The prime minister of Japan is the head of government of Japan and the commander in chief of the Japanese Armed Forces. The prime minister is appointed by the emperor of Japan after being designated by the National Diet and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office, he dismisses the other ministers of state. The literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Minister for the Comprehensive Administration of the Cabinet. Before the adoption of the Meiji Constitution, Japan had in practice no written constitution. A Chinese-inspired legal system known as ritsuryō was enacted in the late Asuka period and early Nara period, it described a government based on an elaborate and rational meritocratic bureaucracy, serving, in theory, under the ultimate authority of the Emperor. Theoretically, the last ritsuryō code, the Yōrō Code enacted in 752, was still in force at the time of the Meiji Restoration. Under this system, the Daijō-daijin was the head of the Daijō-kan, the highest organ of Japan's pre-modern Imperial government during the Heian period and until under the Meiji Constitution with the appointment of Sanjō Sanetomi in 1871.
The office was replaced in 1885 with the appointment of Itō Hirobumi to the new position of Prime Minister, four years before the enactment of the Meiji Constitution, which mentions neither the Cabinet nor the position of Prime Minister explicitly. It took its current form with the adoption of the Constitution of Japan in 1947. To date, 62 people have served this position; the current Prime Minister is Shinzō Abe, who re-took office on December 26, 2012. He is the first former Prime Minister to return to office since 1948, the longest serving Prime Minister to date; the Prime Minister is designated by both houses of the Diet, before the conduct of any other business. For that purpose, each conducts a ballot under the run-off system. If the two houses choose different individuals a joint committee of both houses is appointed to agree on a common candidate. However, if the two houses do not agree within ten days, the decision of the House of Representatives is deemed to be that of the Diet. Therefore, the House of Representatives can theoretically ensure the appointment of any Prime Minister it wants.
The candidate is presented with his or her commission, formally appointed to office by the Emperor. In practice, the Prime Minister is always the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives, or the leader of the senior partner in the governing coalition. Must be a member of either house of the Diet. Must be a "civilian"; this excludes serving members of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. Former military persons may be appointed prime minister despite the "civilian" requirement, Yasuhiro Nakasone being one prominent example. Exercises "control and supervision" over the entire executive branch. Presents bills to the Diet on behalf of the Cabinet. Signs laws and Cabinet orders. Appoints all Cabinet ministers, can dismiss them at any time. May permit legal action to be taken against Cabinet ministers. Must make reports on foreign relations to the Diet. Must report to the Diet upon demand to provide explanations. May advise the Emperor to dissolve the Diet's House of Representatives. Presides over meetings of the Cabinet.
Commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. May override a court injunction against an administrative act upon showing of cause. In most other constitutional monarchies, the monarch is nominal chief executive, while being bound by convention to act on the advice of the cabinet. In contrast, the Constitution of Japan explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader, his countersignature is required for Cabinet orders. While most ministers in parliamentary democracies have some freedom of action within the bounds of cabinet collective responsibility, the Japanese Cabinet is an extension of the Prime Minister's authority. Located near the Diet building, the Office of the Prime Minister of Japan is called the Kantei; the original Kantei served from 1929 until 2002, when a new building was inaugurated to serve as the current Kantei. The old Kantei was converted into the Official Residence, or Kōtei; the Kōtei lies to the southwest of the Kantei, is linked by a walkway.
The Prime Minister of Japan travels in a Lexus LS 600h L, the official transport for the head of government, or an unmodified Toyota Century escorted by a police motorcade of numerous Toyota Celsiors. For long distance air travel, Japan maintains two Boeing 747-400 aircraft for the Prime Minister of Japan, the Emperor and other members of the Imperial Family, operated by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, they have the radio callsigns Japanese Air Force One and Japanese Air Force Two when operating on official business, Cygnus One and Cygnus Two when operating outside of official business. The aircraft always fly together on government missions, with one serving as the primary transport and the other serving as a backup with maintenance personnel on board; the aircraft are referred to as Japanese government exclusive aircraft. The aircraft were constructed at the Boeing factory at the same time as the U
The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It is a 1948 book by Richard Hofstadter, an account on the ideology of previous Presidents of the United States and other political figures. Hofstadter's introduction proposes that the major political traditions in the United States, despite contentious battles, have all "... shared a belief in the rights of property, the philosophy of economic individualism, the value of competition... hey have accepted the economic virtues of a capitalist culture as necessary qualities of man". While many accounts have made political conflict central, the author proposes that a common ideology of "self-help, free enterprise and beneficent cupidity" has guided the republic since its inception. Through analyses of the ruling class in the US, Hofstadter argues that this consensus is the hallmark of political life in the US. Part of Hofstadter's project is to undermine the democratic credentials of politicians mythologized by historians, calling for reflection rather than nostalgia.
Thomas Jefferson is presented in all his ambiguities, the agrarian radical whose "laissez-faire became the political economy of the most conservative thinkers in the country". Andrew Jackson's democracy was "a phase in the expansion of liberated capitalism", Progressive trustbuster Theodore Roosevelt, though he "despised the rich", was at heart a conservative frightened by "any sign of organized power among the people". Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal – an amalgam of "improvised" programs – was "far from being intrinsically progressive, capable of being adapted to conservative purposes", but nonetheless, had "revived American liberalism". The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It
David Manson Eggen is a Canadian politician. He is a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta, in 2019 he was elected as the member representing Edmonton North West, he served three terms as the member representing Edmonton Calder from 2004-2008 and again from 2012-2019. In 2014, Eggen ran in the NDP leadership election, he served as the Minister of Education in Premier Notley's NDP government from 2015-2019. Born in 1962, Eggen was educated at the University of Alberta where he received a Bachelor of Education degree in 1984. Eggen went to Zimbabwe, where he taught for three years, after which he returned to Edmonton, where he taught at local schools from 1990 to 2004, he coached a wide variety of sports for high school and community teams. In 1996 and 1997, he served as an education consultant to the Wat Dhammamongkol Temple in Bangkok, Thailand, he volunteered as an animator at Fort Edmonton Park. Eggen has worked in health care as an executive director of Friends of Medicare, is a member of the Canadian Health Coalition’s board of directors.
He is a provincial trustee with the Forum for Young Albertans and a chair leader of the Canadian Paraplegic Association. He is a member of the Diversity and Human Rights committee for the Alberta Teachers' Association and an amateur musician, he lives in Edmonton with their two daughters. Eggen was first elected to the Legislative Assembly of Alberta as a New Democrat in the 2004 Alberta general election, narrowly defeating incumbent Progressive Conservative Brent Rathgeber, he was the first NDP representative elected in Edmonton-Calder since 1993, increasing his party's share of the vote from 18% to 36%. His victory was attributed to a two-year canvassing campaign in the run-up to the election, he served as the NDP's critic for Agriculture and Food, Environment, K-12 Education, Sustainable Resource Development, Tourism and Culture. He was defeated in the 2008 election by Progressive Conservative Doug Elniski. After this defeat Eggen assumed the Alberta executive director's position for Friends of Medicare, an advocacy group that supports public healthcare.
Eggen regained his seat in the 2012 provincial election and retained it with a increased margin in the 2015 election. After the 2015 election Eggen was sworn in as the Minister of Education and as the Minister of Culture and Tourism, positions he held until the 2019 election. David Eggen was sworn into Cabinet on May 24, 2015 as part of the NDP government led by Rachel Notley. There had been speculation since the election, he was appointed as Minister of Minister of Culture and Tourism. In fall 2015, Eggen introduced Bill 8, a proposal to reform the collective bargaining structure for public school teachers in Alberta. Bill 8 proposes to introduce a two-table bargaining system, similar to the structure in Ontario, where the provincial government would handle big items like salary and local boards would negotiate local issues; the existing system sees all issues bargained locally. There was criticism that school boards were not adequately consulted, but documents provided by Eggen's office to the media detailed consultations that had taken place in September and October 2015