click links in text for more info

Primo Levi

Primo Michele Levi was an Italian Jewish chemist, Holocaust survivor and writer. He was the author of several books, collections of short stories and poems, his best-known works include If This Is a Man, his account of the year he spent as a prisoner in the Auschwitz concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland. Levi died in 1987 from injuries sustained in a fall from a third-story apartment landing, his death was ruled a suicide, but some have suggested that the fall was accidental. Levi was born in 1919 in Turin, into a liberal Jewish family, his father, worked for the manufacturing firm Ganz and spent much of his time working abroad in Hungary, where Ganz was based. Cesare was autodidact. Levi's mother, known to everyone as Rina, was well educated, having attended the Istituto Maria Letizia, she too was an avid reader, played the piano, spoke fluent French. The marriage between Rina and Cesare had been arranged by Rina's father. On their wedding day, Rina's father, Cesare Luzzati, gave Rina the apartment at Corso Re Umberto, where Primo Levi lived for his entire life.

In 1921 Anna Maria, Levi's sister, was born. In 1925 he entered the Felice Rignon primary school in Turin. A thin and delicate child, he considered himself ugly, his school record includes long periods of absence during which he was tutored at home, at first by Emilia Glauda and by Marisa Zini, daughter of philosopher Zino Zini. The children spent summers with their mother in the Waldensian valleys southwest of Turin, where Rina rented a farmhouse, his father remained in the city because of his dislike of the rural life, but because of his infidelities. In September 1930 Levi entered the Massimo d'Azeglio Royal Gymnasium a year ahead of normal entrance requirements. In class he was the shortest and the cleverest, as well as being the only Jew. For these reasons, he was bullied. In August 1932, following two years at the Talmud Torah school in Turin, he sang in the local synagogue for his Bar Mitzvah. In 1933, as was expected of all young Italian schoolboys, he joined the Avanguardisti movement for young Fascists.

He avoided rifle drill by joining the ski division, spent every Saturday during the season on the slopes above Turin. As a young boy Levi was plagued by illness chest infections, but he was keen to participate in physical activity. In his teens, Levi and a few friends would sneak into a disused sports stadium and conduct athletic competitions. In July 1934 at the age of 14, he sat the exams for the Liceo Classico D'Azeglio, a Lyceum specializing in the classics, was admitted that year; the school was noted for its well-known anti-Fascist teachers, among them the philosopher Norberto Bobbio, Cesare Pavese, who became one of Italy's best-known novelists. Levi continued to be bullied during his time at the Lyceum, although six other Jews were in his class. Upon reading Concerning the Nature of Things by Sir William Bragg, Levi decided that he wanted to be a chemist. In 1937, he was summoned before the War Ministry and accused of ignoring a draft notice from the Italian Royal Navy—one day before he was to write a final examination on Italy's participation in the Spanish Civil War, based on a quote from Thucydides: "We have the singular merit of being brave to the utmost degree."

Distracted and terrified by the draft accusation, he failed the exam—the first poor grade of his life—and was devastated. His father was able to keep him out of the Navy by enrolling him in the Fascist militia, he remained a member through his first year of university, until passage of the Italian Racial Laws of 1938 forced his expulsion. Levi recounted this series of events in the short story "Fra Diavolo on the Po", he retook and passed his final examinations, in October enrolled at the University of Turin to study chemistry. As one of 80 candidates, he spent three months taking lectures, in February, after passing his colloquio, he was selected as one of 20 to move on to the full-time chemistry curriculum. In the liberal period as well as in the first decade of the Fascist regime, Jews held many public positions, were prominent in literature and politics. In 1929 Mussolini signed an agreement with the Catholic Church, the Lateran Treaty, which established Catholicism as the State religion, allowed the Church to influence many sectors of education and public life, relegated other religions to the status of "tolerated cults".

In 1936 Italy's conquest of Ethiopia and the expansion of what the regime regarded as the Italian "colonial empire" brought the question of "race" to the forefront. In the context set by these events, the 1940 alliance with Hitler's Germany, the situation of the Jews of Italy changed radically. In July 1938 a group of prominent Italian scientists and intellectuals published the "Manifesto of Race," a mixture of racial and ideological antisemitic theories from ancient and modern sources; this treatise formed the basis for the Italian Racial Laws of October 1938. After its enactment Italian Jews lost their basic civil rights, positions in public offices, their assets, their books were prohibited: Jewish writers could no longer publish in magazines owned by Aryans. Jewish students who had begun their course of study were permitted to continue, but new Jewish students were barred

Trakiya district

Trakiya is the largest neighbourhood of Plovdiv as well as one of the six districts of the city located in its south-eastern parts. It has 61,920 inhabitants, its construction began in 1973, in 1976 it was inaugurated as a neighbourhoods and in 1983 it became a district. Trakiya is one of the largest area with blocks of flats in Bulgaria; the district has an area of 5,660 km² of which 0,193 km² are green spaces and 0,45 km² are included in the forest-park Lauta. Trakiya has a well-developed infrastructure, it has 48 km of 46 km pavements. There are 252 blocks of flats with 770 separate entrances; the district is subdivided into the following microdistricts: А-1 - bl. No. 200-229 А-2 - bl. No. 190-199, 330-339 А-3 - bl. No. 170-189 А-4 - bl. No. 140-159, 326-328 А-5 - bl. No. 120-139 А-6 - bl. No. 100-119 А-7 - bl. No. 80-96, 314-322 А-8 - bl. No. 60-79 А-9 - bl. No. 1-19, 44, 310 А-10 - bl. No. 20-39, 311-313 А-11 - bl. No. 40-56 А-12 - bl. No. 57-59, 230-264 А-13 - bl. No. 97-99А, 265-299 On 4 June 2007 the President Georgi Parvanov inaugurated a new monument to Khan Krum in the district.

The 13-metre high composition includes a six-metre pedestal of black granite and a bronze figure of the Khan standing upright on the saddle of his horse with a sword in his hand. It was made by the sculptor Nikolai Savov; the children from the district of Trakiya walled up a message to the next generation, to be opened on 26 July 2111. On that day 1300 years will have elapsed since Krum's great victory in the battle of the Varbitsa Pass over the Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus I, it was placed in a special urn made in the Ferrous-metal Factory between Asenovgrad. The Botanic garden and the Lauta park are situated in the district of Trakiya. There is a large sports-complex in the park which includes the football stadium of PFC Lokomotiv Plovdiv, karting track and sport halls. In 2006 was inaugurated Aqualand - a large water entertainment facility; the Agrarian University of Plovdiv is located in the north-western part of the district and to the south are situated railway station "Trakiya" and Trakiya Industrial Zone.

There are a number of large shops such as Detski Svyat, Mebelna Kushta. Many hypermarkets and trade centres were constructed in the past few years including Kaufland, Metro, Evropa, Yusk, Arcada. There are several more shopping centres and malls under construction; the district became a separate administrative division in 1983. In 1987 the local administration was reformed as "Tenth city counsel" and in 1995 it was again reformed as District of Trakiya; the first mayor of Trakiya was Lav Panayotov. Since it was governed by Todor Petkov, Danail Tarpomanov, Paun Ivanov, Petko Gurgurov, Kolyo Imenov, Veselin Chivchibashiev, Dr Alexandar Panov. From 2003 to 2007 the mayor was Slavcho Atanasov from IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement, mayor of Plovdiv, he was succeeded by Ganyo Minev nominated by a coalition GERB-IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement. Agrarian University - Plovdiv Chernorizets Hrabar High School Dimitar Matevski High School St Sofronii Vrachanski High School St Sedmochislenitsi High School Official web-site of Trakiya district

Learmonth (noble family)

Learmonth is the name of noble family of Scottish origin from Fife in Scotland. The name Leirmont was among Malcolm's III supporters described for the first time by Hector Boece in his "Scotorum historiae a prima gentis origine" printe in Paris in 1527: Ili primi fuere comites quorum nostri meminerunt anales. Multarum nova cognomia Scotorum familiis indita, Locart, Setoun, Laudir, Meldrun, Leirmaont, Straquhyn, Ratra, Cocburn, Menzees, Lesbei, Myrtoun multaque alia praediorum nomina, quibus viri fortes a rege donati in munerum concessere cognomina."" According to Boece, Leirmont came from England, among Knights that were sent by Edward the Confessor to support Malcolm in his war with Macbeth to regain his rightful place at King of Scotland. First mention in Fife, Scotland about year 1400 as an individual name Learmont, due to documents from Collection of Sir Robert Douglas of Glenbervie that Learmont was the Laird of Earlston; the Learmonths were an respectable Scottish noble family. By the sixteenth century the Learmonths had become a powerful clan in eastern Scotland in the region of Fife.

James Spens, the son of David Spens and Margaret Learmonth, James Spens made serious efforts to hire his own kinsmen, including the Learmonths. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries many Learmonths served abroad in Continental armies, including those of Sweden, Poland-Lithuania, Russia. In the mid-sixteenth century Michael Learmonth became one of the first Scots to attempt to recruit Scottish soldiers for Sweden, it is therefore no surprise to find several Learmonths serving as officers under James Spens’s command in the Swedish army. Among those officers was George Learmonth’s outstanding kinsman, Peter Learmonth, misidentified as the founder of the Lermontov family. According to Chester S. L. Dunning's fundamental story about the Russia's First Civil War in 1598 - 1613, Peter Learmonth entered Swedish service in 1603 as an ensign, he rose through the ranks in Colonel James Spens’s regiment. In 1610 Peter Learmonth served as a captain in the Swedish army, invited by Tsar Vasilii Shuiskii to enter Russia to oppose Polish military intervention.

At the battle of Klushino in June 1610 the large Swedish and Russian armies were decisively defeated by a small Polish army. After the battle, over 1500 foreign mercenary soldiers transferred their allegiance to the king of Poland-Lithuania, Sigismund III. In 1619 King Sigismund III rewarded the ‘noble’ and ‘brave’ Scot with a hereditary estate. In 1632 a new formation cavalry regiment was formed composed of 2000 Russian dvoriane and deti boiarskie under the command of a high-ranking foreign general.50 Among the officers chosen to train this new cavalry regiment was Lieutenant Iurii Lermont, promoted to the rank of captain and given the astronomically high salary of 100 rubles per month. Joining the same new formation cavalry regiment were two newly-arrived kinsmen of Iurii Lermont– John and Thomas Learmonth. Captain Iurii Lermont was given command of a company of 200 cavalrymen Russian provincial nobles and petty gentry, along with some foreigners who had converted to Russian Orthodox Christianity.

George-Yuri Andreevich Learmonth was a Scottish soldier in Russian service, paternal ancestor of the Lermontov's family. Grosjean, Alexia. A history of the name and families" By Tatiana Molchanova and Rex Learmonth

Shan (surname)

Shan is a Chinese surname. The origin of this surname is not clear. One explanation is. Another possible origin involves King Cheng of Zhou's youngest son's acquisition of the name when he was given what would become the Shan state when the enfeoffment system was enacted during the Zhou Dynasty; the Shan state existed for a few hundred years before it was annexed by a stronger neighbouring state. It was located in Henan province. Although the surname comes from the place name, the Shan family was a branch of the royal family of the Zhou Dynasty, its ancient origin determines its rareness and not many people have the Shan surname. According to one unverifiable estimate, about 150,000 people are of the surname. Shan could be used to refer to the rare surname; the rare character was unable to be rendered on a computer. People from Gaozhuang Village born after the system change and people who didn't want a hassle with technology were affected; the choice was controversial. Most of people of the Shan surname live in Shandong and Hebei.

However, some people bearing the Shan surname can be found in Taiwan and overseas Chinese communities throughout the world. Some ethnic peoples adopted "Shan" as their surname but its pronunciation is "Chan"; some Manchu and Hui people choose "Shan" as their family name. Majority of the Shan are Han Chinese and they can trace their origin to the Zhou Dynasty. Shan Xiongxin, a general of the Transition from Sui to Tang period. Shan Zhongsheng, who lived in the Yuan Dynasty, he is known for his filial piety. Pal Sinn, a Hong Kong singer and actor. Shan Tianfang, a pingshu performer. Sin Chung-kai, a Hong Kong politician. Sin Wai-chu, a Hong Kong film director. Shan Zhiqiang, former editor-in-chief of National Geographic in China. Paul Shan Kuo-hsi, a Taiwanese bishop. Shan Fuliang, a history professor at the Grand Valley State University and former President of the Chinese Historians in the United States. Shan Tinggui, a fictional character and one of the 108 heroes in the classical novel Water Margin.

The Shan family, a fictional family in the Star Wars Legends continuity Bastila Shan, a Jedi who appears in the Knights of the Old Republic video game duology Satele Shan, another Jedi and descendant of Bastila, appearing in the MMORPG Star Wars: The Old Republic

Prince Henry, Count of Bardi

Prince Henry of Bourbon-Parma, Count of Bardi was the youngest son and child of Charles III, Duke of Parma and his wife Princess Louise Marie Thérèse of France, the eldest daughter of Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry and Princess Caroline Ferdinande Louise of the Two Sicilies. Henry was thus a great-grandson of Charles X of France. Henry was a nephew of Henri, comte de Chambord, disputedly King of France and Navarre from 2 to 9 August 1830 and afterwards the Legitimist Pretender to the throne of France from 1844 to 1883. Henry married firstly to Princess Maria Luisa of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, youngest daughter of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies and his wife Maria Theresa of Austria, on 25 November 1873 in Cannes, France. Maria Luisa died three months at the age of 19; the couple had no issue. Henry married secondly to Infanta Adelgundes of Portugal, Duchess of Guimarães, fifth child and fourth daughter of Miguel of Portugal and his wife Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg on 15 October 1876 in Salzburg, Austria.

This union was without issue. Henry and Adelgundes were the owners of the palazzo Ca' Vendramin Calergi on the Grand Canal in Venice, they hosted the family of Richard Wagner at their palazzo beginning in September 1882, the famous German composer died there the following February. 12 February 1851 – 14 April 1905: His Royal Highness The Prince Henry, The Right Honourable The Count of Bardi

Frank Bornemann

Frank Bornemann is the German guitarist and vocalist for the German progressive rock band Eloy. He has been the only consistent member of the band since its formation in 1969, he is the founder of the Horus sound studios in Hanover, Germany where he worked until 2014. Frank Bornemann has been active as a musician since the early 1960s. In 1969, he founded the progressive rock band Eloy; as a discoverer and producer of the Guano Apes, he celebrated success as a record producer. In addition, Bornemann founded a music publisher house and the record label Artist Station and is active in the promotion of young artists. After 11 years break, at the request of many fans, Frank Bornemann published in 2009 again a new studio album with Eloy and toured again for concerts with the band. However, this represents a logistical challenge: all current members of the band, are busy and live scattered all over Germany. According to Bornemann it is therefore no longer the same band as before, as all members lived in or around Hanover and could meet several times a week to rehearse.

Bornemann himself lives alternately in France. In 1979, Frank Bornemann founded the Horus Sound Studio in Hanover; the studio is divided into three sections, Studio Enterprise 1, Record Place Studio 2 and the Livingroom Studio. The studio has two apartments. Artists including Die Happy, Revolverheld, Emil Bulls, Guano Apes, and... And You Will Know Us by the Trail of Dead albums were recorded in the studio. At the beginning of 2014, Bornemann retired from the business. Since the new co-owners of Horus have been the producers Mirko Hofmann and Arne Neurand, who by have many years of experience in this studio. Managing director and a partner remains Henning Rümenapp, a guitarist in Guano Apes. Matthias Blazek: The Lower Saxony Band Compendium 1963-2003 - Facts and Figures of 100 Rock Groups from Lower Saxony. Celle, 2006, pp. 59–60, ISBN 978-3-00-018947-0 Official website Official Website of the Horus-Sound-Studios