Age of Empires (video game)
Age of Empires is a history-based real-time strategy video game developed by Ensemble Studios and published by Microsoft. The game uses the Genie, a 2D sprite-based game engine, the game allows the user to act as the leader of an ancient civilization by advancing it through four ages, gaining access to new and improved units with each advance. It was ported to Pocket PCs with Windows, resulting in a very similar to the PC game. Originally touted as Civilization meets Warcraft, some felt that the game failed to live up to these expectations when it was released. Despite this, it received good reviews, and an expansion pack. Both the original Age of Empires and the pack were released as The Gold Edition. A sequel, Age of Empires II, was released in 1999, Age of Empires requires the player to develop a civilization from a handful of hunter-gatherers to an expansive Iron Age Empire. To assure victory, the player must gather resources in order to pay for new units, resources must be preserved, as no new resources become available as the game progresses, for example, trees that are cut down will not grow back.
Each with individual sets of attributes, including a number of available technologies. Each civilization has technologies unique to them, so that no civilization possesses all the technologies possible within the game, a major component of the game is the advancement through four ages. These are the Stone Age, the Tool Age, the Bronze Age, advancement between ages is researched at the Town Center, and each advancement brings the player new technologies and units. The game features four campaigns in which the player is required to complete specific objectives. Campaigns are a collection of scenarios which are completed in a linear fashion, aside from the campaigns, there is a game mode called random map, in which a different map is generated for each new game. Variations of random map, such as the death match, are available. Age of Empires facilitated online and network play with up to 8 people simultaneously, because the network play is less sophisticated than that of modern games and disconnections often occur.
Until June 19,2006, multiplayer gameplay was supported by Microsoft Gaming Zone, at that point, the Zone abandoned support of most CD-ROM games, including Age of Empires and Age of Empires II, The Age of Kings. The creation of user-made scenarios or series of scenarios for the game was possible using the Scenario Builder. This tool is simpler and easier to learn than comparable editors used in modern games
Emperor Yang of Sui
Emperor Yangs original name was Yang Ying, but was renamed by his father, after consulting with oracles, to Yang Guang. Yang Guang was made the Prince of Jin after Emperor Wen established Sui Dynasty in 581, in 588, he was granted command of the five armies that invaded the southern Chen dynasty and was widely praised for the success of this campaign. These military achievements, as well as his machinations against his older brother Yang Yong, after the death of his father in 604, generally considered, though unproven, by most traditional historians to be a murder ordered by Yang Guang, he ascended the throne as Emperor Yang. Emperor Yang, ruling from 604 to 618, committed to large construction projects. He commanded the reconstruction of the Great Wall, a project which took the lives of six million workers. These expeditions, along with a series of campaigns against Goguryeo, left the empire bankrupt. With northern China in turmoil, Emperor Yang spent his last days in Jiangdu, Yang Guang was born in 569, during the reign of Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou.
His parents were Yang Jian the Duke of Sui and Yang Jians wife Duchess Dugu Qieluo. He was their son, after Yang Yong, and he had at least one older sister, Yang Lihua. He was considered handsome and intelligent in his youth, and of Yang Jians and Duchess Dugus sons, sometime during Northern Zhou, on account of Yang Jians achievements, he was created the Duke of Yanmen. In 580, Yang Jian seized power as regent after Emperor Xuans death, in 581, he had Emperor Xuans son, Emperor Jing, yield the throne to him, ending Northern Zhou and establishing Sui Dynasty as its Emperor Wen. Emperor Wen created Yang Yong crown prince and created his other imperial princes. Yang Guang thus received the title of Prince of Jin, in 581, Emperor Wen made Yang Guang the commandant at Bing Province, in charge of the provinces north of the Yellow River. In 582, Emperor Wen set up a branch of the bureau of his government at Bing Province. He made the official Wang Shao the deputy head and had him assist Yang Guang, in 582, Emperor Wen took a daughter of his vassal Emperor Ming of Western Liang to be Yang Guangs wife and princess.
It was said that Yang Guang loved and respected her, in 585, with Ashina Shetu under attack from one of his subordinate khans, the Datou Khan Ashina Dianjue, Emperor Wen in fact sent Yang Guang to aid Ashina Shetu. In 588, Emperor Wen moved Yang Guangs headquarters to Shouchun, in winter 588, Emperor Wen launched a major attack on rival Chen Dynasty. Yang Guang, his brother Yang Jun, and the general Yang Su were in command of the three prongs of the operation, with Yang Guang in command of the eastern prong as well as the overall operation
Gifu is a city located in the south-central portion of Gifu Prefecture and serves as the prefectural capital. The city has played an important role in Japans history because of its location in the middle of the country, during the Sengoku period, various warlords, including Oda Nobunaga, used the area as a base in an attempt to unify and control Japan. Gifu continued to flourish even after Japans unification as both an important shukuba along the Edo period Nakasendō and, later, as one of Japans fashion centers. Before becoming a city, it was part of the former Atsumi District. Mount Kinka, one of the major symbols, is home to a nationally designated forest and Gifu Castle. Gifu hosts festivals and events throughout the year. Two major rail lines connect Gifu to Japans national and international transportation infrastructure, JR Centrals Tōkaidō Main Line runs through the city, connecting it with Nagoya, one of Japans largest cities, and the surrounding area. The city has a train route to Chūbu Centrair International Airport.
Gifu has active relationships with six sister cities, as of July 2011, the city has an estimated population of 412,895 and a population density of about 2,000 persons per km2. The total area is 202.89 km², two archaeological sites in the city of Gifu have shown that the area around modern-day Gifu has had residents since pre-history because of Gifus location in the fertile Nōbi Plain. The Ryomonji and Kotozuka sites have produced large burial mounds that are representative of the late-Yayoi period, as civilization in Japan grew, permanent settlements began to appear and, the village of Inokuchi was established, which would eventually become the modern city of Gifu. Control Gifu and you control Japan was a common phrase during the Sengoku period, for over 200 years, the Mino Province was under control of the Toki Clan, a powerful regional clan. However, it would be Nobunaga that eventually absorbed Dōsans Saitō clan in the mid-sixteenth century and it was during Nobunagas reign of power that the area finally received its modern name.
After consulting with a Buddhist priest, Nobunaga renamed the village and he took the first character from Qishan, the legendary mountain from which most of ancient China was unified. The second character means base of the mountain and comes from Qufu, though he was not originally from the area, Nobunaga chose to use Dōsans castle and mountain as his base of operations, which he renamed Gifu Castle and Mount Kinka, respectively. Gifus economy grew immensely during this period, primarily due to its location at the center of Nobunagas expanding empire, Nobunaga established Rakuichi Rakuza, a free market for his citizens to use, in direct response to the commercial monopoly of the areas temples and shrines. The liveliness of the town caused Louis Frois, a Portuguese Jesuit Missionary and guest of Nobunaga, following the death of Nobunaga, Gifus growth continued through the Edo period with the establishment of the Nakasendō as one of Tokugawas five routes. Although the route did not pass directly through Gifu, the nearby post towns of Kanō-juku and Gōdo-juku provided traffic and were amalgamated into the modern city of Gifu
A regent is a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated. The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency, a regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. Regent is sometimes a formal title, if the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a Regent ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons and this was the case in the Kingdom of Finland and the Kingdom of Hungary, where the royal line was considered extinct in the aftermath of World War I. In Iceland, the regent represented the King of Denmark as sovereign of Iceland until the country became a republic in 1944, in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, kings were elective, which often led to a fairly long interregnum. In the interim, it was the Roman Catholic Primate who served as the regent, in the small republic of San Marino, the two Captains Regent, or Capitani Reggenti, are elected semi-annually as joint heads of state and of government.
Famous regency periods include that of the Prince Regent, George IV of the United Kingdom, giving rise to terms such as Regency era. Strictly this period lasted from 1811 to 1820, when his father George III was insane, as of 1 December 2016, Liechtenstein is the only country with an active regency. The term regent may refer to lower than the ruler of a country. The term may be used in the governance of organisations, typically as an equivalent of director, some university managers in North America are called regents and a management board for a college or university may be titled the Board of Regents. The term regent is used for members of governing bodies of institutions such as the national banks of France. This type of group portrait was popular in Dutch Golden Age painting during the 17th century, in the Dutch East Indies, a regent was a native prince allowed to rule de facto colonized state as a regentschap. Consequently, in the state of Indonesia, the term regent is used in English to mean a bupati.
Again in Belgium and France, Regent is the title of a teacher in a lower secondary school. In the Philippines, the University of Santo Tomas, the Father Regent and they form the Council of Regents that serves as the highest administrative council of the university. In the Society of Jesus, a regent is a training to be a Jesuit. A regent in the Jesuits is often assigned to teach in a school or some other academic institution as part of the formation toward final vows, list of regents Viceroy, an individual who, in a colony or province, exercised the power of a monarch on his behalf
Seitoku University is a Japanese womens university in Matsudo, Chiba. It has faculties of Childhood Education and Social Sciences, Music and it was founded in 1990 and is accredited by the Japanese Ministry of Education. It was named after the 7th-century regent Shōtoku, shō can be read sei, the latter was chosen for this school
The Nihon Shoki, sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. The book is called the Nihongi. The Nihon Shoki was finished in 720 under the supervision of Prince Toneri. It is believed to record accurately the latter reigns of Emperor Tenji, Emperor Tenmu, the Nihon Shoki focuses on the merits of the virtuous rulers as well as the errors of the bad rulers. It describes episodes from mythological eras and diplomatic contacts with other countries, the Nihon Shoki was written in classical Chinese, as was common for official documents at that time. The Kojiki, on the hand, is written in a combination of Chinese. The Nihon Shoki contains numerous transliteration notes telling the reader how words were pronounced in Japanese, the stories in this book and the Kojiki are referred to as the Kiki stories. The tale of Urashima Tarō is developed from the mention in Nihon Shoki that a certain child of Urashima visited Horaisan. The tale has plainly incorporated elements from the famous anecdote of Luck of the Sea, the developed Urashima tale contains the Rip Van Winkle motif, so some may consider it an early example of fictional time travel.
Chapter 01, Kami no Yo no Kami no maki, Chapter 02, Kami no Yo no Shimo no maki. Chapter 03, Kanyamato Iwarebiko no Sumeramikoto, Chapter 04, Kamu Nunakawamimi no Sumeramikoto. Yamato Tarashihiko Kuni Oshihito no Sumeramikoto, Chapter 05, Mimaki Iribiko Iniye no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 06, Ikume Iribiko Isachi no Sumeramikoto, Chapter 07, Ōtarashihiko Oshirowake no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 08, Tarashi Nakatsuhiko no Sumeramikoto, Chapter 09, Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto. Chapter 13, Oasazuma Wakugo no Sukune no Sumeramikoto, Chapter 14, Ōhatsuse no Waka Takeru no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 15, Shiraka no Take Hirokuni Oshi Waka Yamato Neko no Sumeramikoto, Chapter 16, Ohatsuse no Waka Sasagi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 18, Hirokuni Oshi Take Kanahi no Sumeramikoto, Take Ohirokuni Oshi Tate no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 19, Amekuni Oshiharaki Hironiwa no Sumeramikoto, Chapter 20, Nunakakura no Futo Tamashiki no Sumeramikoto
Shinran was a Japanese Buddhist monk, who was born in Hino at the turbulent close of the Heian Period and lived during the Kamakura Period. Shinran was a pupil of Hōnen and the founder of what became the Jōdo Shinshū sect in Japan. In accordance with Japanese customs, he has gone by other names, including Hanen and Zenshin, and finally to Shinran. His posthumous title was Kenshin Daishi, for a while, Shinran went by the name Fujii Yoshizane. After he was disrobed, he called himself Gotoku Shinran, in a manner which means stubble-haired foolish one, to denote his status as neither a monk. Shinran was born on May 21,1173, to Lord and Lady Arinori, a branch of the Fujiwara clan, early in Shinrans life his parents both died. In 1181 and desperate to know what happens after dying, he entered the Shoren-in temple near present-day Maruyama Park in Kyoto at age 9. He wrote this poem on entering, Like the cherry blossom, actually aware of his own impermanence, he was desperate to find a solution. He practiced at Mt.
Hiei for the next 20 years of his life, letters between his wife and daughter indicate that he was a Tendai dōsō. Because of his devotion to the practices of the Lotus Sutra on Mt. Hiei, according to his own account to his wife Eshinni, in frustration at his own failures as a monk and at obtaining enlightenment, he took a retreat at the temple of Rokkaku-dō. There, while engaged in practice, he experienced a vision in which Avalokitesvara appeared to him as Prince Shōtoku. In 1201, Shinran met Hōnen and became his disciple, during his first year under Honens guidance, at the age of 29, Shinran attained enlightenment, or salvation through Amidas Vow. Though the two knew each other for a few years, Hōnen entrusted Shinran with a copy of his secret work. During his time as a disciple of Honens Shinran caused a stir among society by publicly getting married. Both practices were strictly forbidden for monks, but Shinran took these steps to show that Amidas salvation is for all people and not just for monks.
These two monks were subsequently executed, Hōnen and Shinran were exiled, with Shinran being defrocked and sent to Echigo Province. They never met each other again, Hōnen would die in Kyoto in 1212. Having been stripped of his name, he renamed himself Gutoku
Asuka is a village located in Takaichi District, Nara Prefecture, Japan. As of February 29,2012, the village has an population of 6,035, with 2,180 households. The total area is 24.08 km², Asuka is the land where ancient Asuka palaces were located. There are strict rules governing construction in this historic town, Asuka can be reached from Okadera or Asuka Station on Kintetsu Yoshino Line train line. Although its outside Asuka, Kashiharajingū-mae Station in neighboring Kashihara has service on the Kintetsu Kashihara Line, Minami Osaka Line, by car, Asuka is on Route 169. For the ancient Asuka, see Asuka period and Asuka, Yamato, in 1956, the village of Asuka was founded as a result of a merger of three villages, Sakaai and Asuka. In 1966, Asuka was proclaimed a town, as defined by the national Special Arrangement for Preservation of Historic Sites Law as well as Kyoto. The law restricts constructions and other civil engineering operations in the areas due preservation of the historic sites.
In 1967, a part of Asuka, around 391ha in area, was designated as a site for preservation. Along with this decision, the government planned to build Asuka National Historic Park, for construction was launched in 1966. In 1972, a site with colorfully painted murals from the late Asuka period was found in the Takamatsuzuka Tomb, since the Special Arrangement for Preservation of Historic Sites Law restricts any visual changes in the areas which it concerns, it has directly affected the daily life of residents. To preserve the site, they have had to give up some elements of modern life, as compensation, the Asuka Law, which aims to preserve the site effectively and give economic support for Asuka residents, was settled in 1980. In various parts of the Asuka region are unusual carved granite stones the largest of which is Masuda no iwafune and this is a large stone structure approximately 11 meters in length,8 meters in width, and 4.7 meters In height. The upper surface is flat, with a trough and two square holes.
This is located on top of a hill just a few hundred meters west of Okadera Station, how or why this colossal stone and others was carved remains a mystery. They appear to be a different style than Buddhist sculptures, there are several nearby kofuns or tombs including the Ishibutai Kofun which is built from massive boulders including one that weighs an estimated 75 tons. This may have been the tomb of Soga no Umako, Nara Prefecture Kashihara Sakurai Takatori Yoshino Temples Asuka-dera Oka-dera, aka Ryūgai-ji - Kansai Kannon Pilgrimage No
Kojiki, known as Furukotofumi, is the oldest extant chronicle in Japan, dating from the early 8th century and composed by Ō no Yasumaro at the request of Empress Genmei. The Kojiki is a collection of myths concerning the origin of the four islands of Japan. Along with the Nihon Shoki, the contained in the Kojiki are part of the inspiration behind many practices. Later, the myths were re-appropriated for Shinto practices including the misogi purification ritual, while the historical records and myths are written in a form of Chinese with a heavy mixture of Japanese elements, the songs are written with Chinese characters that are only used to convey sounds. This special use of Chinese characters is called Manyōgana, a knowledge of which is critical to understanding these songs, the Kojiki is divided into three parts, the Kamitsumaki, the Nakatsumaki and the Shimotsumaki. The Kamitsumaki outlines the myths concerning the foundation of Japan, the Nakatsumaki begins with the story of Emperor Jimmu, the first Emperor, and his conquest of Japan, and ends with the 15th Emperor, Emperor Ōjin.
Many of the stories in this volume are mythological, and the historical information in them is highly suspect. Recent studies support the view that these emperors were invented to push Jimmus reign further back to the year 660 BC, the Shimotsumaki covers the 16th to 33rd emperors and, unlike previous volumes, has very limited references to the interactions with deities. These interactions are very prominent in the first and second volumes, information about the 24th to the 33rd emperors are largely missing, as well. In the Edo period, Motoori Norinaga studied the Kojiki intensively and he produced a 44-volume study of the Kojiki called Kojiki-den. A translation of the Ko-ji-ki or Records of ancient matters, Japan, R. Meiklejohn and Co. Princeton University Press and Tokyo, University of Tokyo Press, the Kojiki, An Account of Ancient Matters. There are two branches of Kojiki manuscripts and Urabe. The extant Urabe branch consists of 36 existing manuscripts all based on the 1522 copies by Urabe Kanenaga, the Ise branch may be subdivided into the Shinpukuji-bon manuscript of 1371–1372 and the Dōka-bon manuscripts.
While divided into the Ise branch, it is actually a mixture of the two branches, the monk Kenyu based his copy on Ōnakatomi Sadayos copy. In 1266, Sadayo copied volumes one and three, but did not have access to the second volume, finally, in 1282, he obtained access to the second volume through a Urabe-branch manuscript that he used to transcribe. Historiographical Institute of the University of Tokyo International Research Center for Japanese Studies Japanese Historical Text Initiative Historiography of Japan Bentley, the Authenticity of Sendai Kuji Hongi, A New Examination of Texts, With a Translation And Commentary. Japanese historians and the myths, 1600-1945, The Age of the Gods
Gifu Shotoku Gakuen University
Gifu Shotoku Gakuen University is a private university in the city of Gifu, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. Named after the 7th-century Prince Shōtoku, the school was founded in 1972 as the Gifu College of Education and its name is sometimes abbreviated to Shōtoku or Gishōdai. It has main campuses in both Gifu and nearby Hashima, as well as a college campus in Gifu. Teachers have included, Akira Komoto Official website