Fashion design is the art of application of design and aesthetics or natural beauty to clothing and accessories. Fashion design is influenced by cultural and social attitudes, and has varied over time, Fashion designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories such as bracelets and necklace. Because of the required to bring a garment onto the market. Fashion designers attempt to design clothes which are functional as well as aesthetically pleasing and they consider who is likely to wear a garment and the situations in which it will be worn. They have a range and combinations of materials to work with. Though most clothing worn for everyday wear falls within a range of conventional styles. Some clothes are made specifically for an individual, as in the case of haute couture or bespoke tailoring, most clothing is designed for the mass market, especially casual and every-day wear are called ready to wear. Fashion designers may work full-time for one house, as in-house designers.
They may work alone or as part of a team, freelance designers work for themselves, selling their designs to fashion houses, directly to shops, or to clothing manufacturers. The garments bear the buyers label, some fashion designers set up their own labels, under which their designs are marketed. Some fashion designers are self-employed and design for individual clients, other high-end fashion designers cater to specialty stores or high-end fashion department stores. These designers create original garments, as well as those that follow established fashion trends, most fashion designers, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of mens and childrens fashions for the mass market. Fashion designers work in different ways, some sketch their ideas on paper, while others drape fabric on a dress form. Finally, a garment is made up and tested on a model to make sure it is an operational outfit. Fashion design is considered to have started in the 19th century with Charles Frederick Worth who was the first designer to have his label sewn into the garments that he created.
Before the former draper set up his maison couture in Paris, clothing design and creation was handled by largely anonymous seamstresses, worths success was such that he was able to dictate to his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead as earlier dressmakers had done. The term couturier was in fact first created in order to describe him, while all articles of clothing from any time period are studied by academics as costume design, only clothing created after 1858 is considered as fashion design. It was during this period that many design houses began to hire artists to sketch or paint designs for garments, the images were shown to clients, which was much cheaper than producing an actual sample garment in the workroom
Nieuwe Kerk (Delft)
The Nieuwe Kerk is a Protestant church in the city of Delft in the Netherlands. The building is located on Delft Market Square, opposite to the City Hall, in 1584, William the Silent was entombed here in a mausoleum designed by Hendrick and Pieter de Keyser. Since members of the House of Orange-Nassau have been entombed in the royal crypt, the latest are Queen Juliana and her husband Prince Bernhard in 2004. The private royal family crypt is not open to the public, the church tower is the second highest in the Netherlands, after the Domtoren in Utrecht. The New Church, formerly the church of St. Ursula, is the place of the princes of Orange. The tower was built 1396-1496 by Jacob van der Borch, who built the Dom in Utrecht during the years 1444-1475. The monument for Hugo de Groot was made in 1781, the mechanical clock has 18 bells by Francois Hemony from 1659 and 30 modern bells. In the church there is a bell from 1662 by Francois Hemony with a diameter of 104 centimeters. In the tower there are no longer in use, including 13 from 1659 by Francois Hemony,3 from 1678 by Pieter Hemony,3 from 1750 from Joris de Mery.
The Kirk appears in the golden Age painting by Carel Fabritius, A View of Delft
Bad Driburg is a town and spa in Höxter district in North Rhine-Westphalia, pleasantly situated on the Aa and the historic railway Soest-Höxter-Berlin. Bad Driburg lies on the slopes of the Eggegebirge, roughly 20 km east of Paderborn. Further important finds from the Bronze Age attest to quite a high living in the area between about 1800 and 600 BC. Finds of potsherds and above all coins dating up to AD15 show at least that there was trade between the Romans and the Cherusci, a Germanic tribe living in the area in antiquity. In 772, Charlemagne began military operations against the Saxons, shortly thereafter, one of the churches consecrated to Saint Peter was built on the Iburg. This is one of the oldest churches in historic Saxony, in 868, the Bishop of Paderborn founded the convent at Neuenheerse, now a constituent community of Bad Driburg. The convent church was much later, in the early 12th century. After the Bishopric of Paderborn was reorganized in 1231, Driburg became the seat of an archdeaconate, the Driburger Pfennig began to be minted at this time, and has now become a very rare coin.
It was at about time, or perhaps somewhat later. The document granting them, was lost long ago, a document from 1290 nevertheless makes it clear that, by this time, Driburg has town rights. In the 14th century, the Castle Dringenberg was built, in 1323 Dringenberg, now a constituent community of Bad Driburg, was granted town rights and was seat of the free court until 1765. On 10 April 1345, Bishop Balduin of Paderborn renewed Driburgs town rights, in 1444, Otto Duke of Braunschweig destroyed Schloß Iburg and had it razed. About 1500 came the beginnings of glassworks around Driburg, in 1593, the Driburger Heilquellen were once more made usable. In the next century, two fires in relatively quick succession—in 1680 and again in 1683—burnt the town to the ground. The 18th century brought the Seven Years War between 1756 and 1763, which left a wake of death and destruction, the Franzosengrab on Brunnenstraße recalls the many victims of the fighting and epidemics. In 1803, Driburg passed to Prussia, and its old connection to the Prince-Bishopric of Paderborn was dissolved and this same year, the Neuenheerse convent became an accommodation centre for needy noblewomen of all denominations.
In 1809, Driburgs Jewish community had its own small synagogue, in 1810, after almost a thousand years, the Neuenheerse convent was at last dissolved. In 1813, the doctor and politician Friedrich Wilhelm Weber, in 1864, Driburg was connected to the railway network
The Bijlmermeer or colloquially Bijlmer is one of the neighbourhoods that form Amsterdam Zuidoost borough of Amsterdam, Netherlands. To many people, the Bijlmer designation is used to refer to Amsterdam Zuidoost, the other neighbourhoods in Amsterdam Zuidoost are Gaasperdam, Bullewijk and Driemond. The Bijlmermeer neighbourhood, which houses almost 100,000 people of over 150 nationalities, was designed as a single project. The original neighbourhood was designed as a series of nearly identical high-rise buildings laid out in a hexagonal grid, the apartments were meant to attract a suburban set, rather like condominium housing. The buildings have features that distinguish them from traditional Dutch high-rise flats, such as tubular walkways connecting the flats. The blocks are separated by green areas planted with grass. Each flat has its own garages where cars can be parked, the Bijlmer was designed with two levels of traffic. Cars drive on the top level, the decks of which fly over the lower levels pedestrian avenues and this separation of fast and slow moving traffic is conducive to traffic safety.
However, in recent years, the roads are once again being flattened, so pedestrians and this is a move to lessen the effects of the inhuman scale of some of the Bijlmers designs. It is felt a direct line of sight will improve safety from muggers, because of the Bijlmers peripheral position relative to the city centre, it was decided that metro lines would be built connecting the Bijlmer with other neighbourhoods. The Oostlijn links the Bijlmer to the Central Station of Amsterdam, until recently, Bijlmermeer struggled to draw in many middle-class families. Following Surinames independence in 1975, many of its inhabitants migrated to the Netherlands, the government placed a substantial number of these immigrants in affordable social housing in the Bijlmermeer. The neighbourhood once had a high crime rate, but this has decreased dramatically in recent years. The number of registered complaints to the police decreased from 20,000 in 1995 to 8,000 in 2005, the Bijlmer has always been home to many different nationalities simultaneously.
Throughout the years, claims of rising social segregation or ghettoization have been denied, and pre-empted by local government. After El Al Flight 1862 crashed into two Bijlmermeer buildings in 1992, an incident known as the Bijlmerramp, it was decided that the neighbourhood needed some further change, in recent years, many of the high rise buildings have been renovated or torn down. More expensive low-rise housing has been being built to attract more middle- and this resulted in significant reduction in crime and a more balanced socio-economic composition, whilst at the same time maintaining the areas ethnic mix. Lately students have discovered the Bijlmer as a place to live compared to the city centre where space is limited
Weimar Republic is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state between 1919 and 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place, the official name of the state was still Deutsches Reich, it had remained unchanged since 1871. In English the country was known simply as Germany. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich was written, in its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, and contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War. The people of Germany blamed the Weimar Republic rather than their leaders for the countrys defeat. However, the Weimar Republic government successfully reformed the currency, unified tax policies, Weimar Germany eliminated most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, it never completely met its disarmament requirements, and eventually paid only a small portion of the war reparations.
Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the borders of the republic. From 1930 onwards President Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen, the Great Depression, exacerbated by Brünings policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government, the Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the éminence grise who would keep Hitler under control, within months the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency, it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitlers seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation and these events brought the republic to an end, as democracy collapsed, a single-party state founded the Nazi era. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, Germany from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919, but this name only became mainstream after 1933.
To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model, the Catholic Centre party, Zentrum favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat while on the moderate left the Chancellors SPD preferred Deutsche Republik. Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany, after the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were officially altered to reflect the political changes. The Weimar Republic retained the Reichsadler, but without the symbols of the former Monarchy and this left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak and claws and white highlighting. If the Reichs Eagle is shown without a frame, the charge and colors as those of the eagle of the Reichs coat of arms are to be used. The patterns kept by the Federal Ministry of the Interior are decisive for the heraldic design, the artistic design may be varied for each special purpose. The achievements and signs of movement were mostly done away with after its downfall
In clothing, a collar is the part of a shirt, coat or blouse that fastens around or frames the neck. A collar may be attached to the main body of the garment or detachable. The Oxford English Dictionary traces collar in its meaning to c. Todays shirt collars descend from the created by the drawstring at the neck of the medieval chemise, through the Elizabethan ruff and its successors. Separate collars exist alongside attached collars since the century, usually to allow starching. During the Edwardian period and sporadically thereafter, ornamental collars were worn as a form of jewelry, band - a strip of fabric that fastens around the neck, perpendicular to the body of the garment, to which a collar proper may be attached. Points - the corners of a collar, in a buttoned-down collar, spread - the distance between the points of a shirt collar. Stand - the band on a coat or shirt collar that supports the collar itself, Collars can be categorized as, Standing or stand-up, fitting up around the neck and not lying on the shoulders.
Turnover, standing around the neck and folded or rolled over, flat or falling, lying flat on the shoulders. Collars may be stiffened, traditionally with starch, modern wash-and-wear shirt collars may be stiffened with interfacing or may include metal or plastic collar stays, shirt collars which are not starched are described as soft collars. The shape of collars is controlled by the shape of the neckline to which they are attached, names for specific styles of collars vary with the vagaries of fashion. Some specific styles of collars include, Conventions on fastening the buttons on a collar differ globally. In the United States and the United Kingdom, the top button is always left unbuttoned, unless one is wearing a necktie. By contrast, in Slavic countries, including at least Poland, and Ukraine, examples are blue-collar, pink-collar and white-collar. Media related to Collars at Wikimedia Commons Collars on Boys Shirts and Blouses, From the Historical Boys Clothing website
Santo Domingo, officially Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic and the largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean by population. In 2010, its population was counted as 965,040, the city is coterminous with the boundaries of the Distrito Nacional, itself bordered on three sides by Santo Domingo Province. Santo Domingo is the site of the first university, castle, the citys Colonial Zone was declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Santo Domingo was called Ciudad Trujillo, from 1936 to 1961, after the Dominican Republics dictator, Rafael Trujillo, following his assassination, the city resumed its original designation. Santo Domingo is the cultural, political and industrial center of the Dominican Republic, Santo Domingo serves as the chief seaport of the country. The citys harbor at the mouth of the Ozama River accommodates the largest vessels, temperatures are high year round, with a cool breeze around winter time. At the time, the territory consisted of five chiefdoms, Marién, Maguá, Jaragua.
These were ruled respectively by caciques Guacanagarix, Caonabo, Bohechío, dating from 1496, when the Spanish settled on the island, and officially from 5 August 1498, Santo Domingo became the oldest European city in the Americas. Bartholomew Columbus founded the settlement and named it La Nueva Isabela, in 1495 it was renamed Santo Domingo, in honor of Saint Dominic. Santo Domingo came to be known as the Gateway to the Caribbean, in June 1502, Santo Domingo was destroyed by a major hurricane, and the new Governor Nicolás de Ovando had it rebuilt on a different site on the other side of the Ozama River. The original layout of the city and a portion of its defensive wall can still be appreciated today throughout the Colonial Zone. Diego Colon arrived in 1509, assuming the powers of Viceroy, in 1512, Ferdinand established a Real Audiencia with Juan Ortiz de Matienzo, Marcelo de Villalobos, and Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon appointed as judges of appeal. In 1514, Pedro Ibanez de Ibarra arrived with the Laws of Burgos, rodrigo de Alburquerque was named repartidor de indios and soon named visitadores to enforce the laws.
In 1586, Francis Drake captured the city and held it for ransom, an expedition sent by Oliver Cromwell in 1655 attacked the city of Santo Domingo, but was defeated. The English troops withdrew and took the less guarded colony of Jamaica, in 1697, the Treaty of Ryswick included the acknowledgement by Spain of Frances dominion over the Western third of the island, now Haiti. From 1795 to 1822 the city changed several times along with the colony it headed. The city was ceded to France in 1795 after years of struggles, it was captured by Haitian rebels in 1801, recovered by France in 1802. In 1821 Santo Domingo became the capital of an independent nation after the Criollo bourgeois within the country, led by José Núñez de Cáceres, the nation was unified with Haiti just two months later
Ivory Coast or Côte dIvoire, officially the Republic of Côte dIvoire, is a country located in West Africa. Ivory Coasts political capital is Yamoussoukro, and its economic capital and its bordering countries are Guinea and Liberia in the west, Burkina Faso and Mali in the north, and Ghana in the east. The Gulf of Guinea is located south of Ivory Coast, prior to its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, and Baoulé. Two Anyi kingdoms, Indénié and Sanwi, attempted to retain their identity through the French colonial period. Ivory Coast became a protectorate of France in 1843–1844 and was formed into a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. Ivory Coast achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, the country maintained close political and economic association with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close ties to the West, especially France. Since the end of Houphouët-Boignys rule in 1993, Ivory Coast has experienced one coup détat, in 1999, the first took place between 2002 and 2007 and the second during 2010-2011.
As a result, in 2000, the adopted a new Constitution. Ivory Coast is a republic with an executive power invested in its President. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was a powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Ivory Coast went through a crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. Changing into the 21st-century Ivorian economy is largely market-based and still heavily on agriculture. The official language is French, with indigenous languages widely used, including Baoulé, Dan, Anyin. In total there are around 78 languages spoken in Ivory Coast, popular religions include Islam and various indigenous religions. Originally and French merchant-explorers in the 15th and 16th centuries divided the west coast of Africa, very roughly, there was a Pepper Coast known as the Grain Coast, a Gold Coast, and a Slave Coast. Like those, the name Ivory Coast reflected the major trade occurred on that particular stretch of the coast. One can find the name Cote de Dents regularly used in older works and it was used in Ducketts Dictionnaire and by Nicolas Villault de Bellefond, for examples, although Antoine François Prévost used Côte dIvoire.
In the 19th century, usage switched to Côte dIvoire and it retained the name through French rule and independence in 1960
Prince Claus Fund
The Prince Claus Fund was established in 1996, named in honor of Prince Claus of the Netherlands. It receives a subsidy from the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Recipients are mainly located in Africa, Latin America, nominations Honorees are determined by a jury of experts from fields relevant to its mission of culture and development. Criteria The most important consideration of the jury is the effect of a laureates work on a wider cultural or social field. The Prince Claus Fund interprets culture in a sense to encompass all kinds of artistic and intellectual disciplines, media. Outstanding quality is a condition for an award. Awards presentation The Principal Award of €100,000 is presented during a ceremony at the Royal Palace in Amsterdam in December every year. The additional awards of €25,000 each are presented in the Dutch embassies in the countries where the live in December. List of previous awards books Traoré, Els van der Plas, Marlous Willemsen, the Hague, Prince Claus Fund. Plas, Els van der, Albie Sachs, the Hague, Prince Claus Fund.
The Hague, Prince Claus Fund, the Hague, Prince Claus Fund. Languages and transcultural forms of expression, the Hague, Prince Claus Fund. The Survival and Innovation of Crafts, the Hague, Prince Claus Fund. The positive results of Asylum and Migration, the Hague, Prince Claus Fund. The Hague, Prince Claus Fund, the Hague, Prince Claus Fund. Theme The winners of the 1997 awards embody the policy aims of the Prince Claus Fund, Exceptional work in the field of culture and development in Asia, Latin America and notably in Africa. Theme Creating Spaces of Freedom Laureates Mohand Fellag, comedian and writer Vitral, socio-cultural magazine Al Jazeera, independent television network Patrick Chamoiseau, writer Paulin J. N
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. Law as a system helps regulate and ensure that a community show respect, private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, the law shapes politics, economics and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. Islamic Sharia law is the worlds most widely used religious law, the adjudication of the law is generally divided into two main areas referred to as Criminal law and Civil law. Criminal law deals with conduct that is considered harmful to social order, Civil law deals with the resolution of lawsuits between individuals or organizations. Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, economic analysis. Law raises important and complex issues concerning equality, there is an old saying that all are equal before the law, although Jonathan Swift argued that Laws are like cobwebs, which may catch small flies, but let wasps and hornets break through.
In 1894, the author Anatole France said sarcastically, In its majestic equality, the law forbids rich and poor alike to sleep under bridges, beg in the streets, and steal loaves of bread. Writing in 350 BC, the Greek philosopher Aristotle declared, The rule of law is better than the rule of any individual, mikhail Bakunin said, All law has for its object to confirm and exalt into a system the exploitation of the workers by a ruling class. Cicero said more law, less justice, marxist doctrine asserts that law will not be required once the state has withered away. Regardless of ones view of the law, it today a completely central institution. Numerous definitions of law have been put forward over the centuries, at the same time, it plays only one part in the congeries of rules which influence behavior, for social and moral rules of a less institutionalized kind are of great importance. There have been attempts to produce a universally acceptable definition of law. In 1972, one indicated that no such definition could be produced.
McCoubrey and White said that the question what is law, glanville Williams said that the meaning of the word law depends on the context in which that word is used. He said that, for example, early customary law and municipal law were contexts where the law had two different and irreconcilable meanings. Thurman Arnold said that it is obvious that it is impossible to define the word law and it is possible to take the view that there is no need to define the word law. The history of law links closely to the development of civilization, Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code that was probably broken into twelve books
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
The Wehrmacht was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1946. It consisted of the Heer, the Kriegsmarine and the Luftwaffe, after the Nazi seizure of power in 1933, one of Adolf Hitler’s most overt and audacious moves was to establish the Wehrmacht, a modern armed forces fully capable of offensive use. In December 1941, Hitler designated himself as commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht, the Wehrmacht formed the heart of Germany’s politico-military power. In the early part of World War II, Hitlers generals employed the Wehrmacht through innovative combined arms tactics to devastating effect in what was called a Blitzkrieg, the Wehrmachts new military structure, unique combat techniques, newly developed weapons, and unprecedented speed and brutality crushed their opponents. Closely cooperating with the SS, the German armed forces committed war crimes and atrocities. By the time the war ended in Europe in May 1945, only a few of the Wehrmacht’s upper leadership were tried for war crimes, despite evidence suggesting that more were involved in illegal actions.
The German term Wehrmacht generically describes any nations armed forces, for example, the Frankfurt Constitution of 1848 designated all German military forces as the German Wehrmacht, consisting of the Seemacht and the Landmacht. In 1919, the term Wehrmacht appears in Article 47 of the Weimar Constitution, establishing that, from 1919, Germanys national defense force was known as the Reichswehr, a name that was dropped in favor of Wehrmacht on 21 May 1935. In January 1919, after World War I ended with the signing of the armistice of 11 November 1918, in March 1919, the national assembly passed a law founding a 420, 000-strong preliminary army, the Vorläufige Reichswehr. The terms of the Treaty of Versailles were announced in May, the army was limited to one hundred thousand men with an additional fifteen thousand in the navy. The fleet was to consist of at most six battleships, six cruisers, submarines and heavy artillery were forbidden and the air-force was dissolved. A new post-war military, the Reichswehr, was established on 23 March 1921, General conscription was abolished under another mandate of the Versailles treaty.
The Reichswehr was limited to 115,000 men, and thus the armed forces, under the leadership of Hans von Seeckt, though Seeckt retired in 1926, the army that went to war in 1939 was largely his creation. Germany was forbidden to have an air-force by the Versailles treaty and these officers saw the role of an air-force as winning air-superiority and strategic bombing and providing ground support. That the Luftwaffe did not develop a strategic bombing force in the 1930s was not due to a lack of interest, but because of economic limitations. The leadership of the Navy led by Grand Admiral Erich Raeder, officers who believed in submarine warfare led by Admiral Karl Dönitz were in a minority before 1939. By 1922, Germany had begun covertly circumventing the conditions of the Versailles Treaty, a secret collaboration with the Soviet Union began after the treaty of Rapallo. Major-General Otto Hasse traveled to Moscow in 1923 to further negotiate the terms, Germany helped the Soviet Union with industrialization and Soviet officers were to be trained in Germany