding, as distinguished from the vertical balusters which hold it up for stairs that are open on one side; the term "banister" is sometimes used to mean just the handrail, or sometimes the handrail and the balusters or sometimes just the balusters. Volute A handrail end element for the bullnose step that curves inward like a spiral. A volute is said to be right or left-handed depending on which side of the stairs the handrail is as one faces up the stairs. Turnout Instead of a complete spiral volute, a turnout is a quarter-turn rounded end to the handrail. Gooseneck The vertical handrail that joins a sloped handrail to a higher handrail on the balcony or landing is a
Anti-Catholicism in the United Kingdom
Anti-Catholicism in the United Kingdom has its origins in the English and Irish Reformations under King Henry VIII and the Scottish Reformation led by John Knox. Within England the Act of Supremacy 1534 declared the English crown to be "the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England" in place of the pope. Any act of allegiance to the latter was considered treasonous because the papacy claimed both spiritual and political power over its followers. Ireland was brought under direct English control starting in 1536 during the Tudor conquest of Ireland; the Scottish Reformation in 1560 abolished Catholic ecclesiastical structures and rendered Catholic practice illegal in Scotland. Today, anti-Catholicism is common in peripheral areas of the United Kingdom Scotland and Northern Ireland. Anti-Catholicism among many of the English was grounded in the fear that the pope sought to reimpose not just religio-spiritual authority over England but secular power in alliance with arch-enemy France or Spain.
In 1570, Pope Pius V sought to depose Queen Elizabeth who ruled England and Ireland with the papal bull Regnans in Excelsis, which declared her a heretic and purported to dissolve the duty of all Elizabeth's subjects of their allegiance to her. This rendered Elizabeth's subjects who persisted in their allegiance to the Catholic Church politically suspect, made the position of her Catholic subjects untenable if they tried to maintain both allegiances at once; the Recusancy Acts, making it a legal obligation to worship in the Anglican faith, date from Elizabeth's reign. Assassination plots in which Catholics were prime movers fueled anti-Catholicism in England. In 1603, James VI of Scotland became James I of England and Ireland; the Glorious Revolution of 1689 involved the overthrow of King James II, who converted to Catholicism before he became king and favoured the Catholics, his replacement by son-in-law William III, a Dutch Protestant. The Act of Settlement 1701, passed by the Parliament of England, stated the heir to the throne must not be a "Papist" and that an heir, a Catholic or who marries one will be excluded from the succession to the throne.
This law was extended to Scotland through the Act of Union which formed the Kingdom of Great Britain. The Act was amended in 2013 as regards marriage to a Catholic and the ecumenical movement has contributed to reducing sectarian tensions in the country; the Act of Supremacy issued by King Henry VIII in 1534 declared the king to be "the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England" in place of the pope. Any act of allegiance to the latter was considered treasonous because the papacy claimed both spiritual and political power over its followers, it was under this act that Thomas More and John Fisher were executed and became martyrs to the Catholic faith. The Act of Supremacy was repealed in 1554 by Henry's devoutly Catholic daughter Queen Mary I when she reinstituted Catholicism as England's state religion, she executed many Protestants by burning. Her actions were reversed by a new Act of Supremacy passed in 1559 under her successor, Elizabeth I, along with an Act of Uniformity which made worship in Church of England compulsory.
Anyone who took office in the English church or government was required to take the Oath of Supremacy. Attendance at Anglican services became obligatory—those who refused to attend Anglican services, whether Roman Catholics or Protestants, were fined and physically punished as recusants. In the time of Elizabeth I, the persecution of the adherents of the Reformed religion, both Anglicans and Protestants alike, which had occurred during the reign of her elder half-sister Queen Mary I was used to fuel strong anti-Catholic propaganda in the hugely influential Foxe's Book of Martyrs; those who had died in Mary's reign, under the Marian Persecutions, were canonised by this work of hagiography. In 1571, the Convocation of the Church of England ordered that copies of the Book of Martyrs should be kept for public inspection in all cathedrals and in the houses of church dignitaries; the book was displayed in many Anglican parish churches alongside the Holy Bible. The passionate intensity of its style and its vivid and picturesque dialogues made the book popular among Puritan and Low Church families and Protestant nonconformist, down to the nineteenth century.
In a period of extreme partisanship on all sides of the religious debate, the exaggeratedly partisan church history of the earlier portion of the book, with its grotesque stories of popes and monks, contributed to fuel anti-Catholic prejudices in England, as did the story of the sufferings of several hundred Reformers, burnt at the stake under Mary and Bishop Bonner. Anti-Catholicism among many of the English was grounded in the fear that the pope sought to reimpose not just religio-spiritual authority over England but secular power over the country. In 1570, Pope Pius V sought to depose Elizabeth with the papal bull Regnans in Excelsis, which declared her a heretic and purported to dissolve the duty of all Elizabeth's subjects of their allegiance to her; this rendered Elizabeth's subjects who persisted in their allegiance to the Catholic Church politically suspect, made the position of her Catholic subjects untenable if they tried to maintain both allegiances at once. In 1588, one Elizabethian loyalist cited the failed invasion of England by the Spanish Armada as an attempt by Philip II of Spain to put into effect the Pope's decree.
In truth, King Philip II was attempting to claim the throne of England he felt he had as a result
The pilaster is an architectural element in classical architecture used to give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function. It consists of a flat surface raised from the main wall surface treated as though it were a column, with a capital at the top, plinth at the bottom, the various other elements. In contrast to a pilaster, an engaged column or buttress can support the structure of a wall and roof above. In discussing Leon Battista Alberti's use of pilasters, which Alberti reintroduced into wall-architecture, Rudolf Wittkower wrote, "The pilaster is the logical transformation of the column for the decoration of a wall, it may be defined as a flattened column which has lost its three-dimensional and tactile value."A pilaster appears with a capital. And entablature in "low-relief" or flattened against the wall. A pilaster repeats all parts and proportions of an order column. Pilasters appear on the sides of a door frame or window opening on the facade of a building, are sometimes paired with columns or pillars set directly in front of them at some distance away from the wall, which support a roof structure above, such as a portico.
These vertical elements can be used to support a recessed archivolt around a doorway. The pilaster can be replaced by ornamental brackets supporting the entablature or a balcony over a doorway; when a pilaster appears at the corner intersection of two walls it is known as a canton. As with a column, a pilaster can have a plain or fluted surface to its profile and can be represented in the mode of any architectural style. During the Renaissance and Baroque architects used a range of pilaster forms. In the giant order pilasters appear as two storeys tall; the fashion of using this element from ancient Greek and Roman architecture was adopted in the Italian Renaissance, gained wide popularity with Greek Revival architecture, continues to be seen in some modern architecture. Pilaster is also referred to as a non-ornamental, load-bearing architectural element in non-classical architecture where a structural load must be carried by a wall or column next to a wall and the wall thickens to accommodate the structural requirements of the wall.
Archivolt Buttress Classical architecture Engaged column Ionic order Lesene List of classical architecture terms Post and lintel Lewis and Gillian Darley, Dictionary of Ornament NY: Pantheon