A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors, during the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings. The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback, since the early modern period, the title of knight is purely honorific, usually bestowed by a monarch, as in the British honours system, often for non-military service to the country. The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame, Geoffroi de Charnys Book of Chivalry expounded upon the importance of Christian faith in every area of a knights life. This novel explored the ideals of knighthood and their incongruity with the reality of Cervantes world, in the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations.
Some orders of knighthood, such as the Knights Templar, have become the subject of legend, each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is generally granted by a head of state or monarch to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement. This linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry, the special prestige accorded to mounted warriors finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, and the Greek hippeus and Roman eques of classical antiquity. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht and this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight, the Anglo-Saxon cniht had no connection to horsemanship, the word referred to any servant. A rādcniht, riding-servant, was a servant delivering messages or patrolling coastlines on horseback, a narrowing of the generic meaning servant to military follower of a king or other superior is visible by 1100.
The specific military sense of a knight as a warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years War. The verb to knight appears around 1300, from the same time, an Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. This class is often translated as knight, the medieval knight, both Greek ἳππος and Latin equus are derived from the Proto-Indo-European word root ekwo-, horse. In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier, Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider, German Ritter, and Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, to ride, in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-, in ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris from which European knighthood may have been derived.
Some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, in the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin
The Spanish Army is the terrestrial army of the Spanish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is one of the oldest active armies - dating back to the late 15th century, the Spanish army has existed continuously since the reign of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. During the 16th century, Habsburg Spain saw a growth in its military power. The Italian Wars resulted in an ultimate Spanish victory and hegemony in northern Italy by expelling the French, during the 16th century this formation evolved into the tercio infantry formation. The new formation and battle tactics were developed because of Spains inability to field sufficient cavalry forces to face the heavy French cavalry, with such numbers involved, Spain had trouble funding the war effort on so many fronts. The non-payment of troops led to many mutinies and events such as the Sack of Antwerp, the Thirty Years War drew in Spain alongside most other European states. Nevertheless, Spanish armies continued to win battles and sieges throughout this period across large swathes of Europe.
French entry into the war in 1635 put additional pressure on Spain, by the signing of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, Spain was forced to accept the independence of the Dutch Republic. In the second half of the century, a reduced and increasingly neglected Spanish army became infamous for being poorly equipped. Spain remained an important naval and military power, depending on sea lanes stretching from Spain through the Caribbean and South America, and westwards towards Manila. The Army was reorganised on the French model and in 1704 the old Tercios were transformed into Regiments, the first modern military school was created in Segovia in 1764. Finally, in 1768 King Charles III sanctioned the Royal Ordinances for the Regime, Discipline and Service in his Armies, in the late 18th century, Bourbon-ruled Spain had an alliance with Bourbon-ruled France, and therefore did not have to fear a land war. Its only serious enemy was Britain, which had a powerful Royal Navy, when the French Revolution overthrew the Bourbons, a land war with France became a danger which the king tried to avoid.
The officer corps was selected primarily on the basis of royal patronage, about a third of the junior officers have been promoted from the ranks, and they did have talent, but they had few opportunities for promotion or leadership. The rank-and-file were poorly trained peasants, elite units included foreign regiments of Irishmen, Italians and Walloons, in addition to elite artillery and engineering units. Equipment was old-fashioned and in disrepair, the army lacked its own horses and mules for transportation, so these auxiliaries were operated by civilians, who might run away if conditions looked bad. In combat, small units fought well, but their tactics were hardly of use against the Napoleonic forces. When war broke out with France in 1808, the army was deeply unpopular, leading generals were assassinated, and the army proved incompetent to handle command-and-control
Madrid is the capital city of the Kingdom of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has a population of almost 3.2 million with an area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union after London and Berlin, the municipality itself covers an area of 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid, this community is bordered by the communities of Castile and León. As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political, the current mayor is Manuela Carmena from Ahora Madrid. Madrid is home to two football clubs, Real Madrid and Atlético de Madrid. Madrid is the 17th most liveable city in the according to Monocle magazine. Madrid organises fairs such as FITUR, ARCO, SIMO TCI, while Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets.
Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city, the first documented reference of the city originates in Andalusan times as the Arabic مجريط Majrīṭ, which was retained in Medieval Spanish as Magerit. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins, according to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named Metragirta or Mantua Carpetana. The most ancient recorded name of the city Magerit comes from the name of a built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD. Nevertheless, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river, the name of this first village was Matrice. In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the changed to Mayrit, from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra. The modern Madrid evolved from the Mozarabic Matrit, which is still in the Madrilenian gentilic, after the disintegration of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Madrid was integrated in the Taifa of Toledo.
With the surrender of Toledo to Alfonso VI of León and Castile, the city was conquered by Christians in 1085, Christians replaced Muslims in the occupation of the centre of the city, while Muslims and Jews settled in the suburbs. The city was thriving and was given the title of Villa, since 1188, Madrid won the right to be a city with representation in the courts of Castile. In 1202, King Alfonso VIII of Castile gave Madrid its first charter to regulate the municipal council, which was expanded in 1222 by Ferdinand III of Castile
Alfonso XII of Spain
Alfonso XII was King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885, after a coup détat restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic. Having been forced into exile after the Glorious Revolution deposed his mother Isabella II from the throne in 1868, Alfonso studied in Austria and his mother abdicated in his favour in 1870, and he returned to Spain as king in 1874 following a military coup. Alfonso died aged 27 in 1885, and was succeeded by his unborn son, Alfonso was born in Madrid as the eldest son of Queen Isabella II. Officially, his father was her husband, King Francis, alfonsos biological paternity is uncertain, there is speculation that his biological father may have been Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans. These rumours were used as propaganda against Alfonso by the Carlists. His mothers accession created the second cause of instability, which was the Carlist Wars, the supporters of the Count of Molina as king of Spain rose to have him enthroned. This led to the cause of instability of note, the Independence of the American Kingdoms.
When Queen Isabella and her husband were forced to leave Spain by the Revolution of 1868, from there, he was sent to the Theresianum at Vienna to continue his studies. On 25 June 1870, he was recalled to Paris, where his mother abdicated in his favour, after Amadeos abandonment in 1873, Parliament declared the Federal Republic, the first act of President Estanislao Figueras was to extend the Abolition Act to Puerto Rico. Cuban slaves would have to wait until 1889, but the republicans were not in agreement either, and they had to contend with the War in Cuba, and Muslim uprisings in Spanish Morocco. By 1872, the Third Carlist War erupted and this unrest led to the creation of a group in favor of the Bourbon restoration, made by some sectors of the conservatives led by Canovas del Castillo. The Prince of Asturias, was the chosen to develop the new road map proposed by Canovas. The new road map, which indeed ended the eternal crisis begun in 1810 was called Alfonsismo, as having Alfonso in Spain would be a problem, Cánovas became responsible for his education.
He sent Alfonso to the Sandhurst Military Academy in England, where the training Alfonso received was severe but more cosmopolitan than in Spain, on 1 December 1874, Alfonso issued the Sandhurst Manifesto, where he set the ideological basis of the Bourbon Restoration. It was drafted in reply to a greeting from his followers. Thereupon the President resigned, and his power was transferred to the kings plenipotentiary and adviser, the 29 December 1874 military coup of Gen. Martinez Campos in Sagunto ended the failed republic and meant the rise of the young Prince Alfonso. In 1876, a campaign against the Carlists, in which the young king took part, resulted in the defeat of Don Carlos. Cánovas was the architect of the new regime of the Restoration
An inspector general is an investigative official in a civil or military organization. The plural of the term is inspectors general, the chief of police of Bangladesh is known as the inspector general of police. He is from the Bangladesh Civil Service police cadre, the current inspector general of police is A K M Shahidul Hoque, and his predecessor was Hassan Mahmud Khondokar. There is another temporary post of general of police, known as Pulish Shômônnoyôk or police coordinator. Before 1867 the position of Inspector General of Canada existed as the responsible for finances. After 1867 the position was assumed as the Minister of Finance, alexander Galt served at the last Inspector General from 1858 to 1867 and the first Minister of Finance in 1867. Colombias inspector general is a unique post with broad powers to investigate government malfeasance, the inspection générale des Finances is particularly prestigious as a job appointment after studies at the École Nationale dAdministration. In recent decades, many of its members have occupied various positions in lieu of their traditional mission of inspection.
The corps has come under increased criticism for this, during World War II, Colonel General Heinz Guderian was appointed inspector general of armoured troops on 1 March 1943, reporting directly to Adolf Hitler. Head of the Command Staff of the Armed Forces, his position is equivalent to that of the American chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In the German federal police, the police officer is called inspector of the federal police as well. For all state police services there exists an inspector. All of the sixteen German state police departements has an inspector, the state police presidents are normally not police officers, they are administration officials. The competence for police services in Germany is assigned to the states of Germany. The federal police is a coordinating police département with only a few competences, e. g. in border control or airport, in the scope of responsibility of the state police departments the federal police can only act with permission or request of the local state police.
During the British rule in India, in 1861, the British Government introduced the Indian Councils Act of 1861, the act created a new cadre of police, called Superior Police Services, known as the Indian Imperial Police. The highest rank in the service was the Inspector General, in modern India, the inspector general of police or joint commissioner of police is a two-star rank officer and one of the most senior officers in the state police forces. All inspectors general and joint commissioners in state police forces are Indian Police Service officers and they are in some states the commissioner of police for the city, that is they head a police force for a particular city
Mercedes, Princess of Asturias
María de las Mercedes, Princess of Asturias, was the eldest child of King Alfonso XII of Spain and his second wife, Maria Christina of Austria. She was Princess of Asturias, the heir presumptive to the Crown of Spain, had her younger sibling, unborn at the death of Alfonso XII, been a daughter, Mercedes would have been queen regnant of Spain. The sibling proved to be a boy, Alfonso XIII, and on his birth in 1886, the marriage was highly controversial due to her father-in-laws ties with the Carlists. She died three years from complication while giving birth to her third child, born on 11 September 1880 at the Royal Palace of Madrid, Mercedes was the eldest daughter of King Alfonso XII and his second wife, Maria Christina of Austria. She was christened María de las Mercedes Isabel Teresa Cristina Alfonsa and her godmother was Queen Isabella II, her paternal grandmother, who came from retirement in Paris to attend the birth of her first grandchild. There was great disappointment because family and nation were hoping for a boy, to smooth thing out, Queen Maria Christina suggested giving her daughter the name Mercedes in honor of her husbands first wife, Mercedes of Orléans.
Mercedes was heir presumptive from her birth, but the disappointment was so great that she was initially treated only as an infanta, on 12 November 1882, Mercedes gained a sister, Infanta Maria Teresa. The marriage of their parents was unhappy, Alfonso had married Maria Christina in order to secure the succession to the throne. He did not love his wife and was disappointed when she gave birth to two daughters, while he already had two extramarital sons, in July 1883, Maria Christina left the Spanish court and traveled with her daughters to visit her own family in Austria. By the summer of 1884, Alfonso XIIs health deteriorated, he had tuberculosis, after a brief improvement, the 27-year-old king died on 25 November 1885 leaving his wife pregnant. The birth of another sister would have made Mercedes queen, but the sibling proved to be a boy and she resumed the position of heir presumptive, which she held for the rest of her life. Mercedes made her first public appearance at the court by the hand of her mother when Queen Maria Christina was declared regent.
The Queen brought up her three children strictly, despite her constitutional status, Mercedes was not given an education that would have prepared her to govern the nation. She received instead the conventional upbringing of princesses of her time, there were piano and painting lessons, knitting practices and the Queen involved her daughter in palace duties. Particular attention was paid to obedience and religious precepts, Mercedes grew up to be a serious young woman and unprepossessing. She was more Habsburg in appearance due to her long face, the family spent the summer months in the Palace of Miramar in San Sebastián. The situation in Spain became more complicated with the Spanish–American War in 1898, Mercedes and her sister lived a restricted life. Their conservative mother did not allow them to part in the social life of the Spanish nobility
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Order of Charles III
The Royal and Distinguished Spanish Order of Charles III was established by the King of Spain Carlos III by means of the Royal Decree of 19 September 1771, with the motto Virtuti et mérito. Its objective is to people for their actions in benefit to Spain. Since its creation, it has been the most distinguished award that can be granted in Spain. Today the Grand Master of the order is the monarch of Spain, although the Royal Decree of creation was in September 1771, Carlos III did not make public the orders that would regulate the distinction until 24 October. The reason for this lies in the origin of the Order, although the child and various brothers died soon after, Carlos III maintained his agreement, and the number of Crosses given was greatly reduced at the monarchs regret. The orders of creation demanded two requirements, to be worthy and affectionate of His Highness, two classes were created, the Great Crosses and the Pensioners, the monarch being discretional with his authorization, although it was limited to sixty of the former and two-hundred of the latter.
In 1783 the classes were expanded to three with that of Supernumerary Knights, whose level of importance was between the previous two, the benefits of the members of the Order were of a different nature, increasing with Pius VI. The government of the Order became more and more complex, although in truth it was the monarch, the meetings were held in the Church of San Gil in Madrid twice a year, one coinciding with the Immaculate Conception and the other with the Day of the Saints. With Carlos IV of Spain some reforms were made to the dress, in the end, these were abolished by the Napoleonic king. The maximum number of Grand Crosses are limited to one hundred, Knights Collar and Knights Grand Cross of the Order are entitled to be addressed with the style The Most Excellent in front of their name. Other members are entitled to the style of The Most Illustrious, the orders is currently conferred in the following classes, Collar – restricted to 25 Spanish citizens. Grand Cross – restricted to 100 Spanish citizens, commander by Number - restricted to 200 Spanish citizens.
There are no restrictions on the number of foreigners that may be appointed to any of the classes, media related to Order of Charles III at Wikimedia Commons
Spanish Civil War
Ultimately, the Nationalists won, and Franco ruled Spain for the next 36 years, from April 1939 until his death in November 1975. Sanjurjo was killed in an accident while attempting to return from exile in Portugal. The coup was supported by units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Burgos, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba. However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Valencia, and Málaga—did not gain control, Spain was thus left militarily and politically divided. The Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country, the Nationalist forces received munitions and soldiers from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republican side received support from the Communist Soviet Union and leftist populist Mexico. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom and France, operated a policy of non-intervention. The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west and they besieged Madrid and the area to its south and west for much of the war.
Those associated with the losing Republicans were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists, with the establishment of a dictatorship led by General Franco in the aftermath of the war, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime. The war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired, organized purges occurred in territory captured by Francos forces to consolidate the future regime. A significant number of killings took place in areas controlled by the Republicans, the extent to which Republican authorities took part in killings in Republican territory varied. The 19th century was a turbulent time for Spain and those in favour of reforming Spains government vied for political power with conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms from taking place. Some liberals, in a tradition that had started with the Spanish Constitution of 1812, sought to limit the power of the monarchy of Spain, the reforms of 1812 did not last after King Ferdinand VII dissolved the Constitution and ended the Trienio Liberal government.
Twelve successful coups were carried out between 1814 and 1874, until the 1850s, the economy of Spain was primarily based on agriculture. There was little development of an industrial or commercial class. The land-based oligarchy remained powerful, a number of people held large estates called latifundia as well as all the important government positions. In 1868 popular uprisings led to the overthrow of Queen Isabella II of the House of Bourbon, two distinct factors led to the uprisings, a series of urban riots and a liberal movement within the middle classes and the military concerned with the ultra-conservatism of the monarchy. In 1873 Isabellas replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicated owing to increasing pressure. After the restoration of the Bourbons in December 1874, Carlists and Anarchists emerged in opposition to the monarchy, alejandro Lerroux, Spanish politician and leader of the Radical Republican Party, helped bring republicanism to the fore in Catalonia, where poverty was particularly acute
House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
The House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies is a cadet Italian branch of the Spanish line of the House of Bourbon. It is thus descended from the Capetian dynasty in male line, the name of Bourbon-Two Sicilies comes from the main name and the other from the title King of the Two Sicilies, itself a merger of the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies resulted from the unification of the Kingdom of Sicily with the Kingdom of Naples, the two had been separated since the Sicilian Vespers of 1282. At the death of King Alfonso in 1458, the kingdom divided between his brother John II of Aragon, who kept Sicily, and his bastard son Ferdinand. In 1861 Two Sicilies became part of the newly founded Kingdom of Italy, when Prince Ferdinand Pius died in 1960, he left no direct male descendant, and two branches of the family claimed the right to succeed him as head of the house. Ferdinand Pius had two brothers and Ranieri. By the rule of primogeniture, headship would normally pass to Carlos, Alfonso offered a different interpretation of the Act of Cannes, describing it as effective only if Carlos should succeed to the Spanish throne.
He took the position that the Act of Cannes was invalid under the rules of the house of Two Sicilies itself. Children and male-line grandchildren of the King of the Two Sicilies bore the title Prince Royal of the Two Sicilies with the style of Royal Highness. Other agnatic descendants of the King, born of authorized marriages, the title of princess is born by the wives of the princes of the house provided the marriage is approved
Order of Isabella the Catholic
The Order of Isabella the Catholic is a Spanish civil order granted in recognition of services that benefit the country. The Order is not exclusive to Spaniards, and it has awarded to many foreigners. The Order was reorganized by royal decree on 26 July 1847, the King of Spain is Grand Master of the Order. The Grand Chancellor of the Order is the Minister of Foreign Affairs, all deeds granting decorations of the Order must bear the signatures of both. Members of the order at the knight and above enjoy personal nobility and have the privilege of adding a golden heraldic mantle to their coat of arms, Knights at the rank of Grand Cross and Knight of the Collar receive the official style of His or Her most Excellent Lord. Knights at the rank of commander and commander by number receive the style of His or Her Most Illustrious Lord, the structure of the order has varied several times since then. The following is a summary of the history of the grades and medals of the order. Knights Grand Cross – Established 24 March 1815, Knight First Class – Established 24 March 1815, retitled Commander on 24 July 1815.
Officer – Established 10 October 1931, abolished 15 June 1938, Knight Second Class – Established 24 March 1815, retiled Knight on 24 July 1815. Silver Cross – Established 16 March 1903 to reward civil and palace officials, gold Medal with Laureate – Established on 24 July 1815 for award to European sergeants and enlisted men. Gold Medal – Established on 24 July 1815 for award to non-European natives, silver Medal – Established 15 April 1907 to reward non-commissioned officers and junior civil officials. Bronze Medal – Established 15 April 1907 to reward non-commissioned officers, women appointed to an applicable grade are not called Knights. Women are instead appointed as Dames of the Collar, Dames Grand Cross or Dames Cross, the decoration is a red-enameled cross, with a golden frame. The outer peaks are fitted with gold balls. The center of the medallion contains the inscription A La Lealtad Acrisolada, above the cross is a green enameled laurel wreath with the band ring. The ribbon is yellow with a central stripe, except the Collar