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Prime Minister of Lebanon

The Prime Minister of Lebanon the President of the Council of Ministers, is the head of government and the head of the Council of Ministers of Lebanon. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of Lebanon, with no confirmation needed from the Parliament of Lebanon. By convention, he is always a Sunni Muslim; the office was created on 23 May 1926, when the constitution of the state of Greater Lebanon was promulgated. In the summer of 1943, when the National Pact was agreed, it was decided that the office of the Prime Minister would always be reserved for a Sunni Muslim. From the creation of the office in 1926 to the end of the Lebanese Civil War, the constitution made little mention of the roles and duties of the office, most of the office's powers were exercised through informal means rather than through constitutional procedures. Following the end of the Civil War and the ratification of the Ta'if Accord, the responsibilities of the Prime Minister were codified and listed in the Constitution.

While the 1926 Constitution of Greater Lebanon was modeled after the French constitution, the office of the Prime Minister in Lebanon is notably weaker in Lebanon than in France, for the President is the sole person who can dismiss him, while in France the Prime Minister is appointed by the President, can only be removed by the Parliament through a vote of no confidence. This means that the Prime Minister of Lebanon must be much more deferential to the President than his French counterpart. Twice in the past, when the president resigned or shortly before his term expired, the president broke the National Pact and appointed a Maronite Christian with the justification that he would assume the powers of the presidency. During the Lebanese Civil War, outgoing President Amine Gemayel dismissed incumbent Prime Minister Selim Hoss and appointed Army General-in-chief Michel Aoun as Prime Minister 15 minutes before the expiry of his term. Hoss refused his dismissal, this led to the creation of a dual government.

The Prime Minister is the President of the head of government. In addition, he is the deputy chair of the Supreme Defense Council, his responsibilities are the following: Assume the negotiations for the formation of the government with parliament. Counter-signs all decrees signed by the President, except for the one appointing him or considering the government resigned. Present the Council of Minister's program to the House of Deputies, he presides over the meetings of the Council of Ministers, except when the President attends, in which case he presides over them. In case of a vacancy in the Presidency for whatever reason, he assumes the powers and responsibilities of the president in the narrow sense of "conducting the business" Following the ratification of the Ta'if Accord, the Constitution laid out a preamble for the three "key" executive posts: the President, the Prime Minister, the Council of Ministers; the preamble states the following: In addition, the Prime Minister holds these posts ex officio: Vice President of the Supreme Defense Council President of the Council of Ministers Head of the government President of Lebanon Speaker of the Parliament of Lebanon Lists of incumbents This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress website

Pacinian corpuscle

Pacinian corpuscles are one of the four major types of mechanoreceptor cell in glabrous mammalian skin. They are nerve endings in the skin responsible for sensitivity to pressure, they respond only to sudden disturbances and are sensitive to vibration. The vibrational role may be used to detect surface texture, e.g. smooth. Pacinian corpuscles are found in the pancreas, where they detect vibration and very low frequency sounds. Pacinian corpuscles act as rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors. Groups of corpuscles respond to e.g. on grasping or releasing an object. Pacinian corpuscles are larger and fewer in number than Meissner's corpuscle, Merkel cells and Ruffini's corpuscles; the Pacinian corpuscle is oval-cylindrical-shaped and 1 mm in length. The entire corpuscle is wrapped by a layer of connective tissue, its capsule consists of 20 to 60 concentric lamellae including fibroblasts and fibrous connective tissue, separated by gelatinous material, more than 92% of, water. Pacinian corpuscles are adapting receptors that detect gross pressure changes and vibrations in the skin.

Any deformation in the corpuscle causes action potentials to be generated by opening pressure-sensitive sodium ion channels in the axon membrane. This allows sodium ions to influx; these corpuscles are susceptible to vibrations, which they can sense centimeters away. Their optimal sensitivity is 250 Hz, this is the frequency range generated upon fingertips by textures made of features smaller than 1 µm. Pacinian corpuscles cause action potentials when the skin is indented but not when the pressure is steady, due to the layers of connective tissue that cover the nerve ending, it is thought. They have been implicated in detecting the location of touch sensations on handheld tools. Pacinian corpuscles have a large receptive field on the skin's surface with an sensitive center. Pacinian corpuscles sense stimuli due to the deformation of their lamellae, which press on the membrane of the sensory neuron and causes it to bend or stretch; when the lamellae are deformed, due to either pressure or release of pressure, a generator potential is created as it physically deforms the plasma membrane of the receptive area of the neuron, making it "leak" Na+ ions.

If this potential reaches a certain threshold, nerve impulses or action potentials are formed by pressure-sensitive sodium channels at the first node of Ranvier, the first node of the myelinated section of the neurite inside the capsule. This impulse is now transferred along the axon with the use of sodium channels and sodium/potassium pumps in the axon membrane. Once the receptive area of the neurite is depolarized, it will depolarize the first node of Ranvier; this is a graded response, meaning that the greater the deformation, the greater the generator potential. This information is encoded in the frequency of impulses, since a bigger or faster deformation induces a higher impulse frequency. Action potentials are formed when the skin is distorted but not when pressure is continuous because of the mechanical filtering of the stimulus in the lamellar structure; the frequencies of the impulses decrease and soon stop due to the relaxation of the inner layers of connective tissue that cover the nerve ending.

This adaptation is useful, as it stops the nervous system from being overloaded with unnecessary information such as the pressure exerted by clothing. List of human anatomical parts named after people Pacinian neuroma – a rare benign tumor of Pacinian corpuscles Rayleigh wave#Possible detection by animals Virginia Commonwealth University Anatomy Atlases - Microscopic Anatomy, plate 06.124 Medical Illustration

Collix ghosha

Collix ghosha is a moth in the family Geometridae. It was described by Francis Walker in 1862, it is found in the Indo-Australian tropics, from the Indian subregion, Sri Lanka to Queensland and New Caledonia. The wingspan of the male is the female about 28 -- 30 millimetres. Palpi with the second joint reaching far beyond the frontal tuft. Mid tibia of the male much dilated and with a deep groove. Ground color of the body greyish brown; the waved lines are more prominent. A postmedial series of pale specks are more or less developed, the submarginal series obsolescent. Ventral side whitish. Discocellular spots larger; the postmedial band replaced by a streak series, which at middle join the submarginal spots, which form an complete band except between veins 3 and 4. The larvae feed on Embelia species, they prefer the young leaves. The larvae have a yellow-green head. Pupation takes place in a sparse cocoon, made in a curled leaf of the host plant

People of God

People of God is a description in the Old Testament or Hebrew Bible that applies to the Israelites and that in the New Testament applies to Christians. Within the Catholic Church, it has been given greater prominence because of its employment in documents of the Second Vatican Council. In the Old Testament, the Israelites are referred to as "the people of God" in Judges 20:2 and 2 Samuel 14:13; the equivalent phrases "the people of the Lord" and "the people of the Lord your God" are used. In those texts God is represented as speaking of the Children of Israel as "my people"; the people of God was a term first used, by God in the book of Exodus Chapter 6:7 which carried stipulation in this covenant between man and God. God promised deliverance, in return. In the New Testament, the expression "people of God" is found in Hebrews 4:9 and 11:25, the expression "his people", that is, God's people, appears in Revelation 21:3. 2 Corinthians 6:16 mentions the same promises to the New Testament believer "I will dwell in them, walk in them.

Continued use of the expression "people of God" in the writings of the Church Fathers are found in Augustine's De civitate Dei and Pope Leo I's Lenten Sermon. Its use continued up to and including Pope John XXIII's apostolic letter Singulari studio of 1 July 1960, two years before the Second Vatican Council. In Gaelic, Latin populus Dei became pobal Dé and has continued for centuries to be an expression in everyday use for the Church in a parish, a diocese or the world; the dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium devoted its chapter II to "the new People of God", "a people made up of Jew and gentile", called together by Christ. It spoke of "the people to whom the testament and the promises were given and from whom Christ was born according to the flesh" as among those who "are related in various ways to the people of God", it described in detail the qualities of this People of God in words "intended for the laity and clergy alike", while pointing out the specific duties and functions of the different ranks of which it is composed, such as that of "those who exercise the sacred ministry for the good of their brethren".

In 2001, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, to become in 2005 Pope Benedict XVI, stated that the council's choice of this term reflected three perspectives. The principal one was to introduce a term that could serve as an ecumenical bridge, recognizing intermediate degrees of belonging to the church. Another was to put more in evidence the human element in the church, part of her nature, and the third was to recall that the church has not yet reached her final state and that she "will not be wholly herself until the paths of time have been traversed and have blossomed in the hands of God". Ratzinger declared that the term is not to be understood in way that would reduce it "to an a-theological and purely sociological view" of the church. Michael Hesemann wrote: After the Council, the expression was taken up enthusiastically, but in a way that neither Ratzinger nor the Council Fathers had intended, it became a slogan: "We are the People!" The idea of a "Church from below" developed. Although the theological, biblical concept of people was still the idea of a natural hierarchy, of a great family it was reinterpreted in a Marxist sense, in which "people" is always considered the antithesis to the ruling classes.

The centre of the Christian faith, can only be God's revelation, which cannot be put to a ballot. Church is being called by God. Joseph Ratzinger said:'The crisis concerning the Church, as it is reflected in the crisis concerning the concept "People of God", is a "crisis about God". While the council distinguished between the Jewish people and "the new People of God", Carl E. Braaten has said that, being somewhat analogous to the expression "chosen people", the term "People of God" suggests a persisting trend of supersessionism in the church, that the expression "People of God" implying that the church is the same people as Abraham and Jacob in the Hebrew Bible; the Popes have continued to use the expression "the People of God". Pope Paul VI used it with regard to his profession of faith known as the Credo of the People of God. Pope John Paul II used it in his catechetical instructions, teaching that the church is the new People of God. Pope Benedict XVI has spoken of "the Church, the people of God throughout the world, united in faith and love and empowered by the Spirit to bear witness to the risen Christ to the ends of the earth".

On 20 August 2018, Pope Francis released a letter, addressed to the "People of God", in response to recent revelations of sexual abuse cases within the Church, quoting St. Paul: "If one member suffers, all suffer together with it"; the concluding messages of each General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops are addressed to "the People of God." The Catechism of the Catholic Church devotes a section to describing the church with this image, indicates the characteristics of the People of God "that distinguish it from all other religious, political, or cultural groups found in history", so that it does not belong to any one of these groups. Membership of the People of God, it says, comes not by physical birth but by faith in Christ and baptism. Christian Church Communitas perfecta Mystici corporis Christi

We Plough the Fields and Scatter

"We Plough the Fields and Scatter" is a hymn of German origin associated with harvest festival. Written by poet Matthias Claudius, "Wir pflügen und wir streuen" was published in 1782 and set to music in 1800 attributed to Johann A. P. Schulz, it was translated into English by Jane Montgomery Campbell in 1861. It appears in a shortened form in the musical Godspell, as the song, "All Good Gifts", it is amongst the most performed of hymns in the United Kingdom. In 1777, Matthias Claudius had returned to Christianity after leaving it in his 20s. During his illness he wrote a number of poems. In 1782, a friend invited him over for dinner and asked him to bring one of the Christian poems he had written. Claudius wrote "Wir pflügen und wir streuen" based on Psalm 144 for this occasion with 17 verses; the poem was published in "Asinus omnia sua secum portans" as a peasant's song. From there, it was published across Germany in number of hymnbooks; the majority of these cut down on the original 17 verses with the publishers deciding to start with the 3rd verse which started with "Wir pflügen und wir streuen".

In 1862 in England, Jane Montgomery Campbell, proficient in the German language, started to translate a number of German hymns into English. She translated "Wir pflügen und wir streuen" into English as "We Plough the Fields and Scatter", she taught the hymn to the children at the Church of England parish school in London where her father was the rector. The hymn was published in Charles Bere's Garland of Songs and Children's Chorale Book; the hymn is predominantly used as a hymn to give thanks to God for the harvest and it has been used in the United States as a hymn for Thanksgiving. The hymn has been referenced in popular culture. In 1969, future Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom, John Betjeman parodied the hymn as "We spray the fields and scatter/the poison on the land" published in Harvest Times as a protest against modern farming methods and new planning legislation."We Plough The fields and Scatter" has had a number of unofficial updated verses for it. An anonymous revised first verse which alluded to Betjeman's parody was published titled "We Plough the Fields with tractors".

This verse, has been criticised as banal as it would not reference the history of the harvest. Lyrics as published in 1861 in A Garland of Songs: We plough the fields, scatter the good seed on the land. Chorus All good gifts around usAre sent from heaven above,Then thank the Lord, O thank the LordFor all His love, he only is the maker of all things far. Chorus We thank Thee O Father, for all things bright and good, The seed time and the harvest, our life, our health, food. Chorus Verse 3 was revised to make it better suited to the harvest in Hymns Ancient and Modern, 1868 Appendix: We thank Thee O Father, for all things bright and good, The seed time and the harvest, our life, our health, food; the hymn references Acts 14:17, James 1:17, Psalms 65:7 and Matthew 6:26


Boerhavia is a genus of over 100 species in the four o'clock flower family, Nyctaginaceae. Some species are others perennials. In habit they are herbaceous. Common names include hogweeds. "Spiderling" refers to the appearance of those species that bear inflorescences on numerous long, slender stems, interlocking in a manner suggestive of a spider or spider's web. The genus was named for Herman Boerhaave, a Dutch botanist, the genus name is misspelled "Boerhaavia". Boerhavia species are native to warm tropical regions. Boerhavia anisophylla Torr. – wineflower Boerhavia boissieri Boerhavia coccinea P. Mill. – scarlet spiderling Boerhavia coulteri S. Wats. - Coulter spiderling, Coulter's spiderling Boerhavia diffusa L. – red spiderling Boerhavia dominii Meikle & Hewson – tah-vine Boerhavia elegans Boerhavia erecta L. – erect spiderling Boerhavia gracillima Heimerl – slim-stalk spiderling, slimstalk spiderling Boerhavia herbstii Fosberg – alena Boerhavia intermedia M. E. Jones – five-wing spiderling, fivewing spiderling Boerhavia linearifolia Gray – narrowleaf spiderling Boerhavia mathisiana F.

B. Jones – Mathis' spiderling Boerhavia megaptera Standl. – annual spiderling, Tucson Mountain spiderling Boerhavia pterocarpa S. Wats. – Apache Pass spiderling Boerhavia purpurascens Gray – purple spiderling Boerhavia repens L. Boerhavia scandens L. – climbing spiderling, climbing wartclub, wishbone vine Boerhavia spicata Choisy – creeping spiderling Boerhavia triquetra S. Wats. – slender spiderling Boerhavia wrightii Gray – Wright's boerhavia Several species of Boerhavia are of importance as agricultural and horticultural weeds. Some are valued as forage for grazing livestock, some, such as Boerhavia erecta are of use as human food and folk medicine