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Prime Minister of New Zealand

The Prime Minister of New Zealand is the head of government of New Zealand. The incumbent Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern, leader of the New Zealand Labour Party, took office on 26 October 2017; the Prime Minister ranks as the most senior government minister. She or he is responsible for chairing meetings of Cabinet, she or he has ministerial responsibility for the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. The office exists by a long-established convention, which originated in New Zealand's former colonial power, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the convention stipulates that the governor-general must select as prime minister the person most to command the support, or confidence, of the House of Representatives. This individual is the parliamentary leader of the political party that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber; the prime minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their actions to the governor-general, to the House of Representatives, to their political party, to the national electorate.

The head of government was titled "colonial secretary" or "first minister". This was changed in 1869 to "premier"; that title remained in use for more than 30 years, until Richard Seddon informally changed it to "prime minister" in 1901 during his tenure in the office. Following the declaration of New Zealand as a Dominion in 1907, the title of Prime Minister has been used in English. In Māori, the title pirimia, meaning "premier", continues to be used. New Zealand prime ministers are styled as "The Right Honourable", a privilege; the governor-general appoints a prime minister, like other ministerial positions, on behalf of the monarch. By the conventions of responsible government, the governor-general will call to form a government the individual most to receive the support, or confidence, of a majority of the elected members of Parliament. In making this appointment, convention requires the governor-general to act on the outcome of the electoral process and subsequent discussions between political parties by which the person who will lead the government as prime minister is identified.

In practice, the position falls to the parliamentary leader of the largest political party among those forming the government. The prime minister may lead a coalition government and/or a minority government dependent on support from smaller parties during confidence-and-supply votes. Once appointed and sworn in by the governor-general, the prime minister remains in the post until dismissal, resignation, or death in office; the prime minister, like other ministers, holds office "during the pleasure of the Governor-General", so theoretically, the governor-general can dismiss a prime minister at any time. The governor-general might exercise reserve power to dismiss a prime minister in circumstances pertaining to a non-confidence motion against the government in Parliament; the office is not defined by codified laws, but by unwritten customs known as constitutional conventions which developed in Britain and were replicated in New Zealand. These conventions are for the most part founded on the underlying principle that the prime minister and fellow ministers must not lose the confidence of the democratically elected component of parliament, the House of Representatives.

The prime minister is leader of the Cabinet, takes a coordinating role. The Cabinet Manual provides an outline of the prime minister's responsibilities. By constitutional convention, the prime minister holds formal power to advise the sovereign; this means that as long as the prime minister has the confidence of parliament, they alone may advise the monarch on: Appointment or recall of the governor-general. Amendments to the letters patent constituting the office of governor-general, which most occurred in 2006; the conferment of New Zealand honours. As head of government, the prime minister alone has the right to advise the governor-general to: Appoint, dismiss, or accept the resignation of ministers. Call general elections by advising the governor-general to dissolve parliament; the governor-general may reject the advice to dissolve parliament if the prime minister has lost a vote of confidence, but so far none have done so. The prime minister is regarded by convention as "first among equals".

They do hold the most senior post in government, but are required to adhere to any decisions taken by Cabinet, as per the convention of collective ministerial responsibility. The actual ability of a prime minister to give direct orders is limited; the ability to appoint and dismiss ministers, allocate portfolios. The influence a prime minister is to have as leader of the dominant party; these powers may give more direct control over subordinates than is attached to the prime minister's role. The power gained from being central to most significant decision-making, from being able to comment on and criticise any decisions taken by other ministers. Since the introduction of the MMP electoral system, there has been an increased need for the

Rocky Balboa: The Best of Rocky

Rocky Balboa: The Best of Rocky is a compilation album of music and short dialogue clips from all six Rocky films, named after the sixth installment, Rocky Balboa. It was released on December 26, 2006 by Capitol Records, the same day as the 30th anniversary re-release of the original Rocky soundtrack. Whether the 2006 film Rocky Balboa has an official soundtrack album is subject to some debate. On December 26, 2006, Capitol Records released Rocky Balboa: The Best of Rocky which contains a logo and cover art, identical to the film's theatrical poster. Notable though is that only three of the album's nineteen total tracks are from the Rocky Balboa film: Two dialogue tracks and the Three 6 Mafia song "It's a Fight"; this has led some to categorize the CD as a compilation while others suggest that it is a soundtrack and that the use of past material reflects the film's extensive use of flashbacks. Relevant to this debate is the absence of any compositions by Rocky IV composer Vince DiCola, except for the song "Heart's on Fire", co-written by DiCola, Ed Fruge and Joe Esposito.

DiCola is the only person other than Bill Conti to act as composer on a Rocky film and his work was used extensively on the 1991 compilation CD The Rocky Story: Songs from the Rocky Movies. The missing DiCola tracks are the only tracks on the 1991 CD that are not present on the new CD which indicates an effort to use only Rocky Balboa composer Conti's tracks. All tracks by Bill Conti. "Gonna Fly Now" – 2:48 "Eye of the Tiger" by Survivor – 3:53 "Going the Distance" – 2:40 "Living in America" by James Brown – 4:45 "Redemption" – 2:41 "Fanfare for Rocky" – 2:34 "Burning Heart" by Survivor – 3:52 "Conquest" – 4:43 "Adrian" – 1:39 "No Easy Way Out" by Robert Tepper – 4:23 "Rocky's Reward" – 2:05 "Alone in the Ring" – 1:10 "Heart's on Fire" by John Cafferty – 4:13 "Can't Stop the Fire" – 3:20 "Mickey" – 4:38 "Overture" – 8:42 "It's a Fight" by Three 6 Mafia – 3:07 "Gonna Fly Now" – 3:07

Cooperativity

Cooperativity is a phenomenon displayed by systems involving identical or near-identical elements, which act dependently of each other, relative to a hypothetical standard non-interacting system in which the individual elements are acting independently. One manifestation of this is enzymes or receptors that have multiple binding sites where the affinity of the binding sites for a ligand is increased, positive cooperativity, or decreased, negative cooperativity, upon the binding of a ligand to a binding site. For example, when an oxygen atom binds to one of hemoglobin's four binding sites, the affinity to oxygen of the three remaining available binding sites increases; this is referred to as cooperative binding. We see cooperativity in large chain molecules made of many identical subunits, when such molecules undergo phase transitions such as melting, unfolding or unwinding; this is referred to as subunit cooperativity. However, the definition of cooperativity based on apparent increase or decrease in affinity to successive ligand binding steps is problematic, as the concept of "energy" must always be defined relative to a standard state.

When we say that the affinity is increased upon binding of one ligand, it is empirically unclear what we mean since a non-cooperative binding curve is required to rigorously define binding energy and hence affinity. A much more general and useful definition of positive cooperativity is: A process involving multiple identical incremental steps, in which intermediate states are statistically underrepresented relative to a hypothetical standard system where the steps occur independently of each other. A definition of negative cooperativity would be a process involving multiple identical incremental steps, in which the intermediate states are overrepresented relative to a hypothetical standard state in which individual steps occur independently; these latter definitions for positive and negative cooperativity encompass all processes which we call "cooperative", including conformational transitions in large molecules and psychological phenomena of large numbers of people. When a substrate binds to one enzymatic subunit, the rest of the subunits are stimulated and become active.

Ligands can either have negative cooperativity, or non-cooperativity. An example of positive cooperativity is the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin. One oxygen molecule can bind to the ferrous iron of a heme molecule in each of the four chains of a hemoglobin molecule. Deoxy-hemoglobin has a low affinity for oxygen, but when one molecule binds to a single heme, the oxygen affinity increases, allowing the second molecule to bind more and the third and fourth more easily; the oxygen affinity of 3-oxy-hemoglobin is ~300 times greater than that of deoxy-hemoglobin. This behavior leads the affinity curve of hemoglobin to be sigmoidal, rather than hyperbolic as with the monomeric myoglobin. By the same process, the ability for hemoglobin to lose oxygen increases as fewer oxygen molecules are bound. See Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. Negative cooperativity means. An example of this occurring is the relationship between glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and the enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

Homotropic cooperativity refers to the fact that the molecule causing the cooperativity is the one that will be affected by it. Heterotropic cooperativity is. Homotropic or heterotropic cooperativity could be of both positives as well as negative types depend upon whether it support or oppose further binding of the ligand molecules to the enzymes. Cooperativity is not only a phenomenon of ligand binding, but applies anytime energetic interactions make it easier or more difficult for something to happen involving multiple units as opposed to with single units.. For example, unwinding of DNA involves cooperativity: Portions of DNA must unwind in order for DNA to carry out replication and recombination. Positive cooperativity among adjacent DNA nucleotides makes it easier to unwind a whole group of adjacent nucleotides than it is to unwind the same number of nucleotides spread out along the DNA chain; the cooperative unit size is the number of adjacent bases that tend to unwind as a single unit due to the effects of positive cooperativity.

This phenomenon applies to other types of chain molecules as well, such as the folding and unfolding of proteins and in the "melting" of phospholipid chains that make up the membranes of cells. Subunit cooperativity is measured on the relative scale known as Hill's Constant. A simple and used model for molecular interactions is the Hill equation, which provides a way to quantify cooperative binding by describing the fraction of saturated ligand binding sites as a function of the ligand concentration; the Hill coefficient is a measure of ultrasensitivity. From an operational point of view the Hill coefficient can be calculated as: n H = log ⁡ log ⁡ ( EC 90