Brussels, officially the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels which is the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the region of Flanders or Wallonia. The region has a population of 1.2 million and an area with a population of over 1.8 million. Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions, the secretariat of the Benelux and the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization are located in Brussels. Today, it is considered an Alpha global city, historically a Dutch-speaking city, Brussels has seen a language shift to French from the late 19th century onwards. Today, the majority language is French, and the Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. All road signs, street names, and many advertisements and services are shown in both languages, Brussels is increasingly becoming multilingual with increasing numbers of migrants and minority groups speaking their own languages.
The most common theory of the origin of Brussels name is that it derives from the Old Dutch Broekzele or Broeksel, meaning marsh, Saint Vindicianus, the bishop of Cambrai made the first recorded reference to the place Brosella in 695 when it was still a hamlet. The origin of the settlement that was to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580. The official founding of Brussels is usually situated around 979, when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of Saint Gudula from Moorsel to the Saint Gaugericus chapel, Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island. Lambert I of Leuven, Count of Leuven gained the County of Brussels around 1000 by marrying Charles daughter, as it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. The Counts of Leuven became Dukes of Brabant at about this time, in the 13th century, the city got its first walls.
After the construction of the city walls in the early 13th century, to let the city expand, a second set of walls was erected between 1356 and 1383. Today, traces of it can still be seen, mostly because the small ring, Brabant had lost its independence, but Brussels became the Princely Capital of the prosperous Low Countries, and flourished. In 1516 Charles V, who had been heir of the Low Countries since 1506, was declared King of Spain in St. Michael and St. Gudula Cathedral in Brussels. Upon the death of his grandfather, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor in 1519 and it was in the Palace complex at Coudenberg that Charles V abdicated in 1555. This impressive palace, famous all over Europe, had expanded since it had first become the seat of the Dukes of Brabant. In 1695, during the Nine Years War, King Louis XIV of France sent troops to bombard Brussels with artillery, together with the resulting fire, it was the most destructive event in the entire history of Brussels
Princess Christina of the Netherlands
Bernardo Federico Tomas Guillermo is an Dutch-American furniture designer based in New York City. He is the son of Princess Christina of the Netherlands and first cousin of King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, bernardo Federico Tomas Guillermo was born on 17 June 1977 in Utrecht, Netherlands with the American nationality. He is the eldest son of Princess Christina of the Netherlands and he is the grandson of Juliana of the Netherlands, nephew of Beatrix of the Netherlands, and first cousin of Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands. He was baptized on 23 June 1977 at Palace Soestdijk in Baarn and his godparents are Princess Irene of the Netherlands, Prince Claus of the Netherlands, Marilyn Ann Montague, and James Chapin. Guillermo has a brother and a sister and he grew up in the United States and the Netherlands. From 1977 to 1984 he lived in New York City, when his family moved to the Netherlands, he lived in Palace Soestdijk and in Villa Eikenhorst in Wassenaar. He went to a school in Wassenaar and to a secondary school in The Hague.
After his parents divorce in 1996, his mother moved with him, in the United States, he first studied philosophy and art history, and industrial design at the Pratt Institute. Guillermo works as a designer and has a studio in Brooklyn. In 2005, he was nominated for the Rowena Reed Kostellow Design Award, on 2 March 2009, Guillermo married Eva Marie Valdez in a civil ceremony in New York City. Valdez, who works as an art editor, had previously married to Andrew Michael Prinz. On 13 April 2009, Guillermo and Valdez had a daughter Isabel
Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange
Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange, is the heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, consisting of the countries of the Netherlands, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten. Princess Catharina-Amalia is the eldest child of King Willem-Alexander and Queen Máxima and she became heir apparent when her father ascended the throne on 30 April 2013. Princess Catharina-Amalia Beatrix Carmen Victoria was born at 17,01 CET on 7 December 2003 in the HMC Bronovo in The Hague, as the first child of the then-Prince Willem-Alexander and Princess Máxima. On 12 June 2004, Catharina-Amalia was baptised by Reverend Carel ter Linden in the Great Church in The Hague, Princess Catharina-Amalia has two younger sisters, Princess Alexia and Princess Ariane. She lives with her parents and sisters in Villa Eikenhorst on the estate De Horsten in Wassenaar, the family will move to Huis ten Bosch in The Hague in the future. Since 10 December 2007, Catharina-Amalia has attended the primary school Bloemcampschool in Wassenaar.
She now attends the Christelijk Gymnasium Sorghvliet in the Hague, where her aunt Princess Laurentien attended and she speaks Dutch and some Spanish. On her seventh birthday, a Douglas C-47 Skytrain once owned by her great-grandfather, the princess herself was prevented from attending the naming ceremony by school obligations. Catharina-Amalia was one of the bridesmaids at the wedding of her godmother, Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, and Daniel Westling, Princess Catharina-Amalia will assume a seat in the Advisory Division of the Council of State of the Netherlands upon reaching the age of majority at 18. Upon the abdication, Princess Catharina-Amalia became the Princess of Orange as heir apparent, at the website of the Royal House of the Netherlands
Princess Mabel of Orange-Nassau
Princess Mabel of Orange-Nassau, better known as Mabel van Oranje and as Mabel of Orange, is the widow of Prince Friso, brother of King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands. In 2005, the World Economic Forum recognised her as a Young Global Leader, Van Oranje is an advisor to several non-profits, including the Coalition for the International Criminal Court, the Malala Fund, Crisis Action and the Open Society Foundations. She was born Mabel Martine Los in Pijnacker, the Netherlands and her parents were Hendrik Cornelis Henk Los and his wife Florence Malde Gijsberdina Flos Kooman. After Mabels father died, when she was 9 years old, her mother married Peter Wisse Smit in 1984, Princess Mabel has two younger sisters, Nicoline Los, Nicoline Wisse Smit and Eveline Wisse Smit. She grew up in Het Gooi in the central Netherlands and she studied economics and political science at the University of Amsterdam, graduating summa cum laude in 1993. During her studies she completed internships at the United Nations, Shell, ABN AMRO, in addition to Dutch, she speaks fluent English and French.
During her university years, she showed special interest in human rights situations around the world, in 1995 she was present at the peace conference in Dayton, Ohio. In 1995 she was one of the co-founders of War Child Netherlands, in 1997, she was appointed director of EU affairs of the Open Society Institute in Brussels, one of the foundations of Hungarian-American philanthropist George Soros. The World Economic Forum in Switzerland counted her as one of the hundred Global Leaders for Tomorrow and she is a member of the worldwide Forum of Young Global Leaders, a thinktank and lobby group that aims to tackle global issues. She is one of the members of the European thinktank European Council on Foreign Relations. She is a member of the Interpeace Governing Council and she oversaw the day-to-day operations for the Elders. In a letter to the Prime Minister dated 9 October, Prince Friso stated that the couple had given incomplete information. The couple admitted that the friendship with Bruinsma was indeed closer than had been mentioned.
This was repeated by Wisse Smit in a number of interviews, according to Dutch law, the government had to submit the couples marriage request to parliament for its approval, a prerequisite for succession to the throne. Prince Johan Friso said he would marry Smit regardless, and as a result lost his right to become king and he had been second in the order of succession, after his older brother, Willem-Alexander, the Prince of Orange. In this period Wisse Smit received negative publicity by revelations about her affair, Mabel Wisse Smit and Prince Friso of Orange-Nassau married in Delft on 24 April 2004. Therefore, neither Princess Mabel nor their daughters are members of the royal house, since her marriage, Mabel has used the style of Royal Highness and the courtesy titles of Princess of Orange-Nassau, Countess of Orange-Nassau, Mrs. Van Amsberg. She was not legally created a princess, but it is customary for wives and it was decided that their children each would receive the titles of Count or Countess of Orange-Nassau and Jonkheer or Jonkvrouw van Amsberg
Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is located 55.5 kilometres south-southeast of the centre of Paris, Fontainebleau is a sub-prefecture of the Seine-et-Marne department, and it is the seat of the arrondissement of Fontainebleau. The commune has the largest land area in the Île-de-France region, together with the neighbouring commune of Avon and three other smaller communes, form an urban area of 39,713 inhabitants. This urban area is a satellite of Paris, inhabitants of Fontainebleau are called Bellifontains. Fontainebleau has been recorded in different Latinised forms, such as, Fons Bleaudi, Fons Bliaudi, Fons Blaadi in the 12th and 13th centuries and it became Fons Bellaqueus in the 17th century, which gave rise to the name of the inhabitants as Bellifontains. The name originates as a composite of two words, Fontaine– meaning spring, or fountainhead, followed by a person’s Germanic name Blizwald. This hamlet was endowed with a hunting lodge and a chapel by Louis VII in the middle of the twelfth century.
A century later, Louis IX, called Saint Louis, who held Fontainebleau in high esteem and referred to it as his wilderness, had a country house, philip the Fair was born there in 1268 and died there in 1314. In all, thirty-four sovereigns, from Louis VI, the Fat, to Napoleon III, the connection between the town of Fontainebleau and the French monarchy was reinforced with the transformation of the royal country house into a true royal palace, the Palace of Fontainebleau. On 18 October 1685, Louis XIV signed the Edict of Fontainebleau there, the result was that a large number of Protestants were forced to convert to the Catholic faith, killed, or forced into exile, mainly in the Low Countries, Prussia and in England. The 1762 Treaty of Fontainebleau, an agreement between France and Spain concerning the Louisiana territory in North America, was concluded here. Also, preliminary negotiations, held before the 1763 Treaty of Paris was signed, during the French Revolution, Fontainebleau was temporarily renamed Fontaine-la-Montagne, meaning Fountain by the Mountain.
On 20 June 1812, Pope Pius VII arrived at the château of Fontainebleau, after a transfer from Savona, accompanied by his personal physician. In poor health, the Pope was the prisoner of Napoleon, from June 1812 until 23 January 1814, the Pope never left his apartments. According to contemporary sources, the occasion was very moving, the 1814 Treaty of Fontainebleau stripped Napoleon of his powers and sent him into exile on Elba. Until the 19th century, Fontainebleau was a village and a suburb of Avon, later, it developed as an independent residential city. For the 1924 Summer Olympics, the town played host to the portion of the modern pentathlon event. This event took place near a golf course, Fontainebleau hosted the general staff of the Allied Forces in Central Europe and the land forces command, the air forces command was located nearby at Camp Guynemer
Utrecht is the capital and most populous city in the Dutch province of Utrecht. It is located in the corner of the Randstad conurbation and is the fourth largest city in the Netherlands with a population of 330,772 in 2014. Utrechts ancient city centre features many buildings and structures several dating as far back as the High Middle Ages and it has been the religious centre of the Netherlands since the 8th century. It lost the status of prince-bishopric but remains the religious center in the country. Utrecht was the most important city in the Netherlands until the Dutch Golden Age, Utrecht is host to Utrecht University, the largest university in the Netherlands, as well as several other institutions of higher education. Due to its position within the country, it is an important transport hub for both rail and road transport. It has the second highest number of events in the Netherlands. In 2012, Lonely Planet included Utrecht in the top 10 of the world’s unsung places, a series of such fortresses was built after the Roman emperor Claudius decided the empire should not expand north.
To consolidate the border the limes Germanicus defense line was constructed along the branch of the river Rhine. These fortresses were designed to house a cohort of about 500 Roman soldiers, near the fort settlements would grow housing artisans and soldiers wives and children. In Roman times, the name of the Utrecht fortress was simply Traiectum, Traiectum became Dutch Trecht, with the U from Old Dutch uut added to distinguish U-trecht from Maas-tricht. In 11th-century official documents it was Latinized as Ultra Traiectum, around the year 200, the wooden walls of the fortification were replaced by sturdier tuff stone walls, remnants of which are still to be found below the buildings around Dom Square. From the middle of the 3rd century Germanic tribes regularly invaded the Roman territories, around 275 the Romans could no longer maintain the northern border and Utrecht was abandoned. Little is known about the next period 270–650, Utrecht is first spoken of again several centuries after the Romans left.
Under the influence of the realms of the Franks, during Dagobert Is reign in the 7th century. In ongoing border conflicts with the Frisians this first church was destroyed, by the mid-7th century and Irish missionaries set out to convert the Frisians. The pope appointed their leader, bishop of the Frisians, the tenure of Willibrordus is generally considered to be the beginning of the Bishopric of Utrecht. In 723, the Frankish leader Charles Martel bestowed the fortress in Utrecht, from on Utrecht became one of the most influential seats of power for the Roman Catholic Church in the Netherlands
Prince Friso of Orange-Nassau
Prince Friso of Orange-Nassau was a younger brother of King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands. On 17 February 2012, Prince Friso was buried under an avalanche in Lech, Austria and he was taken to a hospital in Innsbruck where he was in a critical but stable condition. His initial coma progressed to a conscious state and it was unclear whether he would ever regain full consciousness. On 12 August 2013, one and a years after the accident. He had one brother, current King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands and one younger brother. His titles at birth were Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Prince Friso was baptized on 28 December 1968 in the Dom Church in Utrecht. His godparents were Prince Harald of Norway, Johan Christian Baron von Jenisch, Herman van Roijen, Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, in 1986, he graduated from the secondary school Eerste Vrijzinnig Christelijk Lyceum in The Hague. From 1986 until 1988, he studied engineering at the University of California, Berkeley.
From 1988 to 1994 he studied at Delft University of Technology, additionally, he earned an MSc degree in economics from Erasmus University Rotterdam. To prepare himself for the possibility of succession to the throne, he took courses in Dutch law, Prince Friso worked from 1995 until 1996 at the Amsterdam branch of the international management consultancy McKinsey. After completing an MBA-programme at INSEAD, Prince Friso worked as president from 1998 till 2003 in Goldman Sachs International in London. In 2004, he became part-time co-president of TNO Space in Delft, from October 2006, Prince Friso was Managing Director in the London office of the private investment and advisory firm Wolfensohn & Company. Prince Friso was a co-founder of the MRI Centre in Amsterdam and was a shareholder of Wizzair. Prince Friso was honorary chairman of the Prince Claus Fund for Culture, prior to his accident, Prince Friso was working as a chief financial officer for URENCO, a uranium enrichment company. On 30 June 2003, it was announced that Prince Friso was to marry Mabel Wisse Smit and this breach of trust was the reason the government did not seek parliamentary permission, respecting the wishes of the couple.
They nevertheless married in Delft on 24 April 2004, and Mabel Wisse Smit became a member of the Dutch Royal Family but not a member of the Dutch Royal House. Considering that his elder brother King Willem-Alexander has three children, Prince Frisos exclusion from the succession was unlikely to have an effect on the monarchy in the Netherlands. After their marriage, Prince Friso and his wife Princess Mabel set up home in London, the couple had two daughters, Countess Emma Luana Ninette Sophie of Orange-Nassau, Jonkvrouwe van Amsberg, born 26 March 2005 in London
Princess Alexia of the Netherlands
Princess Alexia of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau is the second daughter of King Willem-Alexander and Queen Máxima. Princess Alexia is member of the Dutch Royal House and second in the line of succession to the Dutch throne, Princess Alexia was born in the HMC Bronovo in The Hague. Her baptism took place on 19 November 2005 in Wassenaar, Alexia has an elder sister, Catharina-Amalia, The Princess of Orange, and a younger sister, Ariane. She speaks Dutch and Spanish, in February 2016, while on a skiing holiday with her family in Austria, Princess Alexia broke her right femur. She was transported via helicopter to a hospital and had surgery to repair the injury. After a few days in hospital she was released and will require the use of crutches while she heals, updates on Princess Alexias condition have been posted on the official website of the Dutch monarchy. The accident occurred in the area as the avalanche which resulted in eventually fatal injuries to her paternal uncle and godfather, Prince Friso.
Alexias full title and style is, Her Royal Highness Princess Alexia of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau
House of Orange-Nassau
Several members of the house served during this war and after as governor or stadtholder during the Dutch Republic. However, in 1815, after a period as a republic. The dynasty was established as a result of the marriage of Henry III of Nassau-Breda from Germany and their son René inherited in 1530 the independent and sovereign Principality of Orange from his mothers brother, Philibert of Châlon. As the first Nassau to be the Prince of Orange, René could have used Orange-Nassau as his new family name, his uncle, in his will, had stipulated that René should continue the use of the name Châlon-Orange. History knows him therefore as René of Châlon, after the death of René in 1544 his cousin William of Nassau-Dillenburg inherited all his lands. This William I of Orange, in English better known as William the Silent, the Castle of Nassau was founded around 1100 by Count Dudo-Henry of Laurenburg, the founder of the House of Nassau. In 1120, Dudo-Henrys sons and successors, Counts Robert I and Arnold I of Laurenburg and they renovated and extended the castle complex in 1124.
The first man to be called the count of Nassau was Robert I of Nassau, the Nassau family married into the family of the neighboring Counts of Arnstein. His sons Walram and Otto split the Nassau possessions, the descendants of Walram became known as the Walram Line, which became Dukes of Nassau, and in 1890, the Grand Dukes of Luxembourg. This line included Adolph of Nassau, who was elected King of the Romans in 1292, the descendants of Otto became known as the Ottonian Line, which inherited parts of Nassau County, and properties in France and the Netherlands. The House of Orange-Nassau stems from the younger Ottonian Line, the first of this line to establish himself in the Netherlands was John I, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, who married Margareta of the Marck. The real founder of the Nassau fortunes in the Netherlands was Johns son and he became counsellor to the Burgundian Dukes of Brabant, first to Anton of Burgundy, and to his son Jan IV of Brabant. He would serve Philip the Good, in 1403 he married the Dutch noblewoman Johanna van Polanen, and so inherited lands in the Netherlands, with the Barony of Breda as the core of the Dutch possessions and the family fortune. A nobles power was based on his ownership of vast tracts of land.
It helped that much of the lands that the House of Orange and Nassau controlled sat under one of the commercial and mercantile centers of the world (see below under Lands and Titles. The importance of the Nassaus grew throughout the 15th and 16th centuries as they became councilors, Engelbert II of Nassau served Charles the Bold and Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, who had married Charless daughter Mary of Burgundy. In 1496 he was appointed stadtholder of Flanders and by 1498 he had been named President of the Grand Conseil, in 1501, Maximilian named him Lieutenant-General of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. From that point forward, Engelbert was the representative of the Habsburg Empire to the region
University Medical Center Utrecht
The University Medical Center Utrecht or UMCU is the main hospital of the city of Utrecht. It is affiliated with the Utrecht University, since the foundation of the university in 1636 an academic hospital has existed in various forms. Nowadays the UMC Utrecht comprises the academic hospital, the faculty of Medicine as well as the Wilhelmina Childrens hospital. In total approximately 10,000 people work at the UMCU including medical staff, nursing staff, support personnel and researchers, the UMCU features a Major Incident Hospital. This facility is intended for treating groups of more than five military or civilian casualties in case of major catastrophes, one case was reported in which a patient’s carotid artery was accidentally cut during a surgery. The patient died a day later, in April 2016 the Healthcare Inspectorate placed the UMCU on warning for poor healthcare and under increased supervision, after it was revealed that additional fatal incidents had been covered up. In July 2016 it was revealed that in 2015 six patients had developed an eye infection following an eye surgery at the UMCU, four of these six patients have gone blind and hold the UMCU responsible.
The UMCU had to close one of the rooms as a result. Half the women had become pregnant or given birth
Prince Jaime, Count of Bardi
Prince Jaime Bernardo of Bourbon-Parma, Count of Bardi is the second son and third child of Princess Irene of the Netherlands and the late Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma. He is a member of the Royal and Ducal House of Bourbon-Parma, and a member of the Dutch Royal Family. The title Count of Bardi is not recognized within the Dutch nobility, since 2014 he has been the Dutch ambassador to the Holy See. Prince Jaime was born in Nijmegen and he has a twin sister, Princess Margarita, who was born one minute earlier. Besides his twin sister, the prince has one brother, Duke of Parma. Prince Jaime was born six weeks prematurely and stayed with his sister in an incubator at the hospital, Jaime was baptised by Cardinal Bernardus Johannes Alfrink, with Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands and Princess Madeleine of Bourbon-Parma as his godparents. In 1981 his parents decided to divorce, together with his mother and his siblings he moved to the Soestdijk Palace, the residence of the queen of the Netherlands. He lived at the palace for a number of years with his grandparents, Queen Juliana of the Netherlands and Prince Bernhard, Prince Jaime studied international relations at Brown University in the United States.
After finishing this study he obtained a M. A. degree in International Economics. During this study he performed an internship at the World Wide Fund for Nature and he now works for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands. Until the summer of 2007 the prince worked on secondment in the cabinet of the European Commissioner Neelie Kroes and he was back in The Hague at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, where he has the position of Special Envoy for Natural Resources. On 7 February 2014, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that he would be appointed as ambassador of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the Holy See, Prince Jaime was, on 15 July 2014, sworn in as ambassador by King Willem-Alexander. On 20 December 2014 he offered his credentials to Pope Francis, Prince Jaime has worked as an interviewer for the documentary series Africa, War is Business. In the documentary he investigated and explained how a country that is rich in raw materials can be dominated by poverty. In the documentary possible solutions are displayed from the perspective of the international community, the prince performs representative tasks for the Ducal House of Bourbon-Parma.
He is regularly present at royal marriages, baptismal ceremonies, on 12 August 2013, Prince Jaimes engagement to Viktória Cservenyák was announced. Cservenyák is a Hungarian-born Dutch attorney and daughter of Dr. Tibor Cservenyák and his former wife, on 3 October 2013, they married in a civil wedding ceremony in Wijk bij Duurstede. Their religious wedding took place on 5 October 2013, at the Church of Our Lady in Apeldoorn and they have two daughters, Her Royal Highness Princess Zita Clara of Bourbon-Parma