The priesthood is one of the three holy orders of the Catholic Church, comprising the ordained priests or presbyters. The other two orders are the deacons. Only men are allowed to receive holy orders, the church does not allow any transgender people to do so. Church doctrine sometimes refers to all baptised Catholics as the "common priesthood"; the church has different rules for priests in the Latin Church – the largest Catholic particular church – and in the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches. Notably, priests in the Latin Church must take a vow of celibacy, whereas most Eastern Catholic Churches permit married men to be ordained. Deacons are male and belong to the diocesan clergy, unlike all Latin-rite priests and all bishops from Eastern or Western Catholicism, they may marry as laymen before their ordination as clergy; the Catholic Church teaches that when a man participates in priesthood after the Sacrament of Holy Orders, he acts in persona Christi Capitis, representing the person of Christ. Unlike usage in English, "the Latin words sacerdos and sacerdotium are used to refer in general to the ministerial priesthood shared by bishops and presbyters.
The words presbyter and presbyteratus refer to priests in the English use of the word or presbyters." According to the Annuario Pontificio 2016, as of December 31, 2014, there were 415,792 Catholic priests worldwide, including both diocesan priests and priests in the religious orders. A priest of the regular clergy is addressed with the title "Father". Catholics living a consecrated life or monasticism unordained. Institutes of consecrated life, or monks, can be deacons, bishops, or non-ordained members of a religious order; the non-ordained in these orders are not to be considered laypersons in a strict sense—they take certain vows and are not free to marry once they have made solemn profession of vows. All female religious are non-ordained; the male members of religious orders, whether living in monastic communities or cloistered in isolation, who are ordained priests or deacons constitute what is called the religious or regular clergy, distinct from the diocesan or secular clergy. Those ordained priests or deacons who are not members of some sort of religious order most serve as clergy to a specific church or in an office of a specific diocese or in Rome.
Catholic priests are ordained by bishops through the sacrament of holy orders. The Catholic Church claims that Catholic bishops were ordained in an unbroken line of apostolic succession back to the Twelve Apostles depicted in the Catholic Bible; the ceremony of Eucharist, which Catholics believe can only be performed by priests, in particular derives from the story of the Last Supper, when Jesus Christ distributed bread and wine in the presence of the Twelve Apostles, in some versions of the Gospel of Luke commanding them to "do this in memory of me". Catholic tradition says the apostles in turn selected other men to succeed them as the bishops of the Christian communities, with whom were associated presbyters and deacons; as communities multiplied and grew in size, the bishops appointed more and more presbyters to preside at the Eucharist in place of the bishop in the multiple communities in each region. The diaconate evolved as the liturgical assistants of the bishop and his delegate for the administration of Church funds and programmes for the poor.
Today, the rank of "presbyter" is what one thinks of as a priest, although Church catechism considers both a bishop and a presbyter as "priests". Various churches which split off from the Catholic Church make the same claim of apostolic succession, including the Church of the East, the Oriental Orthodoxy and the Eastern Orthodox Church. During the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther and William Tyndale advocated the priesthood of all believers, the idea that all baptized Christians are priests; this was not universally accepted. The doctrine is interpreted in various ways by different protestant denominations, with some dropping apostolic succession and holy orders as a sacrament, different requirements for who can perform the Eucharist ceremony. Through the principle of church economy, the Catholic Church recognizes as valid the ordination of priests in denominations with unbroken apostolic succession, such as in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Polish National Catholic Church, Oriental Orthodox Church, the Assyrian Church of the East, Church of Sweden, Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, but not other Lutheran churches.
Recognition of the ordination of Anglican Church priests was denied in 1896 by Pope Leo XIII through the papal bull Apostolicae curae, over a dispute in the wording of the Anglican ceremony starting in the 1500s. In 1965, the Second Vatican Council released Presbyterorum Ordinis on the ministry and life of priests, Optatam Totius on the training of priests. Since 1970, the number of Catholic priests in the world has decreased by only about 5,000, to 414,313 priests as of 2012.but the worldwide Catholic population has nearly doubled, growing from 653.6 million in 1970 to 1.229 billion in 2012. This has resulted in a worldwide shortage of Catholic priests. In 2014, 49,153 Catholic parishes had no resident priest pastor. T
A fire pan is a pan for holding or conveying fire, used as method for building a Leave No Trace fire. Fire pans were used by river guides to minimize the impact of their fires but they are becoming popular with backpackers and other outdoor users; the pan is a metal tray with rigid sides at least three inches high such as a metal oil drain pan or a backyard barbecue grill. The use of a fire pan reduces the impact to the ground and rocks, its compact size results in the burning of less wood. Fire pans allow users to burn their accumulated garbage although the best practice is to only burn paper. Combustible items will be reduced to ash. A fire pan user can leave no trace of their previous fire because the ashes can be collected and buried; when using a fire pan care should be taken so the heat does not scorch vegetation or sterilize the ground, therefore it is necessary to elevate the pan with rocks or with several inches of mineral soil. Used in winter a fire pan can be placed atop limbs or logs to keep the pan from sinking into the snow.
A fire pan can be more convenient than a traditional campfire because it allows the fire to be picked up and moved should the need arise. Campfire safety Fire Pans for a Low Impact Campfire from Backcountryattitude.com
Kate Horsley is the author of two novels, The American Girl and The Monster’s Wife. Most of her short and long fiction, including The American Girl, has been within the crime fiction genre, although her début novel, The Monster’s Wife, is historical gothic fiction. Horsley is a co-editor of crime fiction review site crimeculture.com. The child of academics, Horsley had an unconventional upbringing and was educated at home for parts of her childhood, she studied English Literature at Oxford University and at the age of 21, she moved to Boston to take up a scholarship at Harvard where she studied Medieval Literature. She lectured at Harvard for a year before returning to the UK. Horsley's poems and short fiction have been published in a number of magazines and anthologies including The Mammoth Book of Best British Crime, her first novel, The Monster's Wife, was published by Barbican Press in September 2014. A sequel to Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, the novel is set on an island in the Scottish Orkneys and narrated from the perspective of the girl Victor Frankenstein transformed into a bride for his monster.
Her second novel, The American Girl, was published by William Morrow in August 2016. In 2014, Horsley was shortlisted for the Scottish First Book of the Year Award for The Monster’s Wife, she has won awards for her work from Sentinel Literary Quarterly and Adoption Matters Northwest and been shortlisted for an Asham award for short fiction and a Ravenglass Poetry Press Prize. Novels The American Girl; the Monster's Wife. Short Stories'Kissing Hitler'. Birds Are Chained To The Sky and Other Tales'Jungle Boogie'; the Mammoth Book of Best British Crime 9'Tin Valentine'. Dark Valentine Magazine, June 2011'Star’s Jar'; the Mammoth Book of Best British Crime 7'Musooli'. Momaya Annual Review Poetry'Paper Bullets' and other poems, Bliss Anthology ‘Port-au-Prince’ and other poems, The Ravenglass Poetry Press Anthology,'Rules for Looking After Ian', winning competition entry, Lancashire Adoption Matters, 2011 ‘A Patch of Grass’ and other poems, Erbacce Magazine, 2011 ‘Eleonora of Toledo laughs at a pantomime dildo’, Sentinel Literary Quarterly, Sentinel Champions 5, 2011Articles'Interrogations of Society in Contemporary African Crime Writing'.'Storyboarding and Storytelling: Literacy and the Short Story'.'Radiophonics'.
With Graham Mort.'Learning Italian: Serial Killers Abroad in the Novels of Highsmith and Harris'. With Lee Horsley.'Body Language: Reading the Corpse in Forensic Crime Fiction'. With Lee Horsley.'Mères Fatales: Maternal Guilt in the Noir Crime Novel'. With Lee Horsley. Kate Horsley's website Crimeculture