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Prime Minister of Finland

The Prime Minister of Finland is the leader of the Finnish Government. The Prime Minister is Finland's head of government and is formally appointed by the President of Finland. Finland's first Prime Minister was Pehr Evind Svinhufvud, appointed to the post on 27 November 1917; the incumbent Prime Minister is Sanna Marin of the Social Democratic Party. Marin was sworn in on 10 December 2019 and at 34, she became the world's youngest serving state leader and the youngest Prime Minister in Finland's history. In 1918, the Senate of Finland was transformed into the Government of Finland, the position of Vice-Chairman of the Economic Division was transformed into that of the prime minister. Kesäranta, located in the westerly Meilahti subdivision of Helsinki, has been the official residence of the prime minister of Finland since 1919. During its independence, declared in 1917, Finland has had 72 cabinets; the longest lasting have been the two cabinets of prime minister Paavo Lipponen, both lasting the entire parliamentary term, or 1,464 days.

The prime minister's appointment follows the parliamentary election, which are scheduled to be held once every four years. Under the provisions of the Constitution of Finland, the president nominates a prime minister after the parties in the parliament have negotiated the distribution of seats in the new cabinet and the government's programme; the parliament must ratify the nominated prime minister with an absolute majority in a confidence vote without other candidates. If the nominee doesn't receive sufficient support, a new round of negotiations and a second nomination by the President follows. If the second nominee fails to gain an absolute majority, a third vote is held, in which any member of parliament can nominate a candidate; the above procedure was first used to elect Anneli Jäätteenmäki to the premiership in 2003. It was assumed that the president would nominate the candidate who, in a third round of voting, would have gained a relative majority, this being the leader of the party with the largest seat share in parliament.

Before the 2000 constitution was enacted, full formal powers to appoint the prime minister and the rest of the government had been the privilege of the president, free to diverge from parliamentary principles, although the ministers appointed had to have the confidence of the parliament. Formally, the prime minister nominates the remaining members of the government, who are with the consent of Parliament, appointed by the president. In practice, the seats are divided between parties during the negotiations to form the government, so that the prime minister candidate must take into account the opinions of the participating parties and cannot nominate or remove whoever they wish; the prime minister's salary is €12,173 per month. In addition, the prime minister receives half of the parliamentary salary; the full parliamentary salary is, as of 1 May 2011, at least €6,335 a month, so the Finnish prime minister receives at least €14,842 per month in total. The salary is subject to income tax; the prime minister is entitled to a 30-day leave during each calendar year.

The maintenance and services of Kesäranta, the official residence, is paid for by the government. The prime minister has security services at their disposal at all times; the most recent death of a former prime minister of Finland is that of Mauno Koivisto on 12 May 2017. List of Prime Ministers of Finland Finnish Government Official site From Senate to independent Government

William Holcombe

William Holcombe was a United States Democratic politician and the first Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota. He was died in Stillwater, Minnesota, he was a member of first Minnesota Legislature. His term as Lieutenant Governor did not expire until a few weeks after the 2nd Minnesota State Legislative Session began. Although the Republican Party had a majority in the Minnesota Senate, Holcombe, a Democrat, presided over them until January 2, 1860 when the state officials were sworn in; some of his rulings so frustrated the Republican majority. The House responded that they had no right to interfere with the workings of the Senate and suggested they change their rules; the issue was resolved when Republican Ignatius Donnelly was sworn in as Lieutenant Governor. William Holcombe at Minnesota Legislators Past & Present

Independent Mixed Brigades (Imperial Japanese Army)

Between 1937 and 1945 the Japanese Imperial Army formed 126 Independent Mixed Brigades composed of various units detached from other formations. Some were composed of independent assets; these brigades were task organized under unified command and were used in support roles, as security, force protection, POW and internment camp guards and labor in occupied territories. An Independent Mixed Brigade had between 11,000 troops; the first two of these Independent Mixed Brigades formed by the Kwangtung Army in the 1930s were the IJA 1st Independent Mixed Brigade and the IJA 11th Independent Mixed Brigade. Each of these brigades was organized in a unique manner. A series of Independent Mixed Brigades were formed for the purpose of garrisoning the large territories of China captured in the early phase of the Second Sino-Japanese War; this variety for China was organized with five infantry battalions, an artillery unit, labor troops. In the Pacific theater they had more varied configurations of subordinate units.

IJA 1st Independent Mixed Brigade IJA 11th Independent Mixed Brigade List of Japanese Infantry divisions List of IJA Mixed Brigades Victor Madej: Japanese Armed Forces Order of Battle, 1937–1945. Game Publishing, 1981, OCLC 833591372, OCLC 833591376. Philip Jowett: The Japanese Army 1931–45 Osprey Publishing, 2002, ISBN 978-1-8417-6353-8 Gordon Rottman: Japanese Army in World War II, Conquest of the Pacific Osprey Publishing, 2005, ISBN 978-1-8417-6789-5 Gordon Rottman: Japanese Army in World War II, The South Pacific and New Guinea, 1942–43 Osprey Publishing, 2005, ISBN 978-1-8417-6870-0