Greek passports are issued exclusively to Greek citizens for the purpose of international travel. Biometric passports have been issued since 26 August 2006, with old-style passports being declared invalid as of 1 January 2007, since June 2009, the passports RFID chip includes two index fingerprints as well as a high resolution JPEG image of the passport holder. Every Greek citizen is a citizen of the European Union, the passport, along with the national identity card allows for free rights of movement and residence in any of the states of the European Union and European Economic Area. The Greek passport follows the standard European Union passport design, with a red cover. The word ΔΙΑΒΑΤΗΡΙΟ is inscribed below the coat of arms, while ΕΥΡΩΠΑΪΚΗ ΕΝΩΣΗ, a Greek diplomatic passport has the same size and design as the standard one, but it features a black cover and the text ΔΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΟ ΔΙΑΒΑΤΗΡΙΟ inscribed below the coat of arms. Greek passports contain 32 pages and are valid for 5 years, all fields on the bearers page are indicated in Greek and in English, with the translation in the other EU-languages elsewhere in the passport.
The main info of the bearer are transcription from the Greek to the Latin script, the new Greek passport meets international standards as defined by the ICAO. It has many new security features, features such pages with intricate designs/representations, images visible only with UV light watermarks and chip. The stored data on the chip, are protected by using advanced digital encryption techniques, Greek passports are issued by the National Passport Centre. Applicants have to apply in person – in case of a child under 14, upon submitting all the requirements, the police department begins the issuing procedure. All passports are manufactured centrally at the N. P. C main building in Athens, depending on the circumstances, passports are issued in 3 to 9 business days and must be picked up at the police department in which the issuing request was made. For this, an applicant must carry with her/him a special receipt they received after applying, standard passports are valid for a period of 5 years for adults and teenagers above 14 years and 3 years for children under 14. A holder has to make a request for a new one, if his/her passport expires within the six months of the request.
The issuing of an adult passport costs €84.40. Reissuance of an existing and still valid passport with no blank pages is possible, with a validity date equal to the previous passport, Visa requirements for Greek citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Greece. In 2016, Greek citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 171 countries and territories, ranking the Greek passport 7th in the world according to the Visa Restricitions Index
Foreign relations of Greece
Its main allies are France, Russia, the US, the other NATO countries, and the European Union. Greece has the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor, Greece has diplomatic relations with almost all the countries in the world, as shown in the map below. Greece objects to the use of the terms Macedonian to denote ethnic Macedonians, the dispute has escalated to the highest level of international mediation, involving numerous attempts to achieve a resolution, notably by the United Nations. The provisional reference the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is still used in relations involving states which do not recognise the constitutional name. Nevertheless, all United Nations member-states have agreed to any final agreement resulting from negotiations between the two countries. The ongoing dispute has not prevented the two countries from enjoying close trade links and investment levels, but it has generated a great deal of political, on 13 September 1995 the two countries signed the Interim Accord, whereby Greece recognized the Republic of Macedonia under its provisional reference.
As of August 2011 negotiations aimed at resolving the dispute are ongoing, under Greek pressure, the European Union and NATO agreed that in order for the Republic of Macedonia to receive an invitation to join these institutions the name dispute must be resolved first. This resulted in a case at the International Court of Justice against Greece for violation of the Interim Accord, the Court deemed Greece was wrong to block its neighbours bid to join NATO. No penalties were imposed but it is now more difficult for Greece to object to its neighbours any future application to either NATO or the EU. Again in 1955 an anti-Greek Istanbul pogrom was initiated by Turkish mobs against the Greek community of Istanbul and these two events were a major factor when the Cyprus problem surfaced as Greece and Turkey nearly came to a full-out war after Turkeys invasion of Cyprus. Similar disputes occurred for the islands of Imbros and Tenedos, up to late 1990s strained relations almost led to an open war in 1974,1987 and 1996.
Since the earthquake diplomacy in 1999 relations have once again begun improving, seven days later, Turkey launched an invasion of Cyprus allegedly to reinstate the constitution but which resulted in blooded conflict, partition of the island and mass ethnic cleansing. The overwhelming Turkish land and air superiority against islands weak defenses led to the bringing of 37% of the land under Turkish control. 170,000 Greek Cypriots were evicted from their homes in the north with 50,000 Turks following the opposite path concluding the de facto division of Cyprus, in 1983 Turkish Cypriots proclaimed independence unilaterally with only Turkey recognizing them. As of today the north is under an embargo as a measure against the partition of the island. Ever since both countries along with the two communities of the island are engages into a cycle of negotiations which led to little. Greece calls for the removal of Turkish troops from Cyprus and the restoration of a unified state, other issues dividing Greece and Turkey involve the delimitation of the continental shelf in the Aegean Sea, territorial waters and airspace.
In March 1987 a dispute concerning oil drilling rights, almost led to war between the countries with Greece advocating the dispute to be decided by the International Court of Justice
Spiridon Trikoupis was a Greek statesman, diplomat and orator. He was the first Prime Minister of Greece and member of provisional governments of Greece since 1826 and he was born in Missolonghi and was son of the primate of Missolonghi, Ioannis Trikoupis. After studying in Paris and London, he became secretary to Frederick North, 5th Earl of Guilford. During the Greek War of Independence, he occupied several important administrative and he was a member of the provisional government in 1826, a member of the national convention at Troezen in 1827, and president of the council and minister of foreign affairs in 1832. He was appointed the first Prime Minister of Greece in 1833 and he was thrice Greek minister to London, and in 1850 envoy-extraordinary to Paris. His funeral oration for his friend Lord Byron, delivered in the cathedral of Missolonghi in 1824 was translated into many languages, a collection of his earlier religious and political orations was published in Paris in 1836. He was the author of Istoria tis Ellinikis Epanastaseos, his work on the history of the Greek revolution and he was the father of Charilaos Trikoupis, a Prime Minister of Greece.
Works by Spyridon Trikoupis at Project Gutenberg
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain members of an organisation or state. Generally people addressed as Excellency are heads of state, heads of government, ambassadors, certain ecclesiastics and others holding equivalent rank and the FIFA President. It is sometimes misinterpreted as a title of office in itself, in reference to such an official, it takes the form His or Her Excellency, in direct address, Your Excellency, or, less formally, simply Excellency. The abbreviation HE is often used instead of His/Her Excellency, alternatively it may stand for His/Her Eminence, in most republican nations, the head of state is formally addressed as His Excellency. If a republic has a head of government, that official is often addressed as Excellency as well. If the nation is a monarchy, the customs may vary, in the case of Australia, all ambassadors, high commissioners and the governor-general and their spouses are entitled to the use of Excellency. Governors of colonies in the British Empire were entitled to be addressed as Excellency, in various international organizations, notably the UN and its agencies, Excellency is used as a generic form of address for all republican heads of state and heads of government.
Judges of the International Court of Justice are called Your Excellency, in some monarchies the husbands, wives, or children, of a royal prince or princess, who do not possess a princely title themselves, may be entitled to the style. For example, in Spain spouses or children of a born infante or infanta are addressed as Excellency, former members of a royal house or family, who did have a royal title but forfeited it, may be awarded the style afterwards. Examples are former husbands or wives of a prince or princess, including Alexandra, Countess of Frederiksborg. In some emirates, only the Emir, heir apparent and prime minister are called His Highness and their children are styled with the lower treatment of His/Her Excellency. In Spain members of the nobility, holding the dignity of grandee, are addressed as The Most Excellent Lord/Lady. Some of the high ranking counts, Excellency can attach to a prestigious quality, notably in an order of knighthood. By a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Ceremonial of 31 December 1930 the Holy See granted bishops of the Roman Catholic Church the title of Most Reverend Excellency.
In the years following the First World War, the title of Excellency. The adjective Most Reverend was intended to distinguish the title from that of Excellency given to civil officials. The instruction Ut sive sollicite of the Holy Sees Secretariat of State, dated 28 March 1969, even those who were bishops, continued to use the title of Eminence. In some English-speaking countries, the honorific of Excellency does not apply to other than the nuncio
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Greece)
The Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs is a government agency of Greece. The Minister for Foreign Affairs controls the agency, the ministry has its headquarters in Athens. The incumbent Minister for Foreign Affairs, since 23 September 2015, has been Nikos Kotzias, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs was first established in 1822 by the First National Assembly at Epidaurus as the Secretariat for External Affairs. In 1844 it was designated the Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Judiciary of Greece
The Judicial system of Greece is the constitutionally established system of courts. In Greece, Constitution firmly established the independence of the justice system, according to the Constitution, there are three categories of courts, civil courts, penal courts and administrative courts. The supreme court of the civil and penal justice is the Court of Cassation, Greek judges belong to one of these two branches. Consequently, a judge is not entitled to judge a penal or civil case, while a civil judge is entitled to judge a civil or penal case. Civil cases are judged, At first instance, by the District Courts or the Courts of First Instance, at second instance, by the Courts of First Instance or the Courts of Appeal, according to the estimated value of the matter disputed at law. By the Court of Cassation, when a writ of certiorari is filed against a decision of the Court of Appeal. Court of Cassations decisions are irrevocable, if the Court of Cassation concludes that a lower court violated the law or the principles of the procedure, it can order the rehearing of the case by the lower court.
Crimes are judged as follows, Felonies are judged, at first instance, by the mixed Court of First Instance and, at second instance, in these mixed courts participate four jurors and three professional judges. A constitutional provision allows the exception of crimes from the jurisdiction of the mixed courts. These crimes are judged, at first instance, by the three-member Court of Appeal and, at second instance, by the five-member Court of Appeals, Misdemeanours are judged, at first instance, by the Misdemeanours Court and, at second instance, by the Court of Appeal. A writ of certiorari against the decision of the Court of Appeal is possible. Infringements are judged by the Magistrates Court, the judicial control of an administrative act goes either on its merits or not. The control of these acts has to do with matters of legality, namely whether they are issued in accordance with the Constitution, at second and final instance, the Council of State is always competent to judge these acts. The decisions of all the courts may be appealed against with a writ a certiorari.
The Chamber of Accounts is an administrative court, whose jurisdiction is limited in certain particular areas. Its decisions are irrevocable and out of the control of the Council of State, according to the Greek judicial system every court is competent to judge the conformity, or lack thereof, of a legal provision with the Constitution. This judicial right constitutes the so-called diffused control of constitutionality, which is opposed to the concentrated control, the last one exists in most European countries, which have a Supreme Constitutional Court, such as Germany, Spain or even France, which has a Constitutional Council. Since there is no court in Greece, all courts are deemed competent to decide upon the constitutionality of a legal provision
The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy takes part in its meetings. Established as a summit in 1975, the European Council was formalised as an institution in 2009 upon the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon. Its current President is Donald Tusk, while the European Council has no formal legislative power, it is a strategic body that provides the union with general political directions and priorities, and acts as a collective presidency. The European Commission remains the sole initiator of legislation, but the European Council is able to provide an impetus to guide legislative policy, decisions of the European Council are taken by consensus, except where the Treaties provide otherwise. The European Council officially gained the status of an EU institution after Lisbon treaty in 2000, before that, the first summits of EU heads of state or government were held in February and July 1961. The summits were only formalised in the period between 1974 and 1988, the inaugural European Council, as it became known, was held in Dublin on 10 and 11 March 1975 during Irelands first Presidency of the Council of Ministers.
In 1987, it was included in the treaties for the first time and had a role for the first time in the Maastricht Treaty. At first only a minimum of two meetings per year were required, which resulted in an average of three meetings per year being held for the 1975-1995 period, since 1996, the number of meetings were required to be minimum four per year. For the latest 2008-2014 period, this minimum was well exceeded, the seat of the Council was formalised in 2002, basing it in Brussels. Three types of European Councils exist, Informal and Extraordinary, some meetings of the European Council are seen by some as turning points in the history of the European Union. For example,1969, The Hague, Foreign policy and enlargement,1974, Creation of the Council. 1985, Initiate IGC leading to the Single European Act,1991, Agreement on the Maastricht Treaty. 1992, Agreement to retain at Strasbourg the plenary seat of the European Parliament,1993, Leading to the definition of the Copenhagen Criteria. 1997, Agreement on the Amsterdam Treaty,1998, Selected member states to adopt the euro.
1999, Declaration on military forces,1999, Institutional reform 2000, Lisbon Strategy 2002, Agreement for May 2004 enlargement. 2007, Agreement on the Lisbon Treaty,2009, Appointment of first president and merged High Representative. The Treaty of Lisbon made the European Council a formal institution distinct from the Council of the EU, as an outgrowth of the Council of the EU, the European Council had previously followed the same Presidency, rotating between each member state. Following the ratification of the treaty in December 2009, the European Council elected the then-Prime Minister of Belgium Herman Van Rompuy as its first permanent president
Cabinet of Greece
The cabinet of Greece, officially called the Ministerial Council, constitutes the Government of Greece. It is the collective decision-making body of the Hellenic Republic, composed of the Prime Minister, one or more Ministers may be appointed Vice President of the Government, by decree initiated by the Prime Minister. Ministers are appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister, the Council defines and directs the general policy of the Country, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and the laws. It is regulated by the Constitution of Greece, the Council meets at the building of the Hellenic Parliament. The meetings are chaired by the Prime Minister, after the elections, the President appoints the Prime Minister and hands him the mandate to form a government. List of cabinets of Greece THE CONSTITUTION OF GREECE - As revised by the resolution of 27 May2008 of the VIIIth Revisionary Parliament. Greek Government official website General Secretariat on the Greek Government website Vice President on the Greek Government Website
President of Greece
The President of the Hellenic Republic, colloquially referred to in English as the President of Greece, is the head of state of Greece. The President is elected by the Hellenic Parliament, and his role is mostly ceremonial since the 1986 constitutional reform, the incumbent, since 2015, is Prokopis Pavlopoulos, serving his first term in office. The president is the nominal commander-in-chief of the Greek Armed Forces and occupies the first place in the order of precedence. The presidents role was formally brought into line with actual practice by the 1986 constitutional amendment, according to Article 32 the Greek Constitution, the President is elected for a five-year term by the Hellenic Parliament in a special session at least a month before the incumbents term expires. Voting takes place in two phases, each maximally of three ballots, separated by no more than five days, the first and second ballots require a supermajority of 200 out of the 300-strong body, dropping to 180 on the third.
In the event of a non-election even after the ballot, the parliament is to be dissolved. After the new parliament convenes, the phase begins, with the required majority at 180 votes in the fourth ballot. The sixth and last ballot is contested between the two candidates with the most votes and decided by a relative majority, the official residence of the President of Greece is the Presidential Mansion, formerly the New Royal Palace, in central Athens. A staged referendum on 29 July 1973 confirmed the regime change and this attempt at controlled democratization was ended by Brigadier Dimitrios Ioannidis overthrow of Papadopoulos in November 1973. The republic and its institutions were maintained, but was nothing more than a façade for the military regime. Lt. General Phaedon Gizikis was appointed President of the Republic, but power was in the hands of Ioannidis, in the interim, remained in office as President. After the plebiscite, he was succeeded by the first elected President, a new constitution, promulgated on 11 June 1975, declared Greece a presidential parliamentary democracy.
This constitution, revised in 1985,2001, and 2008, is still in force today, there are two living former Greek Presidents, List of heads of state of Greece List of Presidents of Greece by longevity
Head of government
The term head of government is often differentiated from the term head of state, as they may be separate positions, and/or roles depending on the country. In parliamentary systems, including constitutional monarchies, the head of government is the de facto leader of the government. For example, in the United Kingdom, the prime minister advises the Queen on the appointment of the cabinet, advice she is required to accept. On the other hand, the Queens long service as the head of state enables her to provide the prime minister with information and insight into many matters to better run the government. However, because the United Kingdom is a monarchy, the Prime Minister uses his or her own discretion regarding whether or not to follow the Queens advice. The Queen is entitled to appoint a new Prime Minister, in presidential republics or in absolute monarchies, the head of state is usually the head of government. The relationship between that leader and the government, can vary greatly, ranging from separation of powers to autocracy, in semi-presidential systems, the head of government may answer to both the head of state and the legislature, with the specifics provided by each countrys constitution.
A modern example is the present French government, which originated as the French Fifth Republic in 1958, in France, the president, the head of state, appoints the prime minister, who is the head of government. In some cases, the head of state may represent one political party, in this case, known as cohabitation, the prime minister, along with the cabinet, controls domestic policy, with the presidents influence is largely restricted to foreign affairs. In directorial systems, the executive responsibilities of the head of government are spread among a group of people, a prominent example is the Swiss Federal Council, where each member of the council heads a department and votes on proposals relating to all departments. A common title for many heads of government is prime minister, various constitutions use different titles, and even the same title can have various multiple meanings, depending on the constitutional order and political system of the state in question. In addition to prime minister, titles used for the democratic model, some of these titles relate to governments below the national level.
Have been used by various Empires and Princely States of India as a title for the Prime Minister, maltese, In Malta, the head of government is Prim Ministru. In this case, the prime minister serves at the pleasure of the monarch, some such titles are diwan, pradhan, wasir or vizier. However, just because the head of state is the de jure dominant position does not mean that he/she will not always be the de facto political leader, in some cases, the head of state is a figurehead whilst the head of the government leads the ruling party. In some cases a head of government may even pass on the title in hereditary fashion, the ability to vote down legislative proposals of the government. Control over or ability to vote down fiscal measures and the budget, all of these requirements directly impact the Head of governments role. Many parliamentary systems require ministers to serve in parliament, while others ban ministers from sitting in parliament, heads of government are typically removed from power in a parliamentary system by Resignation, Defeat in a general election