Prime Minister of Spain

The prime minister of Spain the president of the Government of Spain, is the head of the government of Spain. The office was established in its current form by the Constitution of 1978 and originated in 1823 as a chairmanship of the extant Council of Ministers. Upon a vacancy, the Spanish monarch nominates a presidency candidate for a vote of confidence by the Congress of Deputies of Spain, the lower house of the Cortes Generales; the process is a parliamentarian investiture by which the head of government is indirectly elected by the elected Congress of Deputies. In practice, the prime minister is always the leader of the largest party in the Congress. Since current constitutional practice in Spain calls for the king to act on the advice of his ministers, the prime minister is the country's de facto chief executive. Pedro Sánchez of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party has been Prime Minister since 2 June 2018, after a successful motion of no confidence against former prime minister Mariano Rajoy.

The Sánchez government technically ceased on 29 April 2019 after the 2019 Spanish general election, but was acting afterwards. However, following the November 2019 general election, Sánchez earned a second mandate as Prime Minister after receiving a plurality of votes in the second round vote of his investiture at the Congress of Deputies on January 7, 2020 He resumed being the official prime minister after he was sworn in by King Felipe on January 8, 2020, his new government was sworn in by King Felipe on January 13, 2020. The Spanish head of government has, since 1938, been known in Spanish as the Presidente del Gobierno – "President of the Government", but the term'president' is far older. Spain was not unique in this regard: it was one of several European parliamentary systems including France and Ireland that styled the head of government as'presidents' of the government rather than the Westminster term of'prime minister'; this system of multiple distinct offices all labelled'president' causes confusion among English-speakers: both President George W. Bush and his brother, Florida Governor Jeb Bush, referred to José María Aznar as "president" on separate occasions, Donald Trump referred to Mariano Rajoy both as "President" and "Mr. President" during Rajoy's 2017 White House visit.

While this term of address was not incorrect, it could be culturally misleading to or for English-speakers, so that "prime minister" is used as an inexact but culturally equivalent term to ensure clarity. The custom to name the head of government as "president" dates back to the reign of Isabella II to 1834 and the regency of Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies when, styled after the head of government of the French July Monarchy, the official title was the Presidente del Consejo de Ministros; this remained until 1939. Before 1834 the figure was known as Secretario de Estado, a denomination used today for junior ministers. On 19 November 1823, after a brief liberal democratic period called the Liberal Triennium between 1820 and 1823, King Ferdinand VII re-established the absolute monarchy and created the Council of Ministers that continues to exist today; this Council was chaired by the Secretary of State. The Spanish Royal Statute of 1834 replaced the chair with a President of the Council of Ministers invested with executive powers.

During the nineteenth century, the position changed names frequently. After the Glorious Revolution of 1868, it was renamed President of the Provisional Revolutionary Joint and President of the Provisional Government. In 1869, the office resumed the name of President of the Council of Ministers. Following the abdication of King Amadeus I, during the First Republic the office was the President of the Executive Power and was head of state. In 1874, the office name reverted to President of the Council of Ministers. Since its inception, the Prime Minister has been dismissed by the will of the monarch. Successive constitutions have confirmed this royal prerogative of the monarch in the Constitution of 1837, article 46 of the Constitution of 1845, the Constitution of 1869, the Constitution of 1876. With the fall of the republic and the restoration of the Bourbon Dynasty on King Alfonso XII, the office maintained its original name until the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, when it was renamed to President of the Military Directory.

In 1925, the original name was restored again. During the Second Republic the title was the same but when the Civil War started, the head of government among the Nationalists was called Chief of the Government of the State and since January 1938 the office acquired the current name, President of the Government, but between that date and 1973 the office was held by Francisco Franco as dictator of Spain; the Republican Constitution of 1931 provided for the Prime Minister and the rest of the government to be appointed and dismissed by the President of the Republic but they were responsible before the Parliament and the Parliament could vote to dismiss the Prime Minister or a minister against the will of the President of the Republic. In 1973, Franco separated the Head of the State from the Head of the Government and that division still exists today, with the Prime Minister democratically elected by a Parliament, itself elected by universal suffrage and equal. Once a general election has been announced by the king, political parties designate their c

Minuscule 247

Minuscule 247, ε 1192, is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 12th century, it has marginalia. The codex contains a complete text of the four Gospels on 223 parchment leaves; the text is written in one column per 26 lines per page. The text is divided according to the κεφαλαια. There is a division according to the Ammonian Sections, with references to the Eusebian Canons, it contains the tables of the κεφαλαια before each Gospel, lectionary markings at the margin and Menologion. The Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Hermann von Soden classified it to the textual family Kx. Aland placed it in Category V. According to the Claremont Profile Method it represents textual family Kx in Luke 1, Luke 10, Luke 20, it belongs to the cluster 1193. It contains remarkable readings; the manuscript was held at the Philotheou monastery at Athos peninsula. It was brought to Moscow, by the monk Arsenius, on the suggestion of the Patriarch Nikon, in the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov.

The manuscript was collated by C. F. Matthaei; the manuscript is housed at the State Historical Museum at Moscow. List of New Testament minuscules Biblical manuscript Textual criticism C. F. Matthaei, Novum Testamentum Graece et Latine. C. F. Matthaei, D. Pavli Epistolae ad Thessalonicenses et Ad Timotheum Graece et Latine, p. 255 Kurt Treu, Die Griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testaments in der UdSSR. Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 7 March 2011

Joshua Fisher (musician)

Joshua Fisher is a singer-songwriter from Lewisham in South London living in Norwich, England. His debut EP, "Atlas" was scheduled to be released on 25 October 2010 by independent London based label Polymorph Records. "Atlas" features four songs, which have been co-produced by Roger Pusey – former Producer of iconic recordings on The Smiths albums Hatful of Hollow and "Louder Than Bombs". Joshua cites Bright Eyes and The Waterboys among his influences. Joshua Fisher on FaceBook Joshua Fisher's Website Polymorph Records Joshua Fisher's BBC Music page