Government House, Chisinau
The Government House in Chisinau is a government building in Chisinau located on Great National Assembly Square and Stefan cel Mare Avenue. It was designed by Semyon Fridlin in 1964 along Lenin Avenue, it used to be the headquarters of the Council of Ministers of the Moldovan SSR. The building is a 6-storey reinforced concrete structure, lined with white stone, made in the shape of a letter Russian letter П. Above the main entrance to the building is the inscription "The Government of the Republic of Moldova", as well as the Coat of Arms of Moldova and the Flag of Moldova. In 2010, the Monument to the Victims of the Soviet Occupation was opened right in front of the building
Maia Sandu is a Moldovan economist who served as Minister of Education of Moldova from 2012 until 2015. In 2016, she was a candidate in the Moldovan presidential election. Running on a pro-EU action platform, she was one of the two candidates that reached the runoff of the election. Maia Sandu was born on 24 May 1972 in Fălești, in Soviet Moldavia. From 1989 to 1994, she majored in management at the Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova. From 1995 to 1998, she majored in international relations at the Academy of Public Administration in Chișinău. In 2010, she graduated from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. Sandu speaks English in addition to her native Romanian. From 2010 to 2012, Sandu worked as Adviser to the Executive Director at the World Bank in Washington, D. C. From 2012 to 2015 she served as Minister of Education of Moldova, she was considered on 23 July 2015 by the Liberal Democratic Party as a nominee to be the next Prime Minister of Moldova, succeeding Natalia Gherman and Chiril Gaburici.
A day after being proposed by a renewed pro-European coalition, Sandu set the departure of the Head of the National Bank of Moldova, Dorin Drăguțanu and the State Prosecutor Corneliu Gurin as conditions for her acceptance of the office. Valeriu Streleț was nominated over Sandu by the President of Moldova. On December 23, 2015 she launched a platform „În /pas/ cu Maia Sandu” that became a political party called "Partidul Acțiune și Solidaritate". In 2016, Sandu was a candidate in the Moldovan presidential election. Running on a pro-EU action platform, she was one of the two candidates that reached the runoff of the election. According to some polls from 2019, Sandu ranks among the most trusted three politicians in Moldova. Other polls, place her lower, in the 6th place. Sandu declared about former leader of Romania Ion Antonescu in 2018 that he was "a historical figure about whom we may tell both good and bad things", her statements were toughly criticized by the Jewish Community of Moldova, who issued an open letter stating: "The lack of sanctions for Holocaust denial and glorification of fascism in the Moldovan legislation allows some opinion leaders and political leaders to not be held accountable for such acts, lets them create their public image by distorting and revising historical facts and fueling inter-ethnic and inter-religious discrimination and hate".
In 2018, information surfaced in the Moldovan press according to which the Open Dialog Foundation covered the travel expenses of Sandu and PPDA leader Andrei Năstase when they attended a conference on human rights in Moldova that took place in Brussels. Shortly after, the parliamentary investigation committee examined the alleged meddling in Moldovan internal affairs of the Open Dialog Foundation and its leader, Lyudmyla Kozlovska, concluded: "PAS and PPDA and their leaders have benefited from illegal funds from the Open Dialog Foundation and did not report this financing accordingly". While serving as Minister of Education, Maia Sandu was accused of paying an exaggerated sum of money for 1,200 security cameras made in China for the baccalaureate exams. A charge has been issued against her, but was dropped; the former prosecutor, Ivan Diacov, stated that Maia Sandu "postponed the tender three times, so that the tender would be won by the right bidder. I take responsibility for that. I closed this case".
Maia Sandu on Facebook În /pas/ cu Maia Sandu
Head of government
Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country; the authority of a head of government, such as a president, chancellor, or prime minister and the relationship between that position and other state institutions, such as the relation between the head of state and of the legislature, varies among sovereign states, depending on the particular system of the government, chosen, won, or evolved over time. In parliamentary systems, including constitutional monarchies, the head of government is the de facto political leader of the government, is answerable to one chamber or the entire legislature. Although there is a formal reporting relationship to a head of state, the latter acts as a figurehead who may take the role of chief executive on limited occasions, either when receiving constitutional advice from the head of government or under specific provisions in a constitution.
In presidential republics or in absolute monarchies, the head of state is usually the head of government. The relationship between that leader and the government, can vary ranging from separation of powers to autocracy, according to the constitution of the particular state. In semi-presidential systems, the head of government may answer to both the head of state and the legislature, with the specifics provided by each country's constitution. A modern example is the present French government, which originated as the French Fifth Republic in 1958. In France, the president, the head of state, appoints the prime minister, the head of government. However, the president must choose someone who can act as an executive, but who enjoys the support of the France's legislature, the National Assembly, in order to be able to pass legislation. In some cases, the head of state may represent one political party but the majority in the National Assembly is of a different party. Given that the majority party has greater control over state funding and primary legislation, the president is in effect forced to choose a prime minister from the opposition party in order to ensure an effective, functioning legislature.
In this case, known as cohabitation, the prime minister, along with the cabinet, controls domestic policy, with the president's influence restricted to foreign affairs. In directorial systems, the executive responsibilities of the head of government are spread among a group of people. A prominent example is the Swiss Federal Council, where each member of the council heads a department and votes on proposals relating to all departments. A common title for many heads of government is prime minister; this is used as a formal title in many states, but informally a generic term to describe whichever office is considered the principal minister under an otherwise styled head of state, as minister — Latin for servants or subordinates — is a common title for members of a government. Formally the head of state can be the head of government as well but otherwise has formal precedence over the Head of Government and other ministers, whether he is their actual political superior or rather theoretical or ceremonial in character.
Various constitutions use different titles, the same title can have various multiple meanings, depending on the constitutional order and political system of the state in question. In addition to prime minister, titles used for the democratic model, where there is an elected legislative body checking the Head of government, include the following; some of these titles relate to governments below the national level. Chancellor Chairman of the Executive Council Chief Minister Chief Executive First Minister Minister-President Premier President of the Council of Ministers President of the Council of State President of the Executive Council President of the Government Prime Minister State Counsellor State President Albanian: Kryeministër Bengali: For the Prime Minister of Bangladesh Pradan Mantri.
Andrian Candu is a Moldovan politician, member of the Moldovan Parliament since December 2014. Since 23 January 2015 he serves as the Speaker of the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova. Before that, Candu was a Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Economy of the Republic of Moldova since 3 July 2014, served as Deputy Speaker of the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova, he was member of the Parliament of Republic of Moldova between December 2010, July 2014. Andrian Candu was born in November 27, 1975. After Andrian Candu finished his secondary education at school No. 25 Lyceum "Onisifor Ghibu", Chişinău, in 1991 he was enrolled at the School of Informatics “Tiberiu Popoviciu” in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. In 1994 he obtained a Baccalaureate diploma. In the autumn, Candu was admitted to the Faculty of Law of the University "Babeș-Bolyai" from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. After four years of study, he was awarded a Bachelor diploma. During September 2007 and June 2008, he studied at the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, Institute for Austrian and International Tax Law, postgraduate International Tax Law Program, where he was awarded a Master's Diploma.
In 2001, Andrian Candu participated in the "Human Rights and Programme Implementation" course organized by the Institute of European Law in Birmingham, UK. In the same year, Candu obtained certificate of participation in the seminar "Public administration and individual through the European Convention of Human Rights" held in the UniDem Campus, Venice Commission in Trieste, Italy. A year at the University of Western Cape, he was attending the International Academy of Human Rights course, on Robben Island, Cape Town, South Africa. In 1998 he returns to Moldova, where for four years he was principal consultant within the parliamentary Commission for Foreign Policy of the Republic of Moldova. During that period, he began to teach international law at the Public Administration Academy under the President of the Republic of Moldova, he worked as a lecturer until 2004. In 2002 he became senior manager of PricewaterhouseCoopers Moldova, where he worked until 2010, he was responsible for managing a wide range of projects in the areas of taxation of individuals and businesses, expatriate tax consultancy, legal advice and other.
For a short time in 2010 he served as general manager of Prime Management company, where he was the leader of a team responsible for the management of businesses in different fields and industries including: financial – banking, real estate, media and services. At the end of the same year he was elected member of the Parliament of Republic of Moldova and member of the Parliamentary Committee Legal and Immunities. In May 2013 he became Vice-President of the Parliament of Republic of Moldova, a position he held until July 2014 when he was appointed by order of the President of Moldova Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Economy. Half a year on January 23, 2015 he was elected President of the Moldovan Parliament with the votes of 59 lawmakers. According to the last opinon polls carried out in 2019 related to the most popular politicians of the Republic of Moldova, Andrian Candu is placed by some polls on the 10th position among the politcians which are trusted by the Moldovans and by some polls on the 13th position.
In 2012, the National Political Council of the Democratic Party of Moldova elected Andrian Candu as vice-president of the party, a position he still holds. Candu was a member of the Moldovan International Law Association and CEO of the Moldovan Business People Association. Andrian Candu speaks fluent in Russian. During the period of his professional activities, Andrian Candu has prepared materials for publication and publications including: "The contract of sale – the difference between English and the Romanian law", "European Parliament and activity", "International Commercial Arbitration: the difference between Moldavian and Russian", "Commonwealth of Independent States, success or failure?", "Abuses of double taxation treaties", "Evolution of tax treaties – country report, Romania". In 2006, while he was at an event organized by PricewaterhouseCoopers in Budapest, Hungary, he met Zuzana Stastna, engaged at PwC office in Prague, Czech Republic. Only after half a year, Andrian Candu decided to invite the beautiful Czech to a dinner.
In an interview, Candu told that their relationship has evolved quickly, although their lives were always on luggage. "I lived in Austria, in Czech Republic, but in other countries where we went because of my studies. Decision "to be or not to be" came together over two years. Since I had to return home, called by obligations I had, I said: "Come with me." And she accepted without conditions. ", told Candu. Three years the young people got married in Chișinău. In 2009, in Andrian and Zuzana Candu family was born Daniel. In late March 2012, the family increased by another member – a girl, the parents called Vera, and in early 2017 on the world came the couple's third child, the second boy in the family, Adam. In April 2015, by a decree of the former President of Moldova Nicolae Timofti, Andrian Candu was awarded the Order of Honor; the politician has received this state award for appreciation of the contribution to reforms based on European values and standards, for outstanding achievements in ensuring the negotiation and ratification of the Association Agreement Moldova – European Union, for contribution to visa liberalization with EU Member States and Schengen.
Adrian Candu Blog Adrian Candu's Biography on the site of the Parliament of Moldova
Style (manner of address)
A style of office, honorific or manner/form of address, is an official or recognized form of address, may be used in conjunction with a title. A style, by tradition or law, precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or political office, is sometimes used to refer to the office itself. An honorific can be awarded to an individual in a personal capacity; such styles are associated with monarchies, where they may be used by a wife of an office holder or of a prince of the blood, for the duration of their marriage. They are almost universally used for presidents in republics and in many countries for members of legislative bodies, higher-ranking judges and senior constitutional office holders. Leading religious figures have styles. Traditional forms of address at German-speaking universities: His/Her Magnificence – rector of a university His/Her Notability – dean of a facultyTraditional forms of address at Dutch-speaking universities: His/Her Great Honour – rector magnificus of a university Highly Learned Sir/Madam – professor or dean of a faculty Well Very Learned Sir/Madam – a doctor Well Learned Sir/Madam – a doctorandus Well Strictly Sir/Madam – a master in laws or a university engineer Traditional forms of address at Italian-speaking universities: Magnificent Rector – rector of a university Amplified Headmaster – dean of a faculty Illustrious/Enlightened Professor – a full professor His Most Reverend Excellency – The Apostolic Nuncio, because his rank is equal to that of an ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary, he is a higher prelate.
His/Her Excellency – most Ambassadors, High Commissioners and Permanent Representatives to International Organizations. The Honorable – US Ambassadors. US Ambassadors are addressed as "Your Excellency" by non-US citizens outside the United States. His/Her Honour Judge X – Circuit judges in England and Wales. My Lord/Your Honour is used to address Judiciary representatives in India; the Honourable Mr./Ms. Justice X – Judges of the High Court of Justice of England and Wales; the Right Honourable Lord/Lady Justice X – Judge of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales. The Lord/Lady/Baroness X – Judges in the High Court of Justiciary and the Court of Session in Scotland, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom; the Honorable – Judges and Justices in the United States. Oral address Your Excellency – Judges of the International Court of Justice. Oral address Your Worship – Justices of the Peace in the United Kingdom by solicitors. Oral address Your Worship – All courts in Australia. Oral address Your Honour – All courts in Australia.
Sire – Reigning Kings in the United Kingdom and in Belgium. It has been used in France, Germany, Portugal and Spain. His/Her Imperial Majesty, – Emperors and Empresses. For example, HIM the Shah of Iran. In modern times, the Emperor of Japan more uses the simpler style of "Majesty". His/Her Imperial and Royal Majesty – Until 1918, the rulers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, who were Emperors/Empresses of Austria while Kings/Queens of Hungary, the German Emperors/Empresses, who were Kings/Queens of Prussia. His/Her Apostolic Majesty – the King of Hungary styled Imperial Majesty or Imperial and Royal Majesty as Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary sometimes Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty. His/Her Britannic Majesty – the British monarch. His/Her Most Gracious Majesty – an elaborate version of His/Her Majesty in the United Kingdom, only used in the most formal of occasions. His/Her Most Excellent Majesty – another elaborate vetsion of His/Her Majesty in the United Kingdom used in Acts of Parliament.
His/Her Catholic Majesty – the King of Spain. His/Her Most Christian Majesty – the King of France until 1790 and from 1815 to 1830. His/Her Faithful Majesty – the King of Portugal until deposed in 1910. His/Her Majesty – kings and some sultans. For example, HM Queen Elizabeth II, HM King Goodwill Zwelithini or HM King Willem-Alexander. His/Her Imperial Highness – members of an imperial house. Used by the Imperial House of Japan. His/Her Imperial and Royal Highness (ab
Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova
The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova is a communist party in Moldova led by Vladimir Voronin. It is the only communist party to have held a majority in government in the post-Soviet states; the PCRM is part of the Party of the European Left. The PCRM was registered as a political party in 1994; the PCRM was part of the Popular Patriotic Forces Front at the time of the 1996 presidential election, in which Voronin stood as the coalition's candidate and won 10.3% of the vote, placing third. The party supported Petru Lucinschi in the second round of the election, following Lucinschi's victory the PCRM was given two positions in the government. In the March 1998 parliamentary election, the PCRM won 30.1% of the vote and 40 seats, becoming the largest party in parliament. Despite its strong showing, the PCRM was left in opposition due to the formation of a center-right coalition government, Alliance for Democracy and Reforms. Although Lucinschi nominated Voronin as Prime Minister of Moldova in late 1999, the nomination was unsuccessful because Voronin did not have enough support in parliament.
The PCRM received 49.9% of the vote in the February 2001 parliamentary election, winning 71 out of the 101 seats in parliament. With a PCRM parliamentary majority, Voronin was elected as President by parliament in April 2001; the Constitutional Court ruled that the President could lead a political party, Voronin was re-elected as party leader. As the ruling political party in Moldova, it won the Moldovan parliamentary election, 2005, provided the President, Vladimir Voronin, the Prime Minister, Zinaida Greceanîi, the Speaker of the Moldovan Parliament, Marian Lupu. Under Voronin, it governed in a multi-party fashion, it favors European integration and eventual EU membership. After April 2009 election and the civil unrest, the climate in Moldova became polarized; the parliament failed to elect a new president. For this reason, the parliament was dissolved and snap elections were held. At the July 29 polls the Communist Party received 44.7% of the vote. That gave the former ruling party 48 MPs, the remaining 53 seats in the 101-member chamber went to four opposition parties, Alliance For European Integration.
For the first time since 2001, communists went into opposition. After the Parliament failed to elect a new President of the Republic, snap elections were called. In the election, PCRM obtained 39.34% of votes, winning 42 seats, going again into opposition to the Alliance of European Integration. In 2011 Igor Dodon and Zinaida Greceanîi left the party and joined the Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova. Parliamentary election of 2014 saw a great defeat for PCRM, which received only 17.48% of votes, losing more than half of its electors to PSRM and electing 21 seats. Following the elections, the party agreed to give supply to the new Gaburici Cabinet; the Agreement collapsed in June 2015 and PCRM went back into opposition. In 2016, the party suffered a large split as 14 MPS left PCRM faction and established the Social Democratic Platform for Moldova, joining the majority of Filip Cabinet. On 10 March 2017, all 14 MPs joined the Democratic Party of Moldova. Since the party declined in polls, losing most of its votes to PSRM and PDM.
In the 2019 parliamentary election PCRM collapsed, receiving only 3,75% of votes and losing all representation in the Parliament. According to its Statute adopted in 2008, article 1, the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova is a "lawful successor and heir of the Communist Party of Moldavia both in terms of ideas and traditions". While espousing a Leninist communist doctrine, there is debate over their policies; the Economist considers it a centre-right party, communist only in name, whereas Romanian political scientist Vladimir Tismăneanu argues that the party is communist in the classical sense, as it has not changed much since the fall of the Soviet Union. Ion Marandici, a Moldovan political scientist considers that the success story of the Moldovan Communists is due to the Communists' capacity to attract the votes of the ethnic minorities and the Romanian-speakers identifying as Moldovans, by proposing a Moldovenist nation and state-project; the decline of the Communists followed after Marian Lupu, a key figure in Moldovan politics, left the Communists Party and joined the Democratic Party, thus bringing with him the Moldovan supporters of the Communists.
The party is opposed to any unification of Romania and Moldova. For the current period of governance, the PCRM has outlined the following goals for the country: A new quality of life. Official website