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Primary Chronicle

The Tale of Bygone Years, known in English-language historiography as the Primary Chronicle or Rus' Primary Chronicle or, after the author it has traditionally been ascribed to, Nestor's Chronicle or The Chronicle of Nestor, is a history of the Kyivan Rus' from about 850 to 1110 compiled in Kiev about 1113. The work's name originates from the opening sentence of the text, which reads: “These are the narratives of bygone years regarding the origin of the land of Rus’, the first princes of Kyiv, from what source the land of Rus’ had its beginning.” The work is considered to be a fundamental source in the interpretation of the history of the East Slavs. The Chronicle's content is known to us today from several surviving editions and codices that have been revised over the years and evince a slight degree of variation from each other; the historical period covered in the Tale of Bygone Years begins with biblical times, in the introductory portion of the text, concludes with the year 1117 in the Chronicle's third edition.

Russian philologist and founder of the science of textology, Aleksey Shakhmatov, was the first one to discover early on that the chronology of the Rus' Primary Chronicle opens with an error. The Chronicle has it that “In the year 6360, the fifteenth of the indiction, at the accession of the Emperor Michael, the land of Rus’ was first named.” However, 11th century Greek historian John Skylitzes' accounts of the Byzantine history show that Emperor Michael III did not begin his reign in 852 but rather a decade earlier, on January 20, 842. Because of the work's several identified chronological issues and numerous logical incongruities that have been pointed out by historians over the years, the Chronicle's value as a reliable historical source has been placed under strict scrutiny by the contemporary experts in the field. Tradition long regarded the original compilation as the work of a monk named Nestor, his compilation has not survived. Nestor worked at the court of Sviatopolk II of Kiev, shared Sviatopolk's pro-Scandinavian policies.

Nestor's Pan-Scandinavian attitude was confirmed by a Polish historian and archaeologist Wladyslaw Duczko, who argued that one of the central aims of the Chronicle’s narrative is to “give an explanation how the Rurikids came to power in the lands of the Slavs, why the dynasty was the only legitimate one and why all the princes should terminate their internal fights and rule in peace and brotherly love.” The early part of the RPC features many anecdotal stories, among them: those of the arrival of the three Varangian brothers, the founding of Kiev the murder of Askold and Dir, ca. 882 the death of Oleg in 912, the "cause" of, reported foreseen by him the thorough vengeance taken by Olga, the wife of Igor, on the Drevlians, who had murdered her husband. In the year 1116, Nestor's text was extensively edited by the hegumen Sylvester who appended his name at the end of the chronicle; as Vladimir Monomakh was the patron of the village of Vydubychi where Sylvester's monastery was situated, the new edition glorified Vladimir and made him the central figure of narrative.

This second version of Nestor's work is preserved in the Laurentian codex. A third edition followed two years and centered on the person of Vladimir's son and heir, Mstislav the Great; the author of this revision could have been Greek, for he corrected and updated much data on Byzantine affairs. This latest revision of Nestor's work is preserved in the Hypatian codex; because the original of the chronicle as well as the earliest known copies are lost, it is difficult to establish the original content of the chronicle. The two main sources for the chronicle's text as it is known presently are the Laurentian Codex and the Hypatian Codex; the Laurentian Codex was compiled in what are today Russian lands by the Nizhegorod monk Laurentius for the Prince Dmitry Konstantinovich in 1377. The original text he used was a codex compiled for the Grand Duke Mikhail of Tver in 1305; the account continues until 1305, but the years 898–922, 1263–83 and 1288–94 are missing for reasons unknown. The manuscript was acquired by the famous Count Musin-Pushkin in 1792 and subsequently presented to the National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg.

The Hypatian Codex dates to the 15th century. It was written in what are today Ukrainian lands and incorporates much information from the lost 12th-century Kievan and 13th-century Halychian chronicles; the language of this work is the East Slavic version of Church Slavonic language with many additional irregular east-slavisms. Whereas the Laurentian text traces the Kievan legacy through to the Muscovite princes, the Hypatian text traces the Kievan legacy through the rulers of the Halych principality; the Hypatian codex was rediscovered in Kiev in the 1620s, a copy was made for Prince Kostiantyn Ostrozhsky. A copy was found in Russia in the 18th century at the Ipatiev Monastery of Kostroma by the Russian historian Nikolai Karamzin. Numerous monographs a

2015 Auburn Tigers softball team

The 2015 Auburn Tigers softball team is an American softball team, representing the Auburn University for the 2015 NCAA softball season. In 2014, the Auburn Tigers softball team went 42-19-1 during Clint Myers first season; the Auburn Tigers play their home games at Jane B. Moore Field. Auburn made it to its first 2015 SEC Softball Tournament Championship Final on May 9, 2015, held at Tiger Park in Baton Rouge, LA, defeated #11 Tennessee in extra innings to collect its first SEC Championship in Softball. Auburn garnered a #4 seed in the 2015 NCAA Division I Softball Tournament, hosted a regional and super regional at Jane B. Moore Field in Auburn, AL. Auburn won both the regional and super regional and advanced to their first 2015 Women's College World Series at the ASA Hall of Fame Stadium in Oklahoma City, OK. 2015 Auburn Tigers Softball Roster Branndi Melero, Kasey Cooper and Emily Carosone were selected Preaseson All-SEC Team on February 5. Emily Carosone named SEC Softball Player of the Week on March 9.

Emily Carosone named USA Softball National Player of the Week on March 10. Morgan Estell and Branndi Melero Selected in National Pro Fastpitch Draft on April 1. Branndi Melero named SEC Co-Softball Player of the Week on April 6. Emily Carosone named one of 26 Finalists for USA Softball Player of the Year on April 8. Emily Carosone and Kasey Cooper named to the 1st Team All-SEC Softball Team on May 5. Jade Rhodes and Tiffany Howard named to the 2nd Team All-SEC Softball Team on May 5. Emily Carosone, Kasey Cooper and Tiffany Howard named to the SEC Softball All-Defensive Team on May 5. Clint Myers named 2015 SEC Softball Coach of the Year on May 5. Emily Carosone named one of 10 finalists for National Player of Year on May 6. Auburn wins 2015 SEC Softball Tournament Championship on May 9. Emily Carosone named 2015 SEC Softball Tournament Championship MVP on May 9. Auburn named host of 2015 NCAA Softball Tournament Championship Regional and Super Regional on May 10. Auburn advances to first Women's College World Series in its history on May 23.

Emily Carosone and Kasey Cooper named to the NFCA Division I Softball All-American First Team on May 27. Tiffany Howard named to the NFCA Division I Softball All-American Third Team on May 27. Kasey Cooper named CoSIDA Capital One Academic All-American on May 29. Tiffany Howard Named Academic All-American on June 3. Carlee Wallace and Branndi Melero named to Women's College World Series All-Tournament Team on June 4

Astragalus douglasii

Astragalus douglasii is a species of milkvetch known by the common name Douglas's milkvetch. It is native to California and Baja California, where it can be found in many types of desert, valley and woodlands, montane habitats below 8,000 feet elevation. Astragalus douglasii is a bushy perennial herb producing a number of erect or prostrate stems up to a meter long; the abundant leaves are made up of oval-shaped leaflets. The open inflorescence holds up to 30 whitish to pale yellow flowers, each about a centimeter long; the calyx is green with 0.7–2.6 mm lobes. The fruit is an inflated legume pod up to 6 centimeters long and 3 wide which dries to a thin, papery texture. There are three varieties of Astragalus douglasii: A. d. var. douglasii – limited to California A. d. var. parishii – found throughout the mountain ranges of Southern California A. d. var. perstrictus – rare variety limited to San Diego County and northern Baja California Media related to Astragalus douglasii at Wikimedia Commons Astragalus douglasii – Photo gallery

The Final Days

The Final Days is a 1976 non-fiction book written by Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein about the Watergate scandal. A follow up to their 1974 book All the President's Men, The Final Days concerns itself with the final months of the Presidency of Richard Nixon including battles over the Nixon White House tapes and the impeachment process against Richard Nixon. Not long after the resignation of Richard Nixon in August 1974, Woodward and Bernstein took a leave of absence from The Washington Post in order to begin work on the book, they intended to cover just the last hundred days of the Nixon presidency but expanded it further back. They hired two research assistants, Scott Armstrong and Al Kamen, among them they interviewed 394 people involved in the tale. People were anxious to talk in an effort to get their perspective on the events included in the narrative, all of the sources were promised anonymity in return. In this way and Bernstein constructed a fly on the wall type narrative of the events in question.

While the book was being written, there were some intimations that it was going to be a "blockbuster" in terms of content, but Woodward demurred, saying instead that it would be "a book of a hundred small surprises."According to Jon Marshall's 2011 retrospective look at Watergate and the press, although Bernstein got co-equal credit on the cover, he in fact did few interviews and not only less of the writing than Woodward, but less than either Armstrong or Kamen. As noted in the book's foreword, all the information and scenarios depicted were taken from interviews with 394 people who were involved; the content of the interviews was considered on the record, but the identity of the sources remained confidential. Every detail was checked, any information that could not be confirmed by two separate accounts was left out of the book. In an example of the book's approach, J. Fred Buzhardt co-operated with Woodward and Bernstein during the research for the book, by sitting for eight "extensive" interviews.

One person was interviewed as many as 17 times. Release of the book was preceded by the publishing of excerpts in Newsweek magazine, which included a number of the authors' more vivid narrations. At the same time, revelations from these excerpts appeared in many newspaper stories. Two revelations that caught the most attention regarded Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. One was the disparaging comments about Nixon that Kissinger made to his staff, such as a reference to "our meatball President." The other, which received more attention, was a memorable August 7, night-before-resignation-announcement scene with the president, in which a sobbing Nixon asked Kissinger to kneel and pray with him in the Lincoln Sitting Room, with Nixon ending up curled on the floor, beating the carpet with his fist whilst bemoaning his fate. The sensational nature of some of the excerpts brought significant criticism. Other items revealed by the excerpts included Nixon's deteriorating mental state, fears among his sons-in-law that he posed a possible danger to himself, Nixon's strong strain of anti-Semitism, that the president and First Lady Pat Nixon were estranged and had been for some time.

The promotion was effective: this issue of Newsweek became the fastest selling one in the magazine's history. The debate over these particular incidents colored much of the subsequent reaction to the book; the book contains two parts, with twenty chapters. The first carries on from where All the President's Men leaves off, in particular from April 30, 1973, when John Dean, the White House counsel, was fired, brings the narrative through developments of in 1973 and up to late July 1974. Part II consists of a day-by-day account of the title-referenced final days, beginning with "Wednesday, July 24" and continuing through "Friday, August 9". There is a Cast of Characters at the beginning, starting at Robert Abplanalp and finishing with Ronald L. Ziegler, a Chronology at the end, running from November 5, 1968 through August 9, 1974. Both are intended to help the reader keep the complex chain of people in mind; as published by Simon & Schuster, the book contained some photographic illustrations and cost $10.95.

After it became the fastest selling book in the publisher's history, the price was raised to $11.95 to defray paper costs and, in the publisher's words, as part of "maintaining priority press time so that can get on press before other books." Reviews of the book focused both on the disclosures within it and the methods by which it was written. Regarding the first, the Los Angeles Times said the book was "Fascinating, mordant, frightening...." Newsweek, which ran the excerpts, described it as "An extraordinary work of reportage on the epic political story of our time."The book as a whole gave a more balanced, at times sympathetic, portrait of Nixon. The New York Times daily review by Christopher Lehmann-Haupt said that the book was "Unprecedented... emerges from the book as a tragic figure weathering a catastrophic ordeal, weathering it with considerable courage and dignity." This fuller depiction did much to ameliorate the initial denunciations of the book. Making reference to the debate swirling around the book, the Times wrote: But can we believe The Final Days?

Are Messrs. Woodward and Bernstein credible? All that can be reported here is that the experience of reading the book is credible — that is, the book is artistically believable. After all, as extraordinarily fresh as the whole thing seems

Prince Jingjin

Prince Jingjin of the First Rank, or Prince Jingjin, was the title of a princely peerage used in China during the Manchu-led Qing dynasty. The first bearer of the title was the third son of Cuyen and a grandson of Nurhaci. In 1648, Nikan was granted the title "Prince Jingjin of the Second Rank" by the Shunzhi Emperor. One year Nikan was promoted to "Prince Jingjin of the First Rank". In 1669, the third holder of the Prince Jingjin title, was demoted by the Kangxi Emperor from a qinwang to a feng'en zhenguo gong; the peerage de facto ended in 1680 when the Kangxi Emperor ordered Lanbu to be posthumously removed from the peerage. Nikan, Cuyen's third son, held the title Prince Jingjin of the First Rank from 1649 to 1652, posthumously honoured as Prince Jingjinzhuang of the First Rank Nisiha, Nikan's second son, held the title Prince Jingjin of the First Rank from 1653 to 1660, posthumously honoured as Prince Jingjindao of the First Rank Lanbu, Nikan's eldest son, held the title Prince Jingjin of the First Rank from 1668 to 1669, demoted to a feng'en zhenguo gong in 1669, posthumously stripped of his title in 1680 Laishi, Lanbu's fourth son, inherited the peerage as a feng'en fuguo gong Royal and noble ranks of the Qing dynasty Zhao, Erxun.

Draft History of Qing. Volume 216. China

La Paloma, Rocha

Not to be confused with La Paloma of Durazno DepartmentLa Paloma is a small city in the Rocha Department of southeastern Uruguay. The city is located on Km. 244 of Route 10 and on its junction with Route 15, on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, about 8 kilometres southwest of La Pedrera and 53 kilometres northeast of Faro José Ignacio of the Maldonado Department. It was founded on 1 September 1874, its status was elevated to "Pueblo" on 8 November 1939 by the Act of Ley Nº 9.888 and on 18 October 1982 to "Ciudad" by the Act of Ley Nº 15.333. During the 1940s the resort was expanded according to plans designed by Juan Antonio Scasso. Parish Church of Our Lady of the Pigeon In 2011 La Paloma had a population of 3,495 inhabitants and 4,633 dwellings. Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística de Uruguay INE map of La Paloma, La Aguada-Costa Azul and Arachania Tourist information for La Paloma