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Prime Minister of Italy

The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic. The office of Prime Minister is established by Articles 92 through to 96 of the Constitution of Italy; the Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic after each general election and must have the confidence of the Italian Parliament to stay in office. Prior to the establishment of the Italian Republic, the position was called President of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy. From 1925 to 1943 during the Fascist regime, the position was transformed into the dictatorial position of Head of the Government, Prime Minister Secretary of State held by Benito Mussolini, Duce of Fascism, who governed on the behalf of the King of Italy. King Victor Emmanuel III removed Mussolini from office in 1943 and the position was restored with Marshal Pietro Badoglio becoming Prime Minister in 1943.

Alcide De Gasperi became the first Prime Minister of the Italian Republic in 1946. The Prime Minister is the President of the Council of Ministers which holds executive power and the position is similar to those in most other parliamentary systems; the formal Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office. As the President of the Council of Ministers, the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition, the Prime Minister leads a major political party and is required by the Constitution to have the confidence of the majority of the voting members of the Parliament. In addition to powers inherent in being a member of the Cabinet, the Prime Minister holds specific powers, most notably being able to nominate a list of Cabinet ministers to be appointed by the President of the Republic and the countersigning of all legislative instruments having the force of law that are signed by the President of the Republic. Article 95 of the Italian constitution provides that the Prime Minister "directs and coordinates the activity of the ministers".

This power has been used to a quite variable extent in the history of the Italian state as it is influenced by the political strength of individual ministers and thus by the parties they represent. The Prime Minister's activity has consisted of mediating between the various parties in the majority coalition, rather than directing the activity of the Council of Ministers; the Prime Minister's supervisory power is further limited by the lack of any formal authority to fire ministers, although a Cabinet reshuffle or sometimes an individual vote of no confidence on the part of Parliament may in practice provide a surrogate measure. The office was first established in 1848 in Italy's predecessor state, the Kingdom of Sardinia—although it was not mentioned in its constitution, the Albertine Statute. From 1848 to 1861, ten Prime Ministers governed the Kingdom, most of them being right-wing politicians. After the unification of Italy and the establishment of the kingdom, the procedure did not change.

In fact, the candidate for office was appointed by the King and presided over a unstable political system. The first Prime Minister was Camillo Benso di Cavour, appointed on 23 March 1861, but he died on 6 June the same year. From 1861 to 1911, Historical Right and Historical Left Prime Ministers alternatively governed the country. One of the most famous and influential Prime Ministers of this period was Francesco Crispi, a left-wing patriot and statesman, the first head of the government from Southern Italy, he led the country for six years from 1887 until 1891 and again from 1893 until 1896. Crispi was internationally famous and mentioned along with world statesmen such as Otto von Bismarck, William Ewart Gladstone and Salisbury. An enlightened Italian patriot and democrat liberal, Crispi went on to become a bellicose authoritarian Prime Minister and admirer of Bismarck, his career ended amid controversy and failure due to becoming involved in a major banking scandal and subsequently fell from power in 1896 after a devastating colonial defeat in Ethiopia.

He is seen as a precursor of the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. In 1892, Giovanni Giolitti, a leftist lawyer and politician, was appointed Prime Minister by King Umberto I, but after less than a year he was forced to resign and Crispi returned to power. In 1903, he was appointed again head of the government after a period of instability. Giolitti was Prime Minister five times between 1892 and 1921 and the second-longest serving Prime Minister in Italian history. Giolitti was a master in the political art of trasformismo, the method of making a flexible, fluid centrist coalition in Parliament which sought to isolate the extremes of the left and the right in Italian politics. Under his influence, the Italian Liberals did not develop as a structured party, they were instead a series of informal personal groupings with no formal links to political constituencies. The period between the start of the 20th century and the start of World War I, when he was Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior from 1901 to 1914 with only brief interruptions, is called the Giolittian Era.

A left-wing liberal with strong ethical concerns, Giolitti's periods in office were notable for the passage of a wide range of progressive social reforms which improved the living standards of ordinary Italians, together with the enactment of several policies of government intervention. Besides putting in place several

Medeniyet Shahberdiyeva

Medeniyet Shahberdiyeva was a Turkmenistan opera singer of the Soviet era. Shahberdiyeva was born in Lebap Province, at the time known as Kerki. In her youth she learned to play the gyjak. A coloratura soprano, she graduated from the Moscow Conservatory in 1956, she was a featured soloist on the roster of the Turkmen Opera and Ballet Theater from 1956. She performed in concert. During her career Shahberdiyeva traveled abroad as well as performing domestically, she was named a deputy to the sixth and seventh convocations of the Supreme Soviet of the Turkmen SSR. She became an instructor at the Ashgabat Institute of Arts in 1975, the same year in which she was named a People's Artist of the USSR. Shahberdiyeva has continued to receive recognition from the government of Turkmenistan since it gained its independence from the Soviet Union, she was the subject of a documentary, shown in Ashgabat in 2008

Robert Atkyns (judge)

Sir Robert Atkyns KB KS was an English Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, Member of parliament, Speaker of the House of Lords. He was the eldest son of Sir Edward Atkyns, one of the Barons of the Exchequer during the Commonwealth, the elder brother of Sir Edward Atkyns, who preceded him as Lord Chief Baron. There had been lawyers in the family for many generations: "He himself, his three immediate ancestors, having been of the profession for near two hundred years, in judicial places. In The History of Gloucestershire written by his son Sir Robert Atkyns the record of the family is carried still further back, in an unbroken legal line, to a Richard Atkyns who lived at the beginning of the fifteenth century, "followed the profession of the law in Monmouthshire." Robert Atkyns was born in Gloucestershire in 1620. It is not certain whether he went to Oxford or to Cambridge, Alexander Chalmers including him among the famous men of Balliol College, George Dyer among those of Sidney Sussex College.

Chalmers's statement may have originated in the fact that in 1663 Atkyns received from Oxford the degree of master of arts. In 1638 he was admitted to Lincoln's Inn, was called to the bar in 1645. Mention of his name is made in some reported cases. In 1659, he entered Richard Cromwell's parliament as member for Evesham, he was known to sympathise with the king's party, for he was among the sixty-eight who were made knights of the Bath at Charles's coronation. His name does not appear in the list of members of Charles's first parliament, but in that of 1661 he sat for East Looe, speaking upon legal questions, and, as appears from the record of the debates, with acknowledged authority. In 1661 he was made a bencher of his inn and a King's Serjeant, about the same time was appointed recorder of Bristol, he served as one of the fire judges after the 1666 great fire of London. On the death of Sir Thomas Tyrrell in 1672 he became a judge of the court of Common Pleas. Along with Sir William Scroggs he was a judge in some of the trials arising from the Popish Plot, but there is little trace of the part which he took.

According to Roger North, an eyewitness to the Plot trials, Scroggs dominated the proceedings: the other judges, in his view "were passive and meddled little". Atkyns shared in the opinion; the chief civil case in which Atkyns took part during this period was that brought by Sir Samuel Barnardiston against Sir William Soame, the High Sheriff of Suffolk, which led to the passing of the act 7 & 8 Wm. III, c. 7, declaring it illegal for a sheriff to make a double return in the election of members of parliament. The points of the case are technical, but it excited keen political interest, Atkyns's judgment, in which he differed from the majority of the court, marks the beginning of his separation from the party in power. In 1679 he retired from the bench in circumstances which lead one to believe that he was dismissed. Being questioned before a committee of the House of Commons in 1689, he mentioned several causes for his enforced retirement, his judgment in Barnardiston v. Soame had given offence.

"As to pensions, Lord Clifford took occasion to tell me'that I had attended diligently in parliament, was taken from my profession, therefore the king had thought fit to send me £500' I replied:'I thank you. I will not accept anything for my attendance in parliament.'... I did take occasion upon this to advise my countrymen'that those who took pensions were not fit to be sent up to parliament again'". In fact Atkyns was marked out as a disaffected man, he settled in Gloucestershire, with the intention of abandoning the law, but his political opinions again brought him into trouble. When the Oxford Parliament was summoned, he was persuaded, though unwillingly, to stand for Bristol, but was defeated by Sir Richard Hart and Thomas Earle, both Tories. A strong party in the city, not content with his defeat, sought to force him to resign the recordership; the occasion was found in an illegality of which Atkyns along with others was said to be guilty in proceeding to the election of an alderman in the absence of the mayor, the same Sir R. Hart.

The prosecution failed, but "Sir Robert Atkyns, on the Lord Pemberton's and his brother's persuasion, resigned his recordership. In the following year came the trial of Lord Russell. "And the like assistance being afterwards desired from me, by many more persons of the best quality, who soon after fell into the same danger, I, living at some distance from London, did venture by letters, to find the best rules and directions I could, towards the making of their just defence, being heartily concerned with them". Five years afterwards he published the letters, together with A Defence of the late Lord Russel's Innocency, a spirited and eloquent reply to an anonymous pamphlet called An Antidote against Poyson. To a rejoinder from the same pen, The Magistracy and Government of England vindicated, he wrote in answer The Lord Russel's Innocency further defended, assailing his opponent with abuse and expressly naming him as Sir Bartholomew Shower. I