SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Prince of Asturias

Princess or Prince of Asturias is the main substantive title used by the heir apparent or heir presumptive to the throne of Spain. According to the Spanish Constitution of 1978: Article 57 2; the heir apparent or presumptive, from birth or event that makes him such, will have the dignity of Prince of Asturias and other titles traditionally linked to the successor of the Crown of Spain. The title originated in 1388, when King John I of Castile granted the dignity – which included jurisdiction over the territory – to his first-born son Henry. In an attempt to end the dynastic struggle between the heirs of Kings Peter I and Henry II of Castile, the principality was chosen as the highest jurisdictional lordship the King could grant that had not yet been granted to anyone; the custom of granting unique titles to royal heirs had been in use in the Kingdoms of Aragon and France. The title, had two purposes: to serve as a generic title to name the heir apparent or heir presumptive, as a specific title to apply to the prince, first in the line of succession when the King transmitted to him the territory of the principality, with its government and its income.

After the formation of the dynastic union between the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon under the Catholic Monarchs, the title was favoured by the Hispanic King, who by custom applied it in the same way, i.e. to his heir apparent. For generations the kingdom's crown prince accumulated the titles "Prince of Asturias, Girona and the New World", modifying those of the earlier regnant Habsburgs: "Prince of these Kingdoms, Prince of the Spains and the New World"; when the Bourbons acceded to the Spanish throne in 1705, the title was retained following the decisive help of Castile to the house in the War of the Spanish Succession. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Spanish Constitution of 1812 with consent of its counterparties ascribed the title to the heir of the Crown; the Constitutions within the following decades temporarily removed the synonymy between the title and position as heir to the Crown. The jurisdictional lordships, forms of government – not of ownership or possession, which were consolidated in the 14th and 15th centuries – were subrogations of the royal power for the administration of towns those with geographical or structural difficulties that generated income.

From King Alfonso XI the rulers created these lordships to give to their allies a proper way to maintain their position and to be able to govern and administer areas that were otherwise difficult to take care of with the traditional channels of the monarchy. From its origins, there have been selling operations; the origins of the Principality of Asturias can be traced to the counties of Noreña and Gijón – located in the ancient Asturias de Oviedo – territories with seignorial jurisdiction that belonged to Rodrigo Álvarez, called "of the Asturias". These lordships were unique: they were territories that in remote times formed the Kingdom of Asturias, the one identified with the origins of the monarchy; when Rodrigo died without an heir in 1333, he bequeathed his domains to Henry, Count of Trastámara and illegitimate half-brother of King Peter I, during whose reign a "true civil war" – in the words of Luis Suárez Fernández – took place in Asturias de Oviedo because a group of knights settled in small dominions believed that the consolidation of the "states" that were being occupied by the Count of Trastámara, would affect their power.

Henry, once King, ceded the counties to his illegitimate son Alfonso Enríquez. During the reign of his half brother King John I, the Count of Noreña and Gijón revolted against him several times. After the assassination of King Peter I in 1369, there began a series of disputes and long rivalries between John, Duke of Lancaster, the two successive Trastámara claimants, Henry II and his son John I. After two decades of conflicts of varying intensity, the parties arrived at a compromise through means of the marriage between Prince Henry and Catherine of Lancaster. On 8 July 1388 the Treaty of Bayonne was signed between John of Lancaster and King John I of Castile, establishing the final dynastic reconciliation after the assassination of King Peter I. By this treaty, the Duke of Lancaster and his wife Constance renounced all their rights over the Castilian throne on behalf of the marriage of their daughter Catherine to the first-born son of King Juan I of Castile, the future Henry III, granted as heir the dignity of Prince of Asturias.

The title was granted with a ceremony. The premature death of John I and the minority of Henry III prevented the institutional and juridical conformation of the principality while Alfonso Enríquez rebelled again after obtaining his freedom by royal decree. Besieged by the King's troops, he submitted to the arbitration of King Charles VI of France, who imposed on the count the return of the territories he held in A

40th Indian Infantry Brigade

The 40th Indian Infantry Brigade was an administrative formation of the Indian Army during World War II. It was formed by the conversion of the HQ Shaiba Line of Communications Sub-Area, it served on lines of communication duties under the 2nd Indian Infantry Division in Iraq. In October 1944, the brigade was converted to HQ South Iraq Area; the final disposition of HQ South Iraq Area is not clear from available sources. Bikanir Sadul Light Infantry September 1942 to May 1943 1st Battalion, Indore Infantry September to December 1942 25th Battalion, Sikh Light Infantry May to December 1943 26th Battalion, 12th Frontier Force Regiment May 1943 to October 1944 28th Battalion, 3rd Madras Regiment December 1943 to October 1944 List of Indian Army Brigades in World War II

Marina Del Rey Hospital

Marina Del Rey Hospital is a 133-bed acute care, Joint Commission accredited hospital in Los Angeles offering general acute medical services and 24/7 emergency care. Marina Del Rey Hospital known as Marina Mercy Hospital underwent construction in 1969 and became a part of Cedars-Sinai Medical Group in September 2015. In 1980 the Hospital was purchased by the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet, founders of Daniel Freeman Memorial Hospital in Inglewood, California, they renamed the Marina del Rey facility Daniel Freeman Marina Hospital. The two Daniel Freeman hospitals were acquired in 2001 by Tenet Healthcare; the name of the Marina hospital was changed in 2004 when the Hospital transferred to the Centinela Freeman HealthSystem, became the Centinela-Freeman Regional Medical Center, Marina Campus. In November 2007, the Hospital was renamed Marina Del Rey Hospital. Marina Del Rey Hospital is a community hospital that offers specialty care in spine, surgical weight loss, minimally invasive general surgery and emergency care services.

The hospital's clinic for spine services is Marina Spine Center led by Robert Watkins IV M. D. Robert Watkins III, M. D. David Chang, M. D. and Sean Bond, P. A; the hospital's clinic for surgical weight loss is Marina Weight Loss Center known as L. A. Bariatrics, is led by Jeremy Korman, M. D; the center is accredited by the Joint Commission and holds the Bariatric Surgery Center of Excellence designation by the American College of Surgeon and American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Marina Weight Loss Center is registered as a Medicare approved bariatric facility since 2006. In September 2015 it was announced that Cedars-Sinai Medical Group had purchased Marina Del Rey Hospital from a partnership led by Los Angeles-based private investment firm Westridge Capital. News reports characterized the acquisition as part of a consolidation trend in the United States healthcare sector among hospitals and health insurance companies. Cedars-Sinai Medical Group has stated that as an affiliate hospital, Marina Del Rey will revert to nonprofit status.

Official website