Sophia Dorothea of Celle
Sophia Dorothea of Celle was the repudiated wife of future King George I of Great Britain, mother of George II. The union with her first cousin was an arranged marriage of state, instigated by the machinations of his mother, Sophia of Hanover, she is best remembered for her alleged affair with Philip Christoph von Königsmarck that led to her being imprisoned in the Castle of Ahlden for the last thirty years of her life. Sophia Dorothea was born on 15 September 1666, the only child of George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg by his long-term mistress, Eleonore d'Esmier d'Olbreuse, Countess of Williamsburg, a Huguenot lady, the daughter of Alexander II d'Esmiers, Marquess of Olbreuse. George William married Eleonore in 1676. There was some talk of marriage between Sophia Dorothea and the future king of Denmark, but the reigning queen was talked out of it by Sophia of Hanover. Another engagement, to the Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, was broken off after Duchess Sophia convinced her brother-in-law of the advantage of having Sophia Dorothea marry her cousin.
This occurred on the day the engagement between Sophia Dorothea and the Duke was to be announced. When told of the change in plans and her new future husband, Sophia Dorothea shouted that "I will not marry the pig snout!", threw against the wall a miniature of George Louis brought for her by Duchess Sophia. Forced by her father, she fainted into her mother's arms on her first meeting with her future mother-in-law, she fainted again. On 22 November 1682, in Celle, Sophia Dorothea married George Louis. In 1705 he would inherit the Principality of Lüneburg after the death of his father-in-law and uncle, George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, in 1714 the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland and became King George I of Great Britain through his mother, Duchess Sophia, a granddaughter of James VI and I; the marriage of George Louis and Sophia Dorothea was an unhappy one. His immediate family his mother Duchess Sophia and despised Sophia Dorothea; the desire for the marriage was purely financial, as Duchess Sophia wrote to her niece Elizabeth Charlotte, "One hundred thousand thalers a year is a goodly sum to pocket, without speaking of a pretty wife, who will find a match in my son George Louis, the most pigheaded, stubborn boy who lived, who has round his brains such a thick crust that I defy any man or woman to discover what is in them.
He does not care much for the match itself, but one hundred thousand thalers a year have tempted him as they would have tempted anybody else". These feelings of contempt were shared by George Louis himself, oddly formal to his wife. Sophia Dorothea was scolded for her lack of etiquette, the two had loud and bitter arguments. Things seemed better after the birth of their first two children: George Augustus, born 1683 King George II of Great Britain Sophia Dorothea, born 1686 wife of King Frederick William I of Prussia, mother of Frederick the GreatBut George Louis acquired a mistress, Melusine von der Schulenburg, started pointedly neglecting his wife, his parents asked him to be more circumspect with his mistress, fearful that a disruption in the marriage would disrupt the payment of the 100,000 thalers. George Louis and Sophia Dorothea became estranged—George preferred the company of his mistress, Melusine von der Schulenburg, Sophia Dorothea, had her own romance with the Swedish Count Philip Christoph von Königsmarck.
Threatened with the scandal of an elopement, the Hanoverian court, including George's brothers and mother, urged the lovers to desist, but to no avail. According to diplomatic sources from Hanover's enemies, in July 1694 the Swedish count was killed with the connivance of George, his body thrown into the river Leine weighted with stones; the murder was claimed to have been committed by four of Ernest Augustus's courtiers, one of whom was paid the enormous sum of 150,000 thalers, about one hundred times the annual salary of the highest paid minister. Rumours supposed that Königsmarck was hacked to pieces and buried beneath the Hanover palace floorboards. However, sources in Hanover itself, including Sophia, denied any knowledge of Königsmarck's whereabouts. George's marriage to Sophia Dorothea was dissolved, not on the grounds that either of them had committed adultery, but on the grounds that Sophia Dorothea had abandoned her husband. With the agreement of her father, George had Sophia Dorothea imprisoned in Ahlden House in her native Celle, where she stayed until she died more than thirty years later.
She was denied access to her children and father, forbidden to remarry and only allowed to walk unaccompanied within the mansion courtyard. She was, endowed with an income and servants, was allowed to ride in a carriage outside her castle, albeit under supervision, she remained under house arrest until her death more than thirty years later. Sophia Dorothea is sometimes referred to as the "princess of Ahlden". Sophia Dorothea fell ill in August 1726, she died aged 60 on 13 November 1726 of liver gall bladder occlusion. George placed an announcement in The London Gazette to the effect that the "Duchess of Ahlden" had died, but would not allow the wearing of mourning in London or Hanover, he was furious. Sophia Dorothea's body deposited in the castle's cellar, it was moved to Celle in May 1727 to be buried beside her parents in the Stadtkirche. Geor
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the United Kingdom's most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and British monarchs; the building itself was a Benedictine monastic church until the monastery was dissolved in 1539. Between 1540 and 1556, the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, the building is no longer an abbey or a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England "Royal Peculiar"—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site in the seventh century, at the time of Mellitus, a Bishop of London. Construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III. Since the coronation of William the Conqueror in 1066, all coronations of English and British monarchs have been in Westminster Abbey.
There have been 16 royal weddings at the abbey since 1100. As the burial site of more than 3,300 persons of predominant prominence in British history, Westminster Abbey is sometimes described as'Britain's Valhalla', after the iconic burial hall of Norse mythology. A late tradition claims that Aldrich, a young fisherman on the River Thames, had a vision of Saint Peter near the site; this seems to have been quoted as the origin of the salmon that Thames fishermen offered to the abbey in years – a custom still observed annually by the Fishmongers' Company. The recorded origins of the Abbey date to the 960s or early 970s, when Saint Dunstan and King Edgar installed a community of Benedictine monks on the site. Between 1042 and 1052, King Edward the Confessor began rebuilding St Peter's Abbey to provide himself with a royal burial church, it was the first church in England built in the Romanesque style. The building was completed around 1060 and was consecrated on 28 December 1065, only a week before Edward's death on 5 January 1066.
A week he was buried in the church. His successor, Harold II, was crowned in the abbey, although the first documented coronation is that of William the Conqueror the same year; the only extant depiction of Edward's abbey, together with the adjacent Palace of Westminster, is in the Bayeux Tapestry. Some of the lower parts of the monastic dormitory, an extension of the South Transept, survive in the Norman Undercroft of the Great School, including a door said to come from the previous Saxon abbey. Increased endowments supported a community increased from a dozen monks in Dunstan's original foundation, up to a maximum about eighty monks; the abbot and monks, in proximity to the royal Palace of Westminster, the seat of government from the 13th century, became a powerful force in the centuries after the Norman Conquest. The Abbot of Westminster was employed on royal service and in due course took his place in the House of Lords as of right. Released from the burdens of spiritual leadership, which passed to the reformed Cluniac movement after the mid-10th century, occupied with the administration of great landed properties, some of which lay far from Westminster, "the Benedictines achieved a remarkable degree of identification with the secular life of their times, with upper-class life", Barbara Harvey concludes, to the extent that her depiction of daily life provides a wider view of the concerns of the English gentry in the High and Late Middle Ages.
The proximity of the Palace of Westminster did not extend to providing monks or abbots with high royal connections. The abbot remained Lord of the Manor of Westminster as a town of two to three thousand persons grew around it: as a consumer and employer on a grand scale the monastery helped fuel the town economy, relations with the town remained unusually cordial, but no enfranchising charter was issued during the Middle Ages; the abbey became the coronation site of Norman kings. None were buried there until Henry III, intensely devoted to the cult of the Confessor, rebuilt the abbey in Anglo-French Gothic style as a shrine to venerate King Edward the Confessor and as a suitably regal setting for Henry's own tomb, under the highest Gothic nave in England; the Confessor's shrine subsequently played a great part in his canonization. Construction of the present church began in 1245 by Henry III; the first building stage included the entire eastern end, the transepts, the easternmost bay of the nave.
The Lady Chapel built from around 1220 at the extreme eastern end was incorporated into the chevet of the new building, but was replaced. This work must have been completed by 1258-60, when the second stage was begun; this carried the nave on an additional five bays. Here construction stopped in about 1269, a consecration ceremony being held on 13 October of that year, because of Henry's death did not resume; the old Romanesque nave remained attached to the new building for over a century, until it was pulled down in the late 14th century and rebuilt from 1376 following the original design. Construction was finished by the architect Henry Yevele in the reign of Richard II. Henry III commissioned the unique Cosmati pavement in front of the High Altar (the pavement has undergone a major cleani
Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn
Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn was the sixth child and fourth son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, a younger brother of George III. His 1771 marriage to a commoner against the King's wishes prompted the Royal Marriages Act of 1772. Prince Henry of Wales was born on 7 November 1745 at Leicester House, London, to Frederick, Prince of Wales, son of George II and Caroline of Ansbach, his wife The Princess of Wales, he was christened at Leicester House twenty-three days later. On 22 October 1766, just prior to his twenty-first birthday, the prince was created Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn and Earl of Dublin. On 4 March 1767, the Duke of Cumberland married Olive Wilmot, a commoner, in a secret ceremony. There was one child, Olivia Wilmot, from this relationship, though the duke's paternity was never proven, Olivia Wilmot was accused of forging the evidence. A landscape painter and novelist, Olivia Wilmot married John Thomas Serres and controversially, assumed the title of "Princess Olivia of Cumberland".
Cumberland's mistresses included Ann Elliot, an actress before another had taken her off the stage. Cumberland set her up in a house in Greek Street in Soho where she died after an illness in 1769. Cumberland gave a large sum to her estate. In 1769, the Duke of Cumberland was sued by Lord Grosvenor for "criminal conversation" after the Duke and Lady Grosvenor were discovered in flagrante delicto. Lord Grosvenor was awarded damages of £10,000, which together with costs amounted to an award of £13,000. In 1768, at the late age of 22, the Duke entered the Royal Navy as a midshipman and was sent to Corsica in HMS Venus. However, he returned in September when the ship was recalled following the French invasion of the Corsican Republic, he was promoted to Rear-Admiral the following year and Vice-Admiral in 1770. On 2 October 1771 the Duke married Anne Horton, daughter of Irish peer and British MP Simon Luttrell, the widow of Christopher Horton of Catton Hall; the marriage caused a rift with the King, who considered it a mismatch, was the catalyst for the Royal Marriages Act 1772, which forbade any descendant of George II to marry without the monarch's permission.
There were no children from this marriage. The marriage between Anne Horton and the Duke of Cumberland was described as a "conquest at Brighthelmstone" by Mrs. Horton, "who", Horace Walpole says, "had for many months been dallying with his passion, till she had fixed him to more serious views than he had intended." Anne was however thought one of the great beauties of the age, Thomas Gainsborough painted her several times. In 1775, the Duke established the Cumberland Fleet, which would become the Royal Thames Yacht Club, he was promoted vice-admiral of the White in 1776, admiral of the Blue in 1778, admiral of the White in 1782, though he was forbidden from assuming any command. The Duke was instrumental in the development of Brighton as a popular resort, he had first visited in 1771, in 1783, the Prince of Wales visited his uncle there. The Duke of Cumberland died in London on 18 September 1790, his widow died in 1808. 7 November 1745 – 22 October 1766: His Royal Highness Prince Henry 22 October 1766 – 18 September 1790: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cumberland and StrathearnThe prince's full style, as recited by Garter King of Arms at his funeral, was the "Most High, Most Mighty and Illustrious Prince Henry Frederick, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, Earl of Dublin, Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter".
Henry was granted use of the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of five points, the centre bearing a cross gules, the other points each bearing a fleur-de-lys azure. Henry Churchyard "Royal Genealogies, Part 10" Sam Sloan "Big Combined Family Trees" Portrait of the Duchess of Cumberland
Prince William, Duke of Cumberland
Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, was the third and youngest son of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland and his wife, Caroline of Ansbach. He was Duke of Cumberland from 1726, he is best remembered for his role in putting down the Jacobite Rising at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, which made him immensely popular throughout Britain. He is referred to by the nickname given to him by his Tory opponents:'Butcher' Cumberland. Despite his triumph at Culloden, he had a unsuccessful military career. Between 1748 and 1755 he attempted to enact a series of army reforms that were resisted by the opposition and by the army itself. Following the Convention of Klosterzeven in 1757, he never again held active military command and switched his attentions to politics and horse racing. William was born in Leicester House, in Leicester Fields, London, where his parents had moved after his grandfather, George I, accepted the invitation to ascend the British throne, his godparents included the King and Queen in Prussia, but they did not take part in person and were represented by proxy.
On 27 July 1726, at only five years old, he was created Duke of Cumberland, Marquess of Berkhamstead in the County of Hertford, Earl of Kennington in the County of Surrey, Viscount of Trematon in the County of Cornwall, Baron of the Isle of Alderney. The young prince was educated well. Another of his tutors was his mother's favourite Andrew Fountaine. At Hampton Court Palace, apartments were designed specially for him by William Kent. William's elder brother Frederick, Prince of Wales, proposed dividing the king's dominions. Frederick would get Britain; this proposal came to nothing. From childhood, he showed physical courage and ability, became his parents' favourite, he was made a Knight of the Bath aged four. He was intended, by the King and Queen, for the office of Lord High Admiral, and, in 1740, he sailed, as a volunteer, in the fleet under the command of Sir John Norris, but he became dissatisfied with the Navy, instead secured the post of colonel of the First Regiment of Foot Guards on 20 February 1741.
In December 1742, he became a major-general, the following year, he first saw active service in Germany. George II and the "martial boy" shared in the glory of the Battle of Dettingen, where Cumberland was wounded in the leg by a musket ball. After the battle he was made a lieutenant general. In 1745, Cumberland was given the honorary title of Captain-General of the British land forces and in Flanders became Commander-in-Chief of the allied British, Hanoverian and Dutch troops despite his inexperience, he planned to take the offensive against the French, in a move he hoped would lead to the capture of Paris, but was persuaded by his advisors that this was impossible given the vast numerical superiority of the enemy. As it became clear that the French intention was to take Tournai, Cumberland advanced to the relief of the town, besieged by Marshal Saxe. In the resulting Battle of Fontenoy on 11 May 1745, the Allies were defeated by the French. Saxe had picked the battleground on which to confront the British, filled the nearby woods with French marksmen.
Cumberland ignored the threat of the woods when drawing up his battle plans, instead concentrated on seizing the town of Fontenoy and attacking the main French army nearby. Despite a concerted Anglo-Hanoverian attack on the French centre, which led many to believe the Allies had won, the failure to clear the woods and of the Dutch forces to capture Fontenoy forced Cumberland's force onto the retreat. Following the battle Cumberland was criticised for his tactics the failure to occupy the woods. In the wake of the battle, Cumberland was forced to retreat to Brussels and was unable to prevent the fall of Ghent and Ostend; as the leading British general of the day, he was chosen to put a decisive stop to Prince Charles Edward Stuart, a direct descendant of James VII of Scotland and II of England, in the Jacobite rising of 1745. His appointment was popular, caused morale to soar amongst the public and troops loyal to King George. Recalled from Flanders, Cumberland proceeded with preparations for quelling the Stuart uprising.
The Jacobite army had advanced southwards into England, hoping that English Jacobites would rise and join them. However, after receiving only limited support such as the Manchester Regiment, the followers of Charles decided to withdraw to Scotland. Cumberland joined the Midland army under Ligonier, began pursuit of the enemy, as the Stuarts retreated northwards from Derby. On reaching Penrith, the advanced portion of his army was repulsed on Clifton Moor in December 1745, Cumberland became aware that an attempt to overtake the retreating Highlanders would be hopeless. Carlisle was retaken, he was recalled to London, where preparations were in hand to meet an expected French invasion; the defeat of his replacement as commander, Henry Hawley, roused the fears of the English people in January 1746, under a hail of pistol fire, "eighty dragoons fell dead upon the spot" at Falkirk Muir. Arriving in Edinburgh on 30 January 1746, he at once proceeded in search of Charles, he made a detour to Aberdeen, where he spent some time training the well-equipped forces now under his command for the next stage of the conflict in which they were about to engage.
He trained his troops to hold their fire until the enemy came within effective firing range, fire once, bayonet
Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a royal title granted to sons and grandsons of reigning and past British monarchs. It is held by the Duke of Edinburgh, husband of Queen Elizabeth II; the title is granted by the reigning monarch, the fount of all honours, through the issuing of letters patent as an expression of the royal will. Individuals holding the title of prince will also be granted the style of Royal Highness; when a British prince is married, his wife, if not a princess in her own right, gains the title in her husband's princely title. For example, the wife of Prince Michael of Kent is known by the title of Princess Michael of Kent. Prior to 1714, the title of prince and the style of HRH was not customary in usage. Sons and daughters of the sovereign were not automatically or traditionally called a prince or princess. An exception was the Prince of Wales, a title conferred on the eldest son of the sovereign since the reign of Edward I of England. In the Kingdom of Scotland though an honorific principality was created by James I, the heir-apparent was only referred to as Duke of Rothesay.
Some others include John, brother of Richard the Lionheart and King John, sometimes called Prince John. After the accession of George I, it became customary for the sons of the sovereign and grandsons of the sovereign in the male line to be titled'Prince' and styled His Royal Highness. Great-grandsons of the sovereign were princes styled His Highness; the first male-line great-grandchild of a British monarch was not born until 1776. In keeping with tradition he was given the style of His Highness Prince William of Gloucester. On 22 July 1816 when he married his cousin and daughter of King George III, he was granted the style His Royal Highness, his only surviving elder sister, Princess Sophia of Gloucester, was elevated to Her Royal Highness style the following day. Prince William died in 1834 before the accession of Queen Victoria; the first of the second set of male-line great-grandchildren of a British monarch was born on 21 September 1845 as Prince Ernest Augustus. He was granted the style of His Royal Highness because he was a male-line grandson of the King of Hanover, heir to the heir of that kingdom.
Just three weeks after the birth of her fourth grandchild but first male-line grandson, Queen Victoria issued letters patent in 1864 which formally confirmed the practice of calling children and male-line grandchildren His Royal Highness with their titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their respective Christian names. The letters patent did not address the styling of great grandchildren or further descendants as His/Her Highness or Prince or Princess. Subsequent to 1864 some amendments regarding princes were made, with the issuance of specific letters patent changing the title and style of the following groups: In 1898, the children of Prince George, Duke of York, the eldest living son of the Prince of Wales, were customarily titled princes, with the style of Highness, as great-grandchildren of Queen Victoria in the male line. With letters patent dated 28 May 1898, the Crown granted the children of the eldest son of any Prince of Wales the style of Royal Highness. In 1914, the children of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, a great-great-grandchild of George III, were granted the title of prince and the style Highness by George V, in letters patent dated 17 June 1914.
In 1917, George V issued a royal proclamation, altering the name of the Royal House from the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to the House of Windsor and the discontinuance of the usage of the German titles of Duke of Saxony, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and the like. That year, letters patent altered the rights to the title prince and the style Royal Highness; these letters patent, dated 30 November 1917, stated that "the children of any Sovereign of these Realms and the children of the sons of any such Sovereign and the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales shall have and at all times hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness with their titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their respective Christian names or with their other titles of honour". It was decreed in these letters that "grandchildren of the sons of any such Sovereign in the direct male line... shall have and enjoy in all occasions the style and title enjoyed by the children of Dukes of these Our Realms".
In addition the letters stated save as aforesaid the style title or attribute of Royal Highness, Highness or Serene Highness and the titular dignity of Prince or Princess shall not henceforth be assumed or borne by any descendent of any Sovereign of these Realms. Both the proclamation and the letters patent of 1917 remain in force today, excepting a few amendments and creations noted. However, the former reigning Duke of Brunswick, head of the House of Hanover, refused to recognise the letters depriving his children of the British and Irish princely titles, in 1931, he issued a decree, in the capacity of the head of the House of Hanover and senior male-line descendant of George III of the United Kingdom, stating that the members of the former Hanoverian royal family would continue to bear the title of Prince of Great Britain and Ireland with the style of Royal Highness; this title and style remains in use to this day by his descendants, including the current head of the House of Hanover, Ernst August, Prince of Hanover.
The decree by the head of the House of Hanover is not recognised in