Age of Empires (video game)
Age of Empires is a history-based real-time strategy video game developed by Ensemble Studios and published by Microsoft, the first game in the Age of Empires series. The game uses a 2D sprite-based game engine; the game allows the user to act as the leader of an ancient civilization by advancing it through four ages, gaining access to new and improved units with each advance. Touted as Civilization meets Warcraft, some reviewers felt that the game failed to live up to these expectations when it was released. Despite this, it received good reviews, an expansion pack, titled The Rise of Rome, was released in 1998. Both the original Age of Empires and the expansion pack were released as "The Gold Edition". A sequel, Age of Empires II, was released in 1999. Age of Empires: Definitive Edition, a remastered version of the game, was released on February 20, 2018. Age of Empires requires the player to develop a civilization from a handful of hunter-gatherers to an expansive Iron Age Empire. To assure victory, the player must gather resources in order to pay for new units and more advanced technology.
Resources must be preserved, as no new resources become available. Twelve civilizations are available, each with individual sets of attributes, including a varying number of available technologies and units; each civilization has technologies unique to them, so that no civilization possesses all the technologies possible within the game. A major component of the game is the advancement through four ages; these are the Tool Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Advancement between ages is researched at the Town Center, each advancement brings the player new technologies and units; the game features four single-player campaigns in which the player is required to complete specific objectives. Campaigns are a collection of scenarios; the campaigns follow the history of the Egyptian, Greek and Yamato civilizations. Aside from the campaigns, there is a game mode called "random map", in which a different map is generated for each new game. Variations of random map, such as the resource-heavy "death match", are available.
Age of Empires facilitated online and network play with up to 8 people simultaneously. Because the network play is less sophisticated than that of modern games and disconnections occur; until June 19, 2006, multiplayer gameplay was supported by Microsoft Gaming Zone. At that point, the Zone abandoned support of most CD-ROM games, including Age of Empires and Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings; the creation of user-made scenarios or series of scenarios for the game was made possible using the Scenario Builder. This tool is simpler and easier to learn than comparable editors used in more modern games, but it has fewer capabilities as a result. Ensemble Studios used the Scenario Builder to make the single-player campaigns which shipped with the retail game. Various unofficial sites exist where custom scenarios can be downloaded. In late 2005, it was discovered that by modifying various data files, units present in the beta versions of the game could be made available in the editor; some obscure units include a hero that changes ownership when units move near it.
Through data editing, the rules of unit placement can be modified. This allows units to be placed on any terrain and on top of other units, which creates new possibilities for design. Other significant discoveries include new terrain templates, a mode to triple each unit's hitpoints and a tool to edit map sizes. Players choose to play as one of 12 civilizations; the civilizations are sorted into four distinct architectural styles, based on East Asian, Mesopotamian and Greek architecture, which determine their in-game appearance. Technology is researched at specific buildings, to which they are related. Technological advances come in many categories, such as military upgrades, economic upgrades, religious upgrades and infrastructure upgrades; as basic technology research is completed, more advanced technologies may become available. Some technologies are not available to certain civilizations. Technology plays a important role in the strategy of the game; as a civilization progresses through the ages, technology becomes more and more expensive, which makes collecting the necessary resources to research them difficult.
As a consequence, balancing the workforce of villagers across the various resources can make the difference between victory and defeat. Players control a variety of military units. Most units can be upgraded through research. Land-based units are the most prevalent in gameplay. Villagers are the most basic units in Age of Empires, their primary function is to collect resources, cutting down trees for wood, mining for stone and gold, hunting, farming, or fishing to acquire food. Villagers can construct buildings and repair both buildings and naval vessels, are capable of engaging in hand-to-hand combat when necessary. Priests are non-combat units which can heal allied units or "convert
Emperor Yang of Sui
Emperor Yang of Sui, personal name Yang Guang, alternative name Ying, nickname Amo known as Emperor Ming during the brief reign of his grandson Yang Tong), was the second son of Emperor Wen of Sui, the second emperor of China's Sui dynasty. Emperor Yang's original name was Yang Ying, but was renamed by his father, after consulting with oracles, to Yang Guang. Yang Guang was made the Prince of Jin after Emperor Wen established Sui Dynasty in 581. In 588, he was granted command of the five armies that invaded the southern Chen dynasty and was praised for the success of this campaign; these military achievements, as well as his machinations against his older brother Yang Yong, led to him becoming crown prince in 600. After the death of his father in 604 considered, though unproven, by most traditional historians to be a murder ordered by Yang Guang, he ascended the throne as Emperor Yang. Emperor Yang, ruling from 604 to 618, committed to several large construction projects, most notably the completion of the Grand Canal.
He commanded the reconstruction of the Great Wall, a project which took the lives of nearly six million workers. He ordered several military expeditions that brought Sui to its greatest territorial extent, one of which, the conquest of Champa in what is now central and southern Vietnam, resulted in the death of thousands of Sui soldiers from malaria; these expeditions, along with a series of disastrous campaigns against Goguryeo, left the empire bankrupt and a populace in revolt. With northern China in turmoil, Emperor Yang spent his last days in Jiangdu, where he was strangled in a coup led by his general Yuwen Huaji. Despite his accomplishments, Emperor Yang was considered by traditional historians to be one of the worst tyrants in Chinese history and the reason for the Sui Dynasty's short rule, his failed campaigns against Goguryeo, the conscriptions levied to man them, coupled with increased taxation to finance these wars and civil unrest as a result of this taxation led to the downfall of the dynasty.
Yang Guang was born during the reign of Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou. His parents were Yang Jian's wife Duchess Dugu Qieluo, he was their second son, after Yang Yong, he had at least one older sister, Yang Lihua, who became the wife of Emperor Wu's crown prince Yuwen Yun in 573. He was considered handsome and intelligent in his youth, of Yang Jian's and Duchess Dugu's sons, they favored him the most. Sometime during Northern Zhou, on account of Yang Jian's achievements, he was created the Duke of Yanmen. In 580, Yang Jian seized power as regent after Emperor Xuan's death. In 581, he had Emperor Xuan's son, Emperor Jing, yield the throne to him, ending Northern Zhou and establishing Sui Dynasty as its Emperor Wen. Emperor Wen created Yang Yong crown prince and created his other sons imperial princes. Yang Guang thus received the title of Prince of Jin. In 581, Emperor Wen made Yang Guang the commandant at Bing Province, in charge of the provinces north of the Yellow River. In 582, Emperor Wen set up a branch of the executive bureau of his government at Bing Province and made Yang Guang its head.
He had him assist Yang Guang. In 582, Emperor Wen took a daughter of his vassal Emperor Ming of Western Liang to be Yang Guang's wife and princess, it was said that Yang Guang respected her. In 584, after some Sui military and diplomatic victories, Tujue's Shabolüe Khan Ashina Shetu submitted to Sui. Yang Guang suggested to Emperor Wen that he rejected Ashina Shetu's overture and launch a major attack on Tujue, but Emperor Wen refused. In 585, with Ashina Shetu under attack from one of his subordinate khans, the Datou Khan Ashina Dianjue, Emperor Wen in fact sent Yang Guang to aid Ashina Shetu. In 588, Emperor Wen moved Yang Guang's headquarters to Shouchun, made him the commandant there as well as the head the branch of the executive bureau established there. In winter 588, Emperor Wen launched a major attack on rival Chen Dynasty. Yang Guang, his brother Yang Jun, the general Yang Su were in command of the three main prongs of the operation, with Yang Guang in command of the eastern prong as well as the overall operation.
The key official Gao Jiong served as Yang Guang's assistant. In spring 589, the generals Han Qinhu and Heruo Bi, both under Yang Guang, crossed the Yangtze River and approached the Chen capital Jiankang. Soon, after Heruo defeated the Chen general Xiao Mohe, Jiankang fell, the Chen emperor Chen Shubao was captured. Yang Guang fascinated by Chen Shubao's favorite concubine Consort Zhang Lihua, sent Gao Jiong's son Gao Dehong to order Gao Jiong to hold Consort Zhang. Instead, Gao Jiong, comparing Consort Zhang to Daji, beheaded her. Yang Guang thereafter resented Gao stating sarcastically, "It has been said,'You should repay every good deed done to you.' I will repay Duke Gao later." By Yang Guang's orders, several of Chen Shubao's favorite officials, who were considered reasons for Chen's downfall, including Shi Wenqing, Shen Keqing, Yang Huilang, Xu Xi, Ji Huijing, were executed. It was said. Chen Shubao and his own clan members, were treated with kindness, at Yang Guang's request, Chen Shubao sent letters to Chen generals who had not yet surrendered to persuade them to do so, they
Gifu is a city located in the south-central portion of Gifu Prefecture and serves as the prefectural capital. The city has played an important role in Japan's history because of its location in the middle of the country. During the Sengoku period, various warlords, including Oda Nobunaga, used the area as a base in an attempt to unify and control Japan. Gifu continued to flourish after Japan's unification as both an important shukuba along the Edo period Nakasendō and as one of Japan's fashion centers, it has been designated a core city by the national government. Located on the alluvial plain of the Nagara River, Gifu has taken advantage of the surrounding natural resources to create both traditional industries and tourism opportunities such as cormorant fishing. Mount Kinka, one of the city's major symbols, is home to a nationally designated forest and Gifu Castle, a replica of Nobunaga's former castle. Gifu hosts many festivals and events throughout the year. Two major rail lines connect Gifu to Japan's national and international transportation infrastructure.
JR Central's Tōkaidō Main Line runs through the city, connecting it with Nagoya, one of Japan's largest cities, the surrounding area. The city has a direct train route to Chubu Centrair International Airport and facilities capable of hosting international events. Gifu has active relationships with six sister cities; as of 1 December 2017, the city has an estimated population of 411,722 in 178,246 households, a population density of about 2,000 persons per km2. The total area of the city was 203.60 square kilometers. Two archaeological sites in the city of Gifu have shown that the area around modern-day Gifu has had residents since pre-history because of Gifu's location in the fertile Nōbi Plain; the Ryomonji and Kotozuka sites have produced large burial mounds that are representative of the late-Yayoi period, when rice cultivation began in Japan. As civilization in Japan grew, permanent settlements began to appear and the village of Inokuchi was established, which would become the modern city of Gifu.
"Control Gifu and you control Japan" was a common phrase during the Sengoku period, since Gifu's central location in Japan made it a desirable location for those trying to unify the country. For over 200 years, the Mino Province was under control of a powerful regional clan. However, during the Sengoku period, Saitō Dōsan, a Toki vassal, rebelled against his clan and took control of Mino Province in 1542 and built Inabayama Castle atop Mount Inaba, from which he began his quest to unify Japan. During Dōsan's reign, his daughter Nōhime married Oda Nobunaga, the heir of the fast rising clan in the neighboring Owari Province, with the hopes of an alliance of the two families' would present a powerful front against their competitors. However, it would be Nobunaga that absorbed Dōsan's Saitō clan in the mid-sixteenth century, as Dōsan had done to his retainer, it was during Nobunaga's reign of power that the area received its modern name. After consulting with a Buddhist priest, Nobunaga renamed the village and the surrounding Mino Province to Gifu in 1567.
He took the first character from Qishan, the legendary mountain from which most of ancient China was unified. The second character comes from Qufu, the birthplace of Confucius. Though he was not from the area, Nobunaga chose to use Dōsan's castle and mountain as his base of operations, which he renamed Gifu Castle and Mount Kinka, respectively. Gifu's economy grew immensely during this period due to its location at the center of Nobunaga's expanding empire. Additionally, Nobunaga established Rakuichi Rakuza, a free market for his citizens to use, in direct response to the commercial monopoly of the area's temples and shrines; the liveliness of the town caused Luís Fróis, a Portuguese Jesuit Missionary and guest of Nobunaga, to describe Gifu as a "bustling Babylon". Following the death of Nobunaga, Gifu's growth continued through the Edo period with the establishment of the Nakasendō as one of Tokugawa's five routes. Although the route did not pass directly through Gifu, the nearby post towns of Kanō-juku and Gōdo-juku provided traffic and were amalgamated into the modern city of Gifu.
The area continued to prosper once Gifu became a central location along the Nakasendō. In the middle of the Meiji period, Gifu was established as a city on July 1, 1889, with an original population of 25,750 people and an area of 10 km². On October 28, 1891, two years the Mino–Owari earthquake occurred, estimated at 8 magnitude on the Richter Scale. About 37 % of the city was lost to fire, resulting in 6,336 buildings affected; as a result, Gifu erected the first Earthquake Memorial Hall in all of Japan, which holds memorial services for the victims on the 28th of every month. Gifu recovered from the earthquake damage by the end of the Meiji period, by 1911 was prosperous enough to establish a municipal street car service throughout the city. In 1940, Gifu absorbed the former post town of Kanō increasing its land area. Kanō had many traditional industries. With the neighboring city of Kakamigahara serving as an aeronautics center for Japan, Gifu was a large industrial center during World War II, including a downtown manufacturing sector.
As a result, Gifu was the target of heavy firebombing by the United States Army Air Forces, culminating in the Gifu Air Raid of July 9, 1945, which resulted in 1,383 casualties
A regent is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated. The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is used. If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a Regent ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent governs due to one of these reasons, but may be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out; this was the case in the Kingdom of Finland and the Kingdom of Hungary, where the royal line was considered extinct in the aftermath of World War I. In Iceland, the regent represented the King of Denmark as sovereign of Iceland until the country became a republic in 1944. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, kings were elective, which led to a long interregnum.
In the interim, it was the Roman Catholic Primate who served as the regent, termed the "interrex". In the small republic of San Marino, the two Captains Regent, or Capitani Reggenti, are elected semi-annually as joint heads of state and of government. Famous regency periods include that of the Prince Regent George IV of the United Kingdom, giving rise to many terms such as Regency era and Regency architecture; this period lasted from 1811 to 1820, when his father George III was insane, though when used as a period label it covers a wider period. Philippe II, Duke of Orléans was Regent of France from the death of Louis XIV in 1715 until Louis XV came of age in 1723; the equivalent Greek term is epitropos. As of 2018, Liechtenstein is the only country with an active regency; the term regent may refer to positions lower than the ruler of a country. The term may be used in the governance of organisations as an equivalent of "director", held by all members of a governing board rather than just the equivalent of the chief executive.
Some university managers in North America are called regents and a management board for a college or university may be titled the "Board of Regents". In New York State, all activities related to public and private education and professional licensure are administered by the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York, the appointed members of which are called regents; the term "regent" is used for members of governing bodies of institutions such as the national banks of France and Belgium. In the Dutch Republic, the members of the ruling class, not formally hereditary but forming a de facto patrician class, were informally known collectively as regenten because they held positions as "regent" on the boards of town councils, as well as charitable and civic institutions; the regents group portrait, regentenstuk or regentessenstuk for female boards in Dutch "regents' piece", is a group portrait of the board of trustees, called regents or regentesses, of a charitable organization or guild.
This type of group portrait was popular in Dutch Golden Age painting during the 17th and 18th centuries. In the Dutch East Indies, a regent was a native prince allowed to rule de facto colonized'state' as a regentschap. In the successor state of Indonesia, the term regent is used in English to mean a bupati, the head of a kabupaten. Again in Belgium and France, Regent is the official title of a teacher in a lower secondary school, who does not require a college degree but is trained in a specialized école normale. In the Philippines the University of Santo Tomas, the Father Regent, who must be a Dominican priest and is also a teacher, serves as the institution's spiritual head, they form the Council of Regents that serves as the highest administrative council of the university. In the Society of Jesus, a regent is an individual training to be a Jesuit and who has completed his Novitiate and Philosophy studies, but has not yet progressed to Theology studies. A regent in the Jesuits is assigned to teach in a school or some other academic institution as part of the formation toward final vows.
List of regents Regency Acts Viceroy, an individual who, in a colony or province, exercised the power of a monarch on his behalf
Seitoku University is a Japanese women's university in Matsudo, Chiba. It has faculties of Childhood Education and Social Sciences and Nutrition, as well as an affiliated Junior College, it is accredited by the Japanese Ministry of Education. It was named after the 7th-century regent Shōtoku. Shō can be read sei, the latter was chosen for this school. Seitoku University official website
The Nihon Shoki, sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history. The book is called the Nihongi, it is more elaborate and detailed than the Kojiki, the oldest, has proven to be an important tool for historians and archaeologists as it includes the most complete extant historical record of ancient Japan. The Nihon Shoki was finished in 720 under the editorial supervision of Prince Toneri and with the assistance of Ō no Yasumaro dedicated to Empress Genshō; the Nihon Shoki begins with the Japanese creation myth, explaining the origin of the world and the first seven generations of divine beings, goes on with a number of myths as does the Kojiki, but continues its account through to events of the 8th century. It is believed to record the latter reigns of Emperor Tenji, Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō; the Nihon Shoki focuses on the merits of the virtuous rulers as well as the errors of the bad rulers. It describes diplomatic contacts with other countries.
The Nihon Shoki was written in classical Chinese. The Kojiki, on the other hand, is written in a combination of Chinese and phonetic transcription of Japanese; the Nihon Shoki contains numerous transliteration notes telling the reader how words were pronounced in Japanese. Collectively, the stories in this book and the Kojiki are referred to as the Kiki stories; the tale of Urashima Tarō is developed from the brief mention in Nihon Shoki that a certain child of Urashima visited Horaisan and saw wonders. The tale has plainly incorporated elements from the famous anecdote of "Luck of the Sea and Luck of the Mountains" found in Nihon Shoki; the developed Urashima tale contains the Rip Van Winkle motif, so some may consider it an early example of fictional time travel. Chapter 01: Kami no Yo no Kami no maki. Chapter 02: Kami no Yo no Shimo no maki. Chapter 03: Kan'yamato Iwarebiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 04: Kamu Nunakawamimi no Sumeramikoto. Shikitsuhiko Tamatemi no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Hikosukitomo no Sumeramikoto.
Mimatsuhiko Sukitomo no Sumeramikoto. Yamato Tarashihiko Kuni Oshihito no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Nekohiko Futoni no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Nekohiko Kunikuru no Sumeramikoto. Wakayamato Nekohiko Ōbibi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 05: Mimaki Iribiko Iniye no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 06: Ikume Iribiko Isachi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 07: Ōtarashihiko Oshirowake no Sumeramikoto. Waka Tarashihiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 08: Tarashi Nakatsuhiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 09: Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto. Chapter 10: Homuda no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 11: Ōsasagi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 12: Izahowake no Sumeramikoto. Mitsuhawake no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 13: Oasazuma Wakugo no Sukune no Sumeramikoto. Anaho no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 14: Ōhatsuse no Waka Takeru no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 15: Shiraka no Take Hirokuni Oshi Waka Yamato Neko no Sumeramikoto. Woke no Sumeramikoto. Oke no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 16: Ohatsuse no Waka Sasagi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 17: Ōdo no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 18: Hirokuni Oshi Take Kanahi no Sumeramikoto.
Take Ohirokuni Oshi Tate no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 19: Amekuni Oshiharaki Hironiwa no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 20: Nunakakura no Futo Tamashiki no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 21: Tachibana no Toyohi no Sumeramikoto. Hatsusebe no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 22: Toyomike Kashikiya Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 23: Okinaga Tarashi Hihironuka no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 24: Ame Toyotakara Ikashi Hitarashi no Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 25: Ame Yorozu Toyohi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 26: Ame Toyotakara Ikashi Hitarashi no Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 27: Ame Mikoto Hirakasuwake no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 28: Ama no Nunakahara Oki no Mahito no Sumeramikoto, Kami no maki. Chapter 29: Ama no Nunakahara Oki no Mahito no Sumeramikoto, Shimo no maki. Chapter 30: Takamanohara Hirono Hime no Sumeramikoto; the background of the compilation of the Nihon Shoki is that Emperor Tenmu ordered 12 people, including Prince Kawashima, to edit the old history of the empire. Shoku Nihongi notes that "先是一品舍人親王奉勅修日本紀。至是功成奏上。紀卅卷系圖一卷" in the part of May, 720.
It means "Up to that time, Prince Toneri had been compiling Nihongi on the orders of the emperor. The process of compilation is studied by stylistic analysis of each chapter. Although written in classical Chinese character, some sections use styles characteristic of Japanese editors; the Nihon Shoki is a synthesis of older documents on the records, continuously kept in the Yamato court since the sixth century. It includes documents and folklore submitted by clans serving the court. Prior to Nihon Shoki, there were Tennōki and Kokki compiled by Prince Shōtoku and Soga no Umako, but as they were stored in Soga's residence, they were burned at the time of the Isshi Incident; the work's contributors refer to various sources
Shinran was a Japanese Buddhist monk, born in Hino at the turbulent close of the Heian Period and lived during the Kamakura Period. Shinran was a pupil of Hōnen and the founder of what became the Jōdo Shinshū sect in Japan. Shinran's birthname was Matsuwakamaro. In accordance with Japanese customs, he has gone by other names, including Hanen and Zenshin, finally to Shinran, derived by combining the names of Seshin and Donran, his posthumous title was Kenshin Daishi. For a while, Shinran went by the name Fujii Yoshizane. After he was disrobed, he called himself Gutoku Shinran, in a self-deprecating manner which means "stubble-haired foolish one," to denote his status as "neither a monk, nor a layperson". Shinran was born on May 21, 1173, to Lord and Lady Arinori, a branch of the Fujiwara clan, was given the name Matsuwakamaro. Early in Shinran's life his parents both died. In 1181, desperate to know what happens after dying, he entered the Shoren-in temple near present-day Maruyama Park in Kyoto at age 9.
He wrote this poem on entering: "Like the cherry blossom, the heart planning on tomorrow is ephemeral indeed—what sudden storm may not arise in the middle of the night". Acutely aware of his own impermanence, he was desperate to find a solution, he practiced at Mt. Hiei for the next 20 years of his life. Letters between his wife and daughter indicate that he was a Tendai dōsō. According to his own account to his wife Eshinni, in frustration at his own failures as a monk and at obtaining enlightenment, he took a retreat at the temple of Rokkaku-dō. There, while engaged in intense practice, he experienced a vision in which Avalokitesvara appeared to him as Prince Shōtoku, directing Shinran to another disillusioned Tendai monk named Hōnen. In 1201, Shinran became his disciple. During his first year under Hōnen's guidance, at the age of 29, Shinran attained enlightenment, or salvation through Amida's Vow. Though the two only knew each other for a few years, Hōnen entrusted Shinran with a copy of his secret work, the Senchakushū.
However his precise status amongst Hōnen's followers is unclear as in the Seven Article Pledge, signed by Hōnen's followers in 1204, Shinran's signature appears near the middle among less-intimate disciples. During his time as a disciple of Hōnen's, Shinran caused a great stir among society by publicly getting married and eating meat. Both practices were forbidden for monks, but Shinran took these drastic steps to show that Amida's salvation is for all people and not just for monks and priests. In 1207, The Buddhist establishment in Kyoto persuaded the military to impose a nembutsu ban, after an incident where two of Hōnen's most prominent followers were accused of using nembutsu practice as a coverup for sexual liaisons; these two monks were subsequently executed. Hōnen and Shinran were exiled, with Shinran being sent to Echigo Province, they never met each other again. Hōnen would die in Kyoto in 1212. Although Shinran was critical of the motivations that led to the exile, the disruption of Hōnen's practice community, the exile itself proved to be a critical turning point in Shinran's religious life.
Having been stripped of his monastic name, he renamed himself Gutoku, coming to understand himself as neither monk nor layman. While in exile, Shinran sought to continue the work of Hōnen and spread the doctrine of salvation through Amida Buddha's compassion, as expressed through the nembutsu practice, however in time his teachings diverged from Hōnen enough that followers would use the term Jōdo Shinshū or "True Pure Land Sect", as opposed to Jōdo-shū or "Pure Land Sect". Shinran married his wife and had seven children with her. Five years after being exiled in Echigo, in 1211, the nembutsu ban was lifted and Shinran was pardoned though he chose not to return to Kyoto at that time. Instead, Shinran left for an area known as a small area in Kantō just north of Tokyo. In 1224 Shinran authored his most significant text, a series of selections and commentaries on Buddhist sutras supporting the new Pure Land Buddhist movement, establishing a doctrinal lineage with Buddhist thinkers in India and China.
In 1234 Shinran returned to Kyoto, with his daughter Kakushinni. On returning to Kyoto, Shinran discovered that his eldest son, who remained in Hitachi and Shimotsuke provinces was telling people he received special teachings from Shinran and was otherwise leading people astray. Shinran wrote stern letters to Zenran instructing him to cease his activities, but when Zenran refused, Shinran disowned him: Hence, from now on there shall no longer exist parental relations with you. I declare this resolutely to the gods, it is a sorrowful thing. It rends my heart to hear that you have devoted yourself to misleading all the people of the nembutsu in Hitachi, saying, not my true teaching. Rumors have reached as far as Kamakura that I have instructed you to denounce the people in Hitachi who say the nembutsu, it is deplorable. Shinran died in Kyoto the year 1263 at the age of 90. Kakushinni was instrumental in maintaining the mausoleum, passing on his teachings, with her descendants becoming the Monshu, or head of the Honganji Temples built around the Mausoleum.
1173: Shinran is born 1175: Hōnen founds the Jōdo-shū sect 118