The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any
The Ericales are a large and diverse order of dicotyledons, for example, persimmon, Brazil nut, azalea. The order includes trees, bushes and herbaceous plants. Together with ordinary autophytic plants, the Ericales include chlorophyll-deficient mycoheterotrophic plants and carnivorous plants. Many species have five petals grown together. Fusion of the petals as a trait was traditionally used to place the order in the subclass Sympetalae. Mycorrhiza is an interesting property associated with the Ericales. Indeed, symbiosis with root fungi is quite common among the order representatives, three kinds of it can be found among Ericales. In addition, some families among the order are notable for their exceptional ability to accumulate aluminum. Ericales are a cosmopolitan order. Areas of distribution of families vary - while some are restricted to tropics, others exist in Arctic or temperate regions; the entire order contains over 8,000 species, of which the Ericaceae account for 2,000-4,000 species. The most commercially used plant in the order is tea from the Theaceae family.
The order includes some edible fruits, including kiwifruit, blueberry, cranberry, Brazil nut, Mamey sapote. The order includes shea, the major dietary lipid source for millions of sub-Saharan Africans. Many Ericales species are cultivated for their showy flowers: well-known examples are azalea, camellia, polyanthus, cyclamen and busy Lizzie; these families are recognized in the APG III system as members of the Ericales: Family Actinidiaceae Family Balsaminaceae Family Clethraceae Family Cyrillaceae Family Diapensiaceae Family Ebenaceae Family Ericaceae Family Fouquieriaceae Family Lecythidaceae Family Marcgraviaceae Family Mitrastemonaceae Family Pentaphylacaceae Family Polemoniaceae Family Primulaceae Family Roridulaceae Family Sapotaceae Family Sarraceniaceae Family Sladeniaceae Family Styracaceae Family Symplocaceae Family Tetrameristaceae Family Theaceae These families are not recognized in the APG III system but have been in common use in the recent past: Family Myrsinaceae → Primulaceae Family Pellicieraceae → Tetrameristaceae Family Maesaceae → Primulaceae Family Ternstroemiaceae → Pentaphylacaceae Family Theophrastaceae → PrimulaceaeThese make up a basal group of asterids.
Under the Cronquist system, the Ericales included a smaller group of plants, which were placed among the Dilleniidae: Family Ericaceae Family Cyrillaceae Family Clethraceae Family Grubbiaceae Family Empetraceae Family Epacridaceae Family Pyrolaceae Family Monotropaceae Paradinandra du Mortier, B. C. J.. Analyse des Familles de Plantes: avec l'indication des principaux genres qui s'y rattachent. 28. Tournay: Imprimerie de J. Casterman. Jansen, S.. "The Distribution and Phylogeny of Aluminium Accumulating Plants in the Ericales". Plant Biology. 6: 498–505. Doi:10.1055/s-2004-820980. PMID 15248133. Judd, W. S.. S.. A.. F.. J.. "Ericales". Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Sinauer Associates. Pp. 425–436. ISBN 978-0-87893-403-4. Smets, E.. "Ericales". Nature Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Nature Publishing Group. Arne A. Anderberg. "Maesaceae, a New Primuloid Family in the Order Ericales s.l.". Taxon. 49: 183–187. Doi:10.2307/1223834. JSTOR 1223834
One of the prime systems of plant taxonomy, the Engler system was devised by Adolf Engler, is featured in two major taxonomic texts he authored or coauthored. His influence is reflected in the use of the terms "Engler School" and "Engler Era". Engler's starting point was that of Eichler, the first to use phylogenetic principles, although Engler himself did not think that his was, his modified Eichler schema first appeared in 1886 in his Guide to Breslau Botanic Garden and was expanded in his Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien in 1892. This reflected the new post-Darwinian perspective. Engler's Syllabus first appeared in 1892 with the title Syllabus der Vorlesungen über specielle und medicinisch-pharmaceutische Botanik. Many subsequent editions have appeared since, it was continued after Engler's death in 1930; the most recent edition was the 13th in 2009. The other major work was Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien written with Karl Anton Prantl in 23 volumes. An incomplete second edition was issued in 28 parts.
Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien consisted of a complete revision of plant families down to generic level and even further. Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien is still considered one of the few true World Floras. There was the incomplete Das Pflanzenreich, a multi-authored work which attempted to provide a modern version of Linnaeus' Species Plantarum; the Engler system became the most used system in the world. References to the Engler system may imply an edition of the Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien or Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien; the different approaches between the two works and the different editions has resulted in inconsistencies in the descriptions of the system. A number of references to the Engler system refer to revisions undertaken by Melchior and colleagues, the 12th edition of the Syllabus. Many of the world's herbaria have been organised on the Engler system in North America and in Europe other than Britain. Plants were considered to form a number of divisions, the number of which continually changed but was four and in 1919 was thirteen.
Many of these referred to lower life forms such as bacteria and algae that would not be considered as plants today. Higher plants were considered in two divisions, Embryophyta Asiphonogama and Embryophyta Siphonogama, but were subdivided. Embryophyta Siphonogama replaced the older term Phanerogamae, the classes were further divided into groups of families, called orders. Engler followed Eichler's phylogeny, placing the monocotyledons before the dicotyledons, within the latter the Archichlamydeae before the Metachlamydeae. While the groupings were based on those of Bentham and Hooker, the ordering was much based on the concept of the primitive plant and those that were derived from these. Synopsis Division Mycetozoa Division Thallophyta Subdivision Schizophyta Subdivision Algae Class Bacilleriaceae Class Chlorophyceae Class Phaeophyceae Class Rhodophyceae Subdivision Fungi Class Phycomycetes Class Ustilagineae Class Ascomycetes Subdivision Characeae Division Zoidogamae Subdivision Bryophyta Class Hepaticae Class Musci frondosi Subdivision Pteridophyta Class Filicinae p. 11 Class Equisetinae Class Lycopodinae Division Siphonogamae Subdivision Gymnospermae Class Cycadinae Class Coniferae Class Gnetales Subdivision Angiospermae Class Monocotyledoneae p. 18 Class Dicotyledoneae Subclass Archichlamydeae p. 30 Subclass Sympetalae p. 57 Subdivision Bryophyta Class Hepaticae Class Musci frondosi Subdivision Pteridophyta Class Filicinae Order Filices p. 11 Order Hydropterides p. 13 Class Equisetinae Class Lycopodinae Class Cycadinae Class Coniferae Class Gnetales Class Monocotyledoneae p. 18 Order Pandanales p. 18 Order Helobiae p. 18 Order Glumiflorae p. 18 Family Gramineae Family Cyperaceae p. 21 Order Principes p. 21 Order Synanthae p. 22 Order Spathiflorae p. 22 Order Farinosae p. 23 Order Liliiflorae p. 23 Family Juncaceae p. 23 Family Liliaceae p. 23 Subfamily Melanthioideae p. 24 Subfamily Herrerioideae Subfamily Asphodeloideae Subfamily Allioideae p. 25 Subfamily Liliodeae p. 25 Subfamily Dracaenoideae Subfamily Asparagoideae p. 26 Subfamily Ophiopogonoideae Subfamily Luzuriagoideae Subfamily Smilacoideae p. 26 Family Haemodoraceae Family Amaryllidaceae p. 26 Subfamily Amaryllidoideae p. 26 Subfamily Agavoideae p. 26 Subfamily Hypoxidoideae Family Velloziaceae p. 27 Family Taccaceae Family Dioscoreaceae Family Iridaceae p. 27 Subfamily Crocoideae Subfamily Iridoideae Subfamily Ixioideae Order Scitamineae p. 28 Order Microspermae Subclass Archichlamydeae p. 30 Subclass Sympetalae p. 57 Synopsis of first edition Myxothallophyta 1897 Euthallophyta Embryophyta Zoidiogama 1909 Embryophyta Siphonogama 1889 Synopsis of first edition Myxothallophyta Euthallophyta Embryophyta Zoidiogama Embryophyta Siphonogama Gymnospermae Angiospermae Engler & Prantl system Bhandary, J. Engler & Prantl system of classification.
2013 Slide show George H. M. Lawrence TAXONOMY OF VASCULAR PLANTS: Part One 03. History of Classific
The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants. It was developed by Arthur Cronquist in a series of monographs and texts, including The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants and An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes and Liliopsida. Within these classes, related orders are grouped into subclasses. While the scheme was used, in either the original form or in adapted versions, many botanists now use the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants, first developed in 1998; the system as laid out in Cronquist's An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants counts 64 orders and 321 families in class Magnoliopsida and 19 orders and 65 families in class Liliopsida. Class Liliatae Subclass Alismatidae 4 orders Order Alismatales... Order Triuridales Subclass Commelinidae 8 orders Order Commelinales... Order Zingiberales Subclass Arecidae 4 orders Order Arecales...
Order Arales Subclass Liliidae 2 orders Order Liliales Family Philydraceae Family Pontederiaceae Family Liliaceae Family Iridaceae Family Agavaceae Family Xanthorrhoeaceae Family Velloziaceae Family Haemodoraceae Family Taccaceae Family Cyanastraceae Family Stemonaceae Family Smilacaceae Family Dioscoreaceae Order Orchidales Subclass Magnoliidae Order Magnoliales Winteraceae Degeneriaceae Himantandraceae Eupomatiaceae Austrobaileyaceae Magnoliaceae Lactoridaceae Annonaceae Myristicaceae Canellaceae Order Laurales Amborellaceae Trimeniaceae Monimiaceae Gomortegaceae Calycanthaceae Idiospermaceae Lauraceae Hernandiaceae Order Piperales Chloranthaceae Saururaceae Piperaceae Order Aristolochiales Aristolochiaceae Order Illiciales Illiciaceae Schisandraceae Order Nymphaeales Nelumbonaceae Nymphaeaceae Barclayaceae Cabombaceae Ceratophyllaceae Order Ranunculales Ranunculaceae Circaeasteraceae Berberidaceae Sargentodoxaceae Lardizabalaceae Menispermaceae Coriariaceae Sabiaceae Order Papaverales Papaveraceae Fumariaceae Subclass Hamamelidae Order Trochodendrales Tetracentraceae Trochodendraceae Order Hamamelidales Cercidiphyllaceae Eupteleaceae Platanaceae Hamamelidaceae Myrothamnaceae Order Daphniphyllales Daphniphyllaceae Order Didymelales Didymelaceae Order Eucommiales Eucommiaceae Order Urticales Barbeyaceae Ulmaceae Cannabaceae Moraceae Cecropiaceae Urticaceae Order Leitneriales Leitneriaceae Order Juglandales Rhoipteleaceae Juglandaceae Order Myricales Myricaceae Order Fagales Balanopaceae Ticodendraceae Fagaceae Nothofagaceae Betulaceae Order Casuarinales Casuarinaceae Subclass Caryophyllidae Order Caryophyllales Phytolaccaceae Achatocarpaceae Nyctaginaceae Aizoaceae Didiereaceae Cactaceae Chenopodiaceae Amaranthaceae Portulacaceae Basellaceae Molluginaceae Caryophyllaceae Order Polygonales Polygonaceae Order Plumbaginales Plumbaginaceae Subclass Dilleniidae Order Dilleniales Dilleniaceae Paeoniaceae Order Theales Ochnaceae Sphaerosepalaceae Sarcolaenaceae Dipterocarpaceae Caryocaraceae Theaceae Actinidiaceae Scytopetalaceae Pentaphylacaceae Tetrameristaceae Pellicieraceae Oncothecaceae Marcgraviaceae Quiinaceae Elatinaceae Paracryphiaceae Medusagynaceae Clusiaceae Order Malvales Elaeocarpaceae Tiliaceae Sterculiaceae Bombacaceae Malvaceae Order Lecythidales Lecythidaceae Order Nepenthales Sarraceniaceae Nepenthaceae Droseraceae Order Violales Flacourtiaceae Peridiscaceae Bixaceae Cistaceae Huaceae Lacistemataceae Scyphostegiaceae Stachyuraceae Violaceae Tamaricaceae Frankeniaceae Dioncophyllaceae Ancistrocladaceae Turneraceae Malesherbiaceae Passifloraceae Achariaceae Caricaceae Fouquieriaceae Hoplestigmataceae Cucurbitaceae Datiscaceae Begoniaceae Loasaceae Order Salicales Salicaceae Order Capparales Tovariaceae Capparaceae Brassicaceae Moringaceae Resedaceae Order Batales Gyrostemonaceae Bataceae Order Ericales Cyrillaceae Clethraceae Grubbiaceae Empetraceae Epacridaceae Ericaceae Pyrolaceae Monotropaceae Order Diapensiales Diapensiaceae Order Ebenales Sapotaceae Ebenaceae Styracaceae Lissocarpaceae Symplocaceae Order Primulales Theophrastaceae Myrsinaceae Primulaceae Subclass Rosidae Order Rosales Brunelliaceae Connaraceae Eucryphiaceae Cunoniaceae Davidsoniaceae Dialypetalanthaceae Pittosporaceae Byblidaceae Hydrangeaceae Columelliaceae Grossulariaceae Greyiaceae Bruniaceae Anisophylleaceae Alseuosmiaceae Crassulaceae Cephalotaceae Saxifragaceae Rosaceae Neuradaceae Crossosomataceae Chrysobalanaceae Surianaceae Rhabdodendraceae Order Fabales Mimosaceae Caesalpiniaceae Fabaceae Order Proteales Elaeagnaceae Proteaceae Order Podostemales Podostemaceae Order Haloragales Haloragaceae Gunneraceae Order Myrtales Sonneratiaceae Lythraceae Penaeaceae Crypteroniaceae Thymelaeaceae Trapaceae Myrtaceae Punicaceae Onagraceae Oliniaceae Melastomataceae Combretaceae Alzateaceae Memecylaceae Rhyncocalycaceae Order Rhizophorales Rhizophoraceae Order Cornales Alangiaceae Nyssaceae Cornaceae Garryaceae Order Santalales Medusandraceae Dipentodontaceae Olacaceae Opiliaceae Santalaceae Misodendraceae Loranthaceae Viscaceae Eremolepidaceae Balanophoraceae Order Rafflesiales Hydnoraceae Mitrastemonaceae Rafflesiaceae Order Celastrales Geissolomataceae Celastraceae Hippocrateaceae Stackhousiaceae Salvadoraceae Aquifoliaceae Icacinaceae Aextoxicaceae Cardiopteridaceae Corynocarpaceae Dichapetalaceae Tepuianthaceae Order Euphorbiales Buxaceae Simmondsiaceae Pandaceae Euphorbiaceae Order Rhamnales Rhamnaceae Leeaceae Vitaceae Order Linales Erythroxylaceae Humiriaceae Ixonanthaceae Hugoniaceae Linaceae Order Polygalales Malpighiaceae Vochysiaceae Trig
Theophrastaceae was a small family of flowering plants, no longer recognized in recent classifications. As circumscribed, the family consisted of seven genera and 95 species of trees or shrubs, native to tropical regions of the Americas; the APG II system placed this family in a basal group in the asterids. APG II included the additional genus Samolus, with about 15 additional species, vastly increasing the area of distribution; the 2009 APG III system includes the family within an enlarged Primulaceae. Theophrastaceae in L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz; the families of flowering plants. Ståhl, Bertil. "Theophrastaceae". Flora Neotropica. 105: 1–160
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae, oomycetes, slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups."The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name, accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group. For example, the botanical name Bellis perennis denotes a plant species, native to most of the countries of Europe and the Middle East, where it has accumulated various names in many languages; the plant was introduced worldwide, bringing it into contact with more languages. English names for this plant species include: daisy, English daisy, lawn daisy.
The cultivar Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' is a golden-variegated horticultural selection of this species. The botanical name itself is fixed by a type, a particular specimen of an organism to which the scientific name is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon; the usefulness of botanical names is limited by the fact that taxonomic groups are not fixed in size. For example, the traditional view of the family Malvaceae has been expanded in some modern approaches to include what were considered to be several related families; some botanical names refer to groups that are stable while for other names a careful check is needed to see which circumscription is being used. Depending on rank, botanical names may be in two parts or three parts; the names of cultivated plants are not similar to the botanical names, since they may instead involve "unambiguous common names" of species or genera. Cultivated plant names may have an extra component, bringing a maximum of four parts: in one part Plantae Marchantiophyta Magnoliopsida Liliidae Pinophyta Fagaceae Betula in two parts Acacia subg.
Phyllodineae lchemilla subsect. Heliodrosium Berberis thunbergii a species name, i.e. a combination consisting of a genus name and one epithet Syringa'Charisma' – a cultivar within a genus Hydrangea Lacecap Group – a genus name and Group epithet Lilium Darkest Red Group – a genus name and Group epithet Paphiopedilum Greenteaicecreamandraspberries grex snowdrop'John Gray' – an unambiguous common name for the genus Galanthus and a cultivar epithetin three parts Calystegia sepium subsp. Americana, a combination consisting of a genus name and two epithets Crataegus azarolus var. pontica Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' – a cultivar Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group – a species name and Group epithetin four parts Scilla hispanica var. campanulata'Rose Queen' – a cultivar within a botanical variety apart from cultivars, the name of a plant can never have more than three parts. A botanical name in three parts, i.e. an infraspecific name needs a "connecting term" to indicate rank. In the Calystegia example above, this is "subsp.", for subspecies.
In botany there are many ranks below that of species. A name of a "subdivision of a genus" needs a connecting term; the connecting term is not part of the name itself. A taxon may be indicated by a listing in more than three parts: "Saxifraga aizoon var. aizoon subvar. Brevifolia f. multicaulis subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch." But this is a classification, not a formal botanical name. The botanical name is Saxifraga aizoon subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch.. Generic and infraspecific botanical names are printed in italics; the example set by the ICN is to italicize all botanical names, including those above genus, though the ICN preface states: "The Code sets no binding standard in this respect, as typography is a matter of editorial style and tradition not of nomenclature". Most peer-reviewed scientific botanical publications do not italicize names above the rank of genus, non-botanical scientific publications do not, in keeping with two of the three other kinds of scientific name: zoological and bacterial.
For botanical nomenclature, the ICN prescribes a two-part name or binary name for any taxon below the rank of genus down to, including the rank of species. Taxa below the rank of species get a three part. A binary name consists of the name of an epithet. In the case of a species this is a specific epithet:Bellis perennis is the name of a species, in which perennis is the specific epithet. There is no connecting term involved. In t
Bentham & Hooker system
A taxonomic system, the Bentham & Hooker system for seed plants, was published in Bentham and Hooker's Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita in three volumes between 1862 and 1883. George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker were British botanists who were affiliated to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in England, their system of botanical taxonomy was based on the principle of natural affinities and is considered as pre-Darwinian as it does not take evolution into account. The Genera plantarum classified an estimated 97,205 species into 7,569 genera; the system recognises the following main groups: Class DICOTYLEDONES DICOTYLEDONUM POLYPETALE vol I Series 1. Thalamiflorae Series 2. Disciflorae Series 3. Calyciflorae DICOTYLEDONES GAMOPETALÆ vol II Series 1. Inferae Series 2. Heteromerae Series 3. Bicarpellatae DICOTYLEDONES MONOCHLAMIDEÆ vol III Class GYMNOSPERMEÆ vol III Class MONOCOTYLEDONES vol III Note that this system was published well before there were internationally accepted rules for botanical nomenclature.
It indicates a family by "ordo". Terminations for families are not. Neither of these phenomena is a problem from a nomenclatural perspective: the ICBN provides for this. Dicotyledonae DICOTYLEDONUM POLYPETALARUM Vol I SERIES I THALAMIFLORÆ COHORS I. RANALES I. RANUNCULACEÆ II. DILLENIACEÆ III. CALYCANTHACEÆ IV. MAGNOLIACEÆ V. ANONACEÆ VI. MENISPERMACEÆ VII. BERBERIDACEÆ VIII. NYMPHÆACEÆ COHORS II. PARIETALES IX. SARRACENIACEÆ X. PAPAVERACEÆ XI. CRUCIFERÆ XII. CAPPARIDEÆ XIII. RESEDACEÆ XIV. CISTINEÆ XV. VIOLARIEÆ XVI. CANELLACEÆ XVII. BIXINEÆ COHORS III. POLYGALINÆ XVIII. PITTOSPOREÆ XIX. TREMANDREÆ XX. POLYGALÆ XXa. VOCHYSIACEÆ COHORS IV. CARYOPHYLLINÆ XXI. FRANKENIACEÆ XXII. CARYOPHYLLEÆ XXIII. PORTULACEÆ XIV. TAMARISCINEÆ COHORS V. GUTTIFERALES XXV. ELATINEÆ XXVI. HYPERICINEÆ XXVII. GUTTIFERÆ XXVIII. TERNSTROEMIACEÆ XXIX. DIPTEROCARPEÆ XXX. CHLENACEÆ COHORS VI. MALVALES XXXI. MALVACEÆ XXXII. STERCULIACEÆ XXXIII. TILIACEÆ SERIES II. DISCIFLORÆ COHORS VII. GERANIALES XXXIV LINEÆ XXXV. HUMIRIACEÆ XXXVI. MALPIGHIACEÆ XXXVII. ZYGOPHYLLEÆ XXXVIII.
GERANIACEÆ XXXIX. RUTACEÆ XL. SIMARUBEÆ XLI. OCHNACEÆ XLII. BURSERACEÆ XLIII. MELIACEÆ XLIV. CHAILLETIACEÆ COHORS VIII. OLACALES XLV. OLACINEÆ XLVI. ILICINEÆ COHORS IX. CELASTRALES XLVII. CELASTRINEÆ LVII. LEGUMINOSÆ LVIII. ROSACEÆ LIX. SAXIFRAGEÆ LX. CRASSULACEÆ LXI. DROSERACEÆ LXII. HAMAMELIDEÆ LXIII. BRUNIACEÆ LXIV. HALORAGEÆ COHORS XII. MYRTALES LXV. RHIZOPHOREÆ LXVI. COMBRETACEÆ LXVII. MYRTACEÆ LXVIII. MELASTOMACEÆ LXIX. LYTHRARIEÆ LXX. ONAGRARIEÆ COHORS XIII. PASSIFLORALES LXXI. SAMYDACEÆ LXXII. LOASEÆ LXXIII. TURNERACEÆ LXXIV. PASSIFLOREÆ LXXV. CUCURBITACEÆ LXXVI. BEGONIACEÆ LXXVII. DATISCEÆ COHORS XIV. FICOIDALES LXXVIII. CACTEÆ LXXIX. FICIOIDEÆ COHORS XV. UMBELLALES LXXX. UMBELLIFERÆ LXXXI. ARALIACEÆ LXXXII. CORNACEÆ DICOTYLEDONES GAMOPETALÆ vol II SERIES I. INFERÆ COHORS I. RUBIALES LXXXIII. CAPRIFOLIACEÆ LXXXIV. RUBIACEÆ COHORS II. ASTERALES LXXXV. VALERIANEÆ LXXXVI. DIPSACEÆ LXXXVII. CALCEREÆ LXXXVIII. COMPOSITÆ COHORS III. CAMPANALES LXXXIX. STYLIDIEÆ LC. GOODENOVIEÆ XCI. CAMPANULACEÆ SERIES II. HETEROMERÆ COHORS IV ERICALES XCII.
VACCINIACEÆ XCIII. ERICACEÆ XCIV. MONOTROPEÆ XCV. EPACRIDEÆ XCVI. DIAPENSIACEÆ XCVII. LENNOACEÆ COHORS V. PRIMULALES XCVIII. PLUMBAGINEÆ XCIX. PRIMULACEÆ C. MYRSINEÆ COHORS VI. EBENALES CI. SAPOTACEÆ CII. EBENACEÆ CIII. STYRACEÆ SERIES III. BICAPELLATÆ COHORS VII. GENTIANALES CIV. OLEACEÆ CV. SALVADORACEÆ CVI. APOCYNACEÆ CVII. ASCLEPIADEÆ CVIII. LOGANIACEÆ CIX. GENTIANEÆ COHORS VIII. POLEMONIALES CX. POLEMONIACEÆ CXI. HYDROPHYLLACEÆ CXII. BORAGINEÆ CXIII. CONVOLVULACEÆ CXIV. SOLANACEÆ COHORS IX. PERSONALES CXV. SCROPHULARINEÆ CXVI. OROBRANCHACEÆ CXVII. LENTIBULARIEÆ CXVIII. COLUMELLIACEÆ CXIX. GESNERACEÆ CXX. BIGNONIACEÆ CXXI. PEDALINEÆ CXXII. ACANTHACEÆ COHORS X. LAMIALES CXXIII. MYOPORINEÆ CXXIV. SELAGINEÆ CXXV. VERBENACEÆ CXXVI. LABIATÆ incertae sedis CXXVII. PLANTAGINEÆ DICOTYLEDONES MONOCHLAMIDEÆ vol III Series I. Curvembryeæ CXXVIII. NYCTAGINEÆ CXXIX. ILLECEBRACEÆ CXXX. AMARANTACEÆ CXXXI. CHENOPODIACEÆ CXXXII. PHYTOLACCACEÆ CXXXIII. BATIDEÆ CXXXIV. POLYGONACEÆ Series II. Multiovulatæ Aquaticæ CXXXV. PODOSTEMONACEÆ Series III. Multiovulatæ Terrestres CXXXVI.
NEPENTHACEÆ CXXXVII. CYTINACEÆ CXXXVIII. ARISTOLOCHIACEÆ Series IV. Microembryeæ CXXXIX. PIPERACEÆ CXL. CHLORANTACEÆ CXLI. MYRISTICEÆ CXLII. MONIMIACEÆ Series V. Daphnales CXLIII. LAURINEÆ CXLIV. PROTEACEÆ CXLV. THYMELÆACEÆ CXLVI. PENÆACEÆ CXLVII. ELÆAGNACEÆ Series VI. Achlamydosporeæ CXLVIII. LORANTHACEÆ CXLIX. SANTALACEÆ CL. BALANOPHOREÆ Series VII. Unisexuales CLI. EUPHORBIACEÆ CLII. BALANOPEÆ CLIII. URTICACEÆ CLIV. PLATANACEÆ CLV. LEITNERIEÆ CLVI. JUGLANDEÆ CLVII. MYRICACEÆ CLVIII. CASUARINEÆ CLIX. CUPULIFERÆ Series VIII. Ordines anomali CLX. SALICINEÆ CLXI. LACISTEMACEÆ CLXII. EMPETRACEÆ CLXIII. CERATOPHYLLEÆ GYMNOSPERMEÆ vol III CLXIV. GNETACEÆ CLXV. CONIFERÆ CLXVI. CYCADACEÆ Monocotyledons Summary pp viii-xi MONOCOTYLEDONES vol III p. 448 CLXVII. HYDROCHARIDEÆp. 448 CLXVIII. BURMANNIACEÆ CLXIX. ORCHIDEÆ p. 460 CLXX. SCITAMINEÆ p. 636 CLXXI. BROMELIACEÆ p. 657 CLXXII. HAEMODORACEÆ p. 671 CLXXIII. IIRIDEÆ p. 681 CLXXIV. AMARYLLIDEÆ p. 711 5 tribes I Tribus Hypoxideae p. 716 II Tribus Amarylleae p. 718 3 subtribes III Tribus Alstroemerieae p. 735 IV Tribus Agaveae p. 737 V Tribus Vellosieae p. 739 CLXXV.
TACCACEÆ p. 740 CLXXVI. DIOSCOREACEÆ p. 741 CLXXVII. ROXBURGHIACEÆ p. 746 CLXXVIII. LILIACEÆ p. 748 Schema 748-763 Tribus I Smilaceae p. 763 Tribus II Asparageae p. 764 Tribus III Luzuriageae Tribus IV Polygonateae p. 768 Tribus V Convallariae Tribus VI Aspidistreae Tribus VII Hemerocal