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Prime Minister of Canada

The prime minister of Canada is the head of government, chair of the Cabinet, primary Minister of the Crown. The current, 23rd, prime minister of Canada is the Liberal Party's Justin Trudeau, following the 2019 Canadian federal election. Canadian prime ministers are styled as The Right Honourable, a privilege maintained for life; the prime minister of Canada is in charge of the Prime Minister's Office. The prime minister chooses the ministers who make up the Cabinet; the two groups, with the authority of the Parliament of Canada, manage the Government of Canada and the Canadian Armed Forces. The Cabinet and the prime minister appoint members of the Senate of Canada, the judges of the Supreme Court of Canada and other federal courts, the leaders and boards, as required under law, of various Crown Corporations, selects the governor general of Canada. Under the Canadian constitution, all of the power to exercise these activities is vested in the monarch of Canada, but in practice the monarch or her representative, the governor general of Canada, approves them and their role is ceremonial, their powers are only exercised under the advice of the prime minister.

Not outlined in any constitutional document, the office exists only as per long-established convention that stipulates the monarch's representative, the governor general, must select as prime minister the person most to command the confidence of the elected House of Commons. The position of prime minister is not outlined in any Canadian constitutional document and is mentioned only in passing in the Constitution Act, 1982, the Letters Patent, 1947 issued by King George VI; the office and its functions are instead governed by constitutional conventions and modelled on the same office in the United Kingdom. The prime minister, along with the other ministers in cabinet, is appointed by the governor general on behalf of the monarch. However, by the conventions of responsible government, designed to maintain administrative stability, the governor general will call to form a government the individual most to receive the support, or confidence, of a majority of the directly elected members of the House of Commons.

While there is no legal requirement for the prime minister to be a member of parliament, for practical and political reasons the prime minister is expected to win a seat promptly. However, in rare circumstances individuals who are not sitting members of the House of Commons have been appointed to the position of prime minister. Two former prime ministers—Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott and Sir Mackenzie Bowell—served in the 1890s while members of the Senate. Both, in their roles as Government Leader in the Senate, succeeded prime ministers who had died in office—John A. Macdonald in 1891 and John Sparrow David Thompson in 1894; that convention has since evolved toward the appointment of an interim leader from the commons in such a scenario. Prime ministers who are not Members of Parliament upon their appointment have since been expected to seek election to the commons as soon as possible. For example, William Lyon Mackenzie King, after losing his seat in the 1925 federal election "governed from the hallway" before winning a by-election a few weeks later.

John Turner replaced Pierre Trudeau as leader of the Liberal Party in 1984 and subsequently was appointed prime minister while not holding a seat in the House of Commons. Turner was the last serving prime minister to not hold a commons seat. Should a serving prime minister today lose his or her seat in the legislature, or should a new prime minister be appointed without holding a seat, the typical process that follows is that a junior member in the governing political party will resign to allow the prime minister to run in the resulting by-election. A safe seat is chosen. However, if the governing party selects a new leader shortly before an election is due, that new leader is not a member of the legislature, he or she will await the upcoming election before running for a seat in parliament. In a poll conducted by Ipsos-Reid following the first prorogation of the 40th parliament on December 4, 2008, it was found that 51% of the sample group thought the prime minister was directly elected by Canadians.

The Canadian prime minister serves at Her Majesty's pleasure, meaning the post does not have a fixed term. Once appointed and sworn in by the governor general, the prime minister remains in office until he or she resigns, is dismissed, or dies; the lifespan of parliament was limited by the constitution to five years, though the governor general may still, on the advice of the prime minister, dissolve parliament and issue the writs of election prior to the date mandated by the Canada Elections Act. As of 2007, with an amendment to the Elections Act, Section 56.1 was changed to limit the ter

List of inhabited islands of Croatia

In the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea, there are 718 islands, 389 islets and 78 reefs, making the Croatian archipelago the largest in the Adriatic Sea and the second largest in the Mediterranean Sea, the Greek archipelago being the largest. Of the 718 islands, only 47 are inhabited in the sense that at least one person resides on that island; some sources indicate that Croatia has 67 inhabited islands, the number of islands that have a settlement on them, but 20 of these islands have lost all of their permanent population as a result of the population decline occurring throughout the Croatian islands due to insufficient economic activity. The islands of Croatia have been populated at least since the time of Ancient Greece. For example, Hvar was populated between 3500 BC and 2500 BC and Dionysius I of Syracuse founded a colony on Hvar and Vis in the 4th century BC; the combined island population reached its peak in 1921, at 173,503 inhabitants, went into steady decline in the following decades, dropping to pre-1850s level by 1981.

The depopulation trend was reversed only in the 1990s, with the 2001 census registering a population of 122,418, up from 110,953 in 1991. The main industries on the islands are agriculture and tourism; the islands' agriculture is devoted to viticulture and olive growing. The local economy is underdeveloped while the cost of living is 10 to 30% higher than on the mainland, so the Croatian government provides various kinds of support and protection through its Islands Act to stimulate the economy of the islands, including charging no tolls on bridges, providing cheaper or free ferry tickets for islanders. List of islands of Croatia List of islands in the Adriatic

Boreotrophon alaskanus

Boreotrophon alaskanus is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Muricidae, the murex snails or rock snails. The shell is bone to creamy white in color with an elevated spire, a distinct suture, a curved, slender siphonal canal; the shell has five subsequent whorls. The whorls are rounded and bear 8 to 10 narrow varices which are prominent at the shoulder, where they rise into long blunt spines that curve towards the axis of the shell; the aperture is subovate, the operculum is thin and light brown. Length 14 to 45 mm; this snail occurs in the Bering Sea north of Unalaska to northern Honshu, Japan