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Prime Minister of France

The Prime Minister of the French Republic in the Fifth Republic is the head of government. During the Third and Fourth Republics, the head of government was formally called President of the Council of Ministers shortened to President of the Council. Most non-French sources referred to the post as "prime minister" or "premier." The title "prime minister" became official with the founding of the Fifth Republic. The post is subject to no term limits; the prime minister proposes a list of ministers to the president of the Republic. Decrees and decisions of the prime minister, like all executive decisions, are subject to the oversight of the administrative court system. Few decrees are taken after advice from the Council of State. All prime ministers defend the programs of their ministry, make budgetary choices; the extent to which those decisions lie with the prime minister or president depends upon whether they are of the same party. Manuel Valls was appointed to lead the government in a cabinet reshuffle in March 2014, after the ruling Socialists suffered a bruising defeat in local elections.

However, he resigned on 6 December 2016, to stand in the 2017 French Socialist Party presidential primary and Bernard Cazeneuve was appointed as Prime Minister that day by President François Hollande. Cazeneuve resigned on 10 May 2017. Édouard Philippe was named his successor on 15 May 2017. The prime minister is appointed by the president of the Republic, who can select whomever he or she wants. While prime ministers are chosen from amongst the ranks of the National Assembly, on rare occasions the president has selected a non-officeholder because of their experience in bureaucracy or foreign service, or their success in business management—Dominique de Villepin, for example, served as prime minister from 2005 to 2007 without having held an elected office. On the other hand, while the prime minister does not have to ask for vote of confidence after cabinet's formation and they can depend their legitimacy on the president's assignment as prime minister and approval of the cabinet, because the National Assembly does have the power to force the resignation of the cabinet by motion of no confidence, the choice of prime minister must reflect the will of the majority in the Assembly.

For example, right after the legislative election of 1986, President François Mitterrand had to appoint Jacques Chirac prime minister although Chirac was a member of the RPR and therefore a political opponent of Mitterrand. Despite the fact that Mitterrand's own Socialist Party was the largest party in the Assembly, it did not have an absolute majority; the RPR had an alliance with the UDF. Such a situation, where the president is forced to work with a prime minister, an opponent, is called a cohabitation. According to article 21 of the Constitution, the prime minister "shall direct the actions of the Government". Additionally, Article 20 stipulates that the Government "shall determine and conduct the policy of the Nation", it includes domestic issues, while the president concentrates on formulating directions on national defense and foreign policy while arbitrating the efficient service of all governmental authorities in France. Other members of Government are appointed by the president "on the recommendation of the prime minister".

In practice the prime minister acts on the impulse of the president to whom he is a subordinate, except when there is a cohabitation in which case his responsibilities are akin to those of a prime minister in a parliamentary system. The prime minister can "engage the responsibility" of his or her Government before the National Assembly; this process consists of placing a bill before the Assembly, either the Assembly overthrows the Government, or the bill is passed automatically. In addition to ensuring that the Government still has support in the House, some bills that might prove too controversial to pass through the normal Assembly rules are able to be passed this way; the prime minister may submit a bill that has not been yet signed into law to the Constitutional Council. Before he is allowed to dissolve the Assembly, the president has to consult the prime minister and the presidents of both Houses of Parliament; the office of the prime minister, in its current form, was created in 1958 under the French Fifth Republic.

Under the Third Republic, the French Constitutional Laws of 1875 vested the president of the Council with similar formal powers to those which at that time the British prime minister possessed. In practice, this proved insufficient to command the confidence of France's multi-party parliament. Most notably, the legislature had the power to force the entire cabinet out of office by a vote of censure; as a result, cabinets were toppled twice a year, there were long stretches where France was left with only a caretaker government. Under the circumstances, the president of the Council was a weak figure whose strength more dependent on charisma than formal powers, he was little more than primus inter pares, was more the cabinet's chairman than its leader. After several unsuccessful attempts to strengthen the role in the first half of the twentieth century, a semi-presidential system was introduced under the Fifth Republic; the 1958 Constitution includes several provisions intended to strengthen the prime minister's position, for instance by restricting the legislature's power to censure the government.

The current prime minister is Édouard Philippe, appointed on 15 May 2017. The only person to serve as prime minister more than once under the Fifth Re

Granville, New York

Granville, New York is a town on the eastern border of Washington County, abutting Rutland County, Vermont. It is part of the Glens Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area; the town population was 6,456 at the 2000 census. The town of Granville contains a village that bears the name Granville. Granville is named for 2nd Earl Granville. Granville has been called the "Colored Slate Capital of the World." Quarries in the town mine slate that comes in colors such as green, gray black, mottled green and purple, red. Walter Granville-Smith was born in Granville. Granville Avenue and the associated CTA station in Chicago are named after the town, as was the former Town of Granville, Wisconsin. From evidence discovered around 1850, the St. Francis Native Americans appear to have used the town for hunting and making tools in the past; this border area between Vermont and New York was for a long time not under control of either state. Arrivals from New England settled here hoping to gain the benefits of New England in areas such as land ownership and voting rights.

Early settlers arrived before 1770, but the state line was not established until 1790, leaving settlers in this town within New York State. The town was founded in 1780. Early agricultural efforts included dairy herds and sheep raising. Extensive slate deposits were located in 1846 in nearby Fair Haven, in 1850 more slate deposits were found in Middle Granville; the first Granville slate quarries opened around 1853. The first slate deposits were used for local construction. Famous former baseball star Cory Bourn resides in the Village of Granville; the east town line is the border of Vermont. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 56.1 square miles, of which, 56.1 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. NY 22A diverges from NY 22 by Middle Granville. NY 149 joins NY 22 south of Granville village; the Mettawee River and the Indian River are two large streams in the town. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,456 people, 2,411 households, 1,668 families residing in the town.

The population density was 115.1 people per square mile. There were 2,635 housing units at an average density of 47.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.08% White, 0.37% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.62% of the population. There were 2,411 households out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.8% were non-families. 25.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.06. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 16.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years.

For every 100 females, there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $36,128, the median income for a family was $39,486. Males had a median income of $30,177 versus $20,128 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,335. About 8.3% of families and 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.3% of those under age 18 and 13.4% of those age 65 or over. Granville – A village located on NY 149 by the Vermont border. Granville Airport – Located one mile north of Granville village. One asphalt runway. Guilder Hollow—The now-extinct hamlet was named for the van Guilder family that resided there. A. H. Estabrook and Charles Davenport's "The Nam Family: A Cacogenic Family of New York State" provides a pseudo-scientific ethnography of the family; the study gave pseudo-scientific support for eugenics, which linked feeblemindedness, criminality and a host of other failings to genetics, proposed to improve society by limiting the reproductive rights of "defective" families.

Hillsdale – A hamlet in the south part of the town on NY 149. Martins Pond – The largest of several ponds located south of Slyboro. Middle Granville – A hamlet northeast of Granville village, located on NY 22A; the Dayton-Williams House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2006. North Granville – A hamlet on NY 22 in the northwest part of Granville; the Town-Hollister Farm was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2008. Raceville – A hamlet in the northeast part of the town, located on NY 22A. Slyboro – A hamlet west of the Granville village, located on County Route 23. South Granville – A hamlet on NY 149 in the southeast part of the town; the South Granville Congregational Church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005. The Lemuel Haynes House is listed as a National Historic Landmark. Truthville – A hamlet just east of North Granville. West Granville – A hamlet on NY 40 at County Route 17 by the west town line. West Pawlet – A community on the border of Vermont in the southeast corner of Granville at the end of County Route 29.

Mary J. Tanner School – Educates Kindergarten through 3rd grade level students. Granville Elementary School – Educates 4th through 6th grade level students. Granville High School – Educates students in 7th through 12th grade, including high school students. Town of Granville, NY Granville, NY Area Chamber of Commerce

Derek Whyte

Derek Whyte is a Scottish former footballer, who played for Celtic, Middlesbrough and Partick Thistle. He won twelve caps for Scotland during his 18-year playing career, he participated at Euro 1996 and the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Whyte joined Celtic on 14 May 1985 as a 16-year-old from the Celtic Boys Club. A defender with the greatest of promise, described as the new Billy McNeill, his form slumped towards the end of his time at the club, he left at the end of the 1991 -- 92 season. He was sold to Middlesbrough for £900,000 where he returned to the early good form he had shown at Celtic. After 5 seasons on Teesside, Whyte left Middlesbrough to return to Scotland, joining Aberdeen for an undisclosed fee and a four and a half year contract in December 1997, he was appointed team captain at Pittodrie and remained there until 2002, when he joined Partick Thistle on a free transfer. Along with Gerry Britton, Whyte was appointed joint player-manager of the Jags after Gerry Collins was sacked in November 2003.

In March 2004 he decided to hang up his playing boots to concentrate on management. Whyte and Britton were sacked by Thistle in December 2004. Soon afterwards he moved to the United Arab Emirates, he is now a pundit on ShowSports, the sports channel on the Showtime Arabia network, based in Dubai, writes a weekly column for the UAE's leading daily newspaper 7DAYS. Derek Whyte at the Scottish Football Association Derek Whyte at Post War English & Scottish Football League A–Z Player's Database Scotland U21 stats at Scottish FA