The Tisza or Tisa is one of the main rivers of Central and Eastern Europe. Once, it was called "the most Hungarian river" because it flowed within the Kingdom of Hungary. Today, it crosses several national borders; the Tisza begins at the confluence of the White Tisa and Black Tisa. From there, the Tisza flows west following Ukraine's borders with Romania and Hungary into Hungary, into Serbia, it enters Hungary at Tiszabecs. It traverses Hungary from north to south. A few kilometers south of the Hungarian city of Szeged, it enters Serbia, it joins the Danube near the village of Stari Slankamen in Vojvodina, Serbia. The Tisza drains an area of about 156,087 km2 and has a length of 1,419 km — seco Its mean annual discharge is 792 m3/s, it contributes about 13% of the Danube's total runoff. Attila the Hun is said to have been buried under a diverted section of the river Tisza; the river was known as the Tisia in antiquity. It may be referred to as the Theiss in older English references, after the German name for the river, Theiß.
It is known as the Tibisco in Italian, in older French references it is referred to as the Tibisque. Modern names for the Tisza in the languages of the countries it flows through include: Romanian: Tisa; the length of the Tisza in Hungary used to be 1,419 km. It flowed through the Great Hungarian Plain, one of the largest flat areas in central Europe. Since plains can cause a river to flow slowly, the Tisza used to follow a path with many curves and turns, which led to many large floods in the area. After several small-scale attempts, István Széchenyi organised the "regulation of the Tisza" which started on August 27, 1846, ended in 1880; the new length of the river in Hungary was 1,419 km, 1,358 km total, with 589 km of dead channels and 136 km of new riverbed. The resultant length of the flood-protected river comprises 2,940 km out of 4,220 km of all Hungarian protected rivers. In the 1970s, the building of the Tisza Dam at Kisköre started with the purpose of helping to control floods as well as storing water for drought seasons.
However, the resulting Lake Tisza became one of the most popular tourist destinations in Hungary since it had similar features to Lake Balaton at drastically cheaper prices and was not crowded. The Tisza is navigable over much of its course; the river opened up for international navigation only recently. After Hungary joined the European Union, this distinction was lifted and vessels were allowed on the Tisza. Conditions of navigation differ with the circumstances: when the river is in flood, it is unnavigable, just as it is at times of extreme drought; the Tisza has a rich and varied wildlife. Over 200 species of birds reside in the bird reserve of Tiszafüred; the flood plains along the river boast large amounts of diverse animal life. In particular, the yearly "flowering" of the Tisza is considered a local natural wonder; the flowering attracts vast numbers of mayflies, a well known spectacle. In early 2000, there was a sequence of serious pollution incidents originating from accidental industrial discharges in Romania.
The first, in January 2000, occurred when there was a release of sludge containing cyanide from a Romanian mine and killed 2,000 tonnes of fish. The second, from a mine pond at Baia Borsa, northern Romania, resulted in the release of 20,000 cubic metres of sludge containing zinc and copper occurred in early March 2000. A week the third spill occurred at the same mining site at Baia Borsa, staining the river black including heavy metals; this series of incidents were described at the time as the most serious environmental disaster to hit central Europe since the Chernobyl disaster. Use of river water for any purpose was temporarily banned and the Hungarian government pressed the Romanians and the European Union to close all installations that could lead to further pollution. Examination of river sediments indicates that pollution incidents from mines have occurred for over a century; the following rivers are tributaries to the river Tisza: Vișeu Kosivska Shopurka Iza Sarasău Bic Săpânța Șaroș Teresva Baia Tereblia Rika Batar Borzhava Tur Someș Someșul Mare Șieu Bistrița Someșul Mic Someșul Cald Someșul Rece Crasna Bodrog Ondava Latorica Laborec Uzh Cirocha Stara Vicha Kerepets Sajó Hernád Zagyva Körös Sebes-Körös Berettyó Crișul Alb Crișul Negru Mureș (entering near S
Diet of Hungary
The Diet of Hungary or originally: Parlamentum Publicum / Parlamentum Generale became the supreme legislative institution in the medieval kingdom of Hungary from the 1290s, in its successor states, Royal Hungary and the Habsburg kingdom of Hungary throughout the Early Modern period. The name of the legislative body was "Parlamentum" during the Middle Ages, the "Diet" expression gained in the Early Modern period, it convened at regular intervals with interruptions during the period of 1527 to 1918, again until 1946. The articles of the 1790 diet set out that the diet should meet at least once every 3 years, since the diet was called by the Habsburg monarchy, this promise was not kept on several occasions thereafter; as a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise, it was reconstituted in 1867. The Latin term Natio Hungarica was used to designate the political elite which had participation in the medieval and early modern era Parliaments, consisting of the 1/ Roman Catholic Clergy, 2/ the nobility, 3/ the envoys of cities who were elected by the people of the Royal Free Cities regardless of language or ethnicity.
Natio Hungarica was a geographic and juridico-political category. Some researchers have traced the roots of the Hungarian institution of national assemblies as far back as the 11th century; this based on documentary evidence that, on certain occasions under the reigns of King Ladislaus I and King Coloman “the Book lover”, assemblies were held on a national scale where both ecclesiastic and secular dignitaries made appearances. The first written mention of Hungarian Parliament originated under King Andrew II with the Golden Bull of 1222, which reaffirmed the rights of the smaller nobles of the old and new classes of royal servants against both the crown and the magnates, to defend the rights of the whole nation against the crown by restricting the powers of the latter in certain fields and legalizing refusal to obey its unlawful/unconstitutional commands; the lesser nobles began to present Andrew with grievances, a practice that evolved into the institution of the Hungarian Diet. An institutionalized Hungarian parliament emerged during the 15th centuries.
Beginning under King Charles I, continuing under subsequent kings through into the reign of King Matthias I, the Diet was convened by the king to announce his decisions, had no significant power of its own. In 1492 the Diet limited all serfs' freedom of movement and expanded their obligations while at the same time only a few peasant families were prospering because of increased cattle exports to the West. Rural discontent boiled over in 1514 when well-armed peasants preparing for a crusade against Turks rose up under György Dózsa. Shocked by the peasant revolt, the Diet of 1514 passed laws that condemned the serfs to eternal bondage and increased their work obligations still further; when King Vladislaus II died in 1516, a royal council appointed by the Diet ruled the country in the name of his ten-year-old son, King Louis II. In the course of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 a diet was called at Pest, dismissed by decree of Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria in October; the revolution was suppressed by Austrian troops under General Julius Jacob von Haynau and the assembly dissolved.
The Habsburgs again approached toward the Hungarian estates after the disastrous defeat at the 1859 Battle of Solferino and the loss of Lombardy. In 1860 Emperor Franz Joseph issued the October Diploma, which provided a national Reichsrat assembly formed by delegates deputed by the Landtage diets of the Austrian crown lands, followed by the February Patent of 1861, promising the implementation of a bicameral legislature; the Hungarian magnates however rejected to be governed from Vienna and insisted on an own parliamentary assembly with comprehensive autonomy in Hungarian affairs. The negotiations failed, predominantly due to the tough stance of Austrian Minister-President Anton von Schmerling. In the course of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the emperor appointed Gyula Andrássy Hungarian minister-president and the re-established national assembly convened on 27 February; the legislative power was vested in this parliament, consisting of two houses: an upper house titled the Főrendiház, a lower house titled the Képviselőház.
From 1902 on parliament assembles in the Hungarian Parliament Building on the Danube in Budapest. The House of Magnates was, like the current British House of Lords, composed of hereditaries, and, unlike the House of Lords, deputized representatives from autonomous regions; the House had no fixed membership size, as anyone. The official list: Princes of the royal house who have attained their majority Hereditary peers who paid at least 3000 florins a year land tax High dignitaries of the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches Representatives of the Protestant confessions Life peers appointed by the Crown, not exceeding 50 in number, life peers elected by the house itself Various state dignitaries and high judges Three delegates of Croatia-SlavoniaSee List of Speakers of the House of Magnates of Hungary The House of Representatives (Képviselőhá
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, king of Croatia from 1527 until his death in 1564. Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, he served as Charles' representative in Germany and developed encouraging relationships with German princes. The key events during his reign were the contest with the Ottoman Empire, which in the 1520s began a great advance into Central Europe, the Protestant Reformation, which resulted in several wars of religion. Ferdinand was able to defend his realm and make it somewhat more cohesive, but he could not conquer the major part of Hungary, his flexible approach to Imperial problems religious brought more result than the more confrontational attitude of his brother. Ferdinand's motto was Fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus: "Let justice be done, though the world perish". Ferdinand was born in Alcalá de Henares, the son of Queen Joanna I of Castile from the House of Trastámara and Habsburg Archduke Philip the Handsome, heir to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Ferdinand shared his customs and his birthday with his maternal grandfather Ferdinand II of Aragon. He was born and educated in Spain, did not learn German when he was young. In the summer of 1518 Ferdinand was sent to Flanders following his brother Charles's arrival in Spain as newly appointed King Charles I the previous autumn. Ferdinand returned in command of his brother's fleet but en route was blown off-course and spent four days in Kinsale in Ireland before reaching his destination. With the death of his grandfather Maximilian I and the accession of his now 19-year-old brother, Charles V, to title of Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, Ferdinand was entrusted with the government of the Austrian hereditary lands modern-day Austria and Slovenia, he was Archduke of Austria from 1521 to 1564. Though he supported his brother, Ferdinand managed to strengthen his own realm. By adopting the German language and culture late in his life, he grew close to the German territorial princes. After the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, Ferdinand ruled as King of Hungary.
Ferdinand served as his brother's deputy in the Holy Roman Empire during his brother's many absences, in 1531 was elected King of the Romans, making him Charles's designated heir in the empire. Charles abdicated in 1556 and Ferdinand adopted the title "Emperor elect" in 1558, while Spain, the Spanish Empire, Sicily, the Netherlands, Franche-Comté went to Philip, son of Charles. According to the terms set at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, Ferdinand married Anne Jagiellonica, daughter of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary on 22 July 1515. Both Hungary and Bohemia were elective monarchies, where the parliaments had the sovereign right to decide about the person of the king. Therefore, after the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, King of Bohemia and of Hungary, at the battle of Mohács on 29 August 1526, Ferdinand applied to the parliaments of Hungary and Bohemia to participate as a candidate in the king elections. On 24 October 1526 the Bohemian Diet, acting under the influence of chancellor Adam of Hradce, elected Ferdinand King of Bohemia under conditions of confirming traditional privileges of the estates and moving the Habsburg court to Prague.
The success was only partial, as the Diet refused to recognise Ferdinand as hereditary lord of the Kingdom. The throne of Hungary became the subject of a dynastic dispute between Ferdinand and John Zápolya, Voivode of Transylvania, they were supported by different factions of the nobility in the Hungarian kingdom. Ferdinand had the support of his brother, the Emperor Charles V. On 10 November 1526, John Zápolya was proclaimed king by a Diet at Székesfehérvár, John Zápolya was elected in the parliament by the untitled lesser nobility. Nicolaus Olahus, secretary of Louis, attached himself to the party of Ferdinand but retained his position with his sister, Queen Dowager Mary. Ferdinand was elected King of Hungary, Croatia, Slavonia etc. by the higher aristocracy and the Hungarian Catholic clergy in a rump Diet in Pozsony on 17 December 1526. Ferdinand was crowned as King of Hungary in the Székesfehérvár Basilica on 3 November 1527; the Croatian nobles unanimously accepted the Pozsony election of Ferdinand I, receiving him as their king in the 1527 election in Cetin, confirming the succession to him and his heirs.
In return for the throne, Archduke Ferdinand promised to respect the historic rights, freedoms and customs of the Croats when they united with the Hungarian kingdom and to defend Croatia from Ottoman invasion. The Austrian lands were in miserable economic and financial conditions, thus Ferdinand introduced the so-called Turkish Tax. In spite of the huge Austrian sacrifices, he was not able to collect enough money to pay for the expenses of the defence costs of Austrian lands, his annual revenues only allowed him to hire 5,000 mercenaries for two months, thus Ferdinand asked for help from his brother, Emperor Charles V, started to borrow money from rich bankers like the Fugger family. Ferdinand defeated Zápolya at the Battle of Tarcal in September 1527 and again in the Battle of Szina in March 1528. Zápolya fled the country and applied to Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent for support, making Hungary an Ottoman vassal state; this led to the most dangerous moment of Ferdinand's career, in 1529, when Suleiman took advantage of this Hungarian support for
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
George Martinuzzi, O. S. P. was a Croatian nobleman, Pauline monk and Hungarian statesman who supported King John Zápolya and his son, King John Sigismund Zápolya. He was Bishop of Archbishop of Esztergom and a cardinal. Since he identified himself as "Frater Georgius", he is known in Hungarian history as "Fráter György". Most details of Martinuzzi's life before 1528 are uncertain, he was the youngest son of a Croatian lesser nobleman, Grgur Utješinović, Anna Martinuzzi, descended from a Venetian patrician family. He was born in Kamičac Castle, near Skradin, on 18 June 1482, he was still a child when his father and his two oldest brothers died and the Ottomans occupied the family estates. Duke John Corvinus took care of the orphan in 1490. Martinuzzi was sent to Corvin's castle at Hunyad, he lived in wretched conditions for years, because young noblemen were intentionally treated like servants for pedagogical purposes. Martinuzzi moved to the court of Hedwig of Cieszyn in Szepes Castle around 1503.
She was the widow of Count Stephen Zápolya. He served as a page he was made a guard of the palace, he decided to abandon his military career and entered the Pauline Order at the age of 24. He most settled in the Budaszentlőrinc Monastery where he learnt to read and write, he was sent to continue his studies in the Jasna Góra Monastery in Częstochowa. He was made the head of the monastery, according to unproved theories. After he returned to Hungary in 1527, he became the prior of the Sajólád Monastery, which had received grants from the Zápolyas. Martinuzzi's sister, married Bartol Drašković and had three sons; the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent annihilated the Hungarian royal army in the Battle of Mohács on 29 August 1526. King Louis II of Hungary drowned in a stream fleeing from the battlefield; the Diet of Hungary elected the wealthy Count John Zápolya—the son of Martinuzzi's patroness, Hedwig—king in November, but the most powerful barons ignored this decision and proclaimed Ferdinand of Habsburg the lawful monarch in December.
A civil war broke out and a supporter of Ferdinand, Gáspár Serédy, pillaged the Sajólád Monastery shortly before Martinuzzi returned to Hungary. Ferdinand's troops defeated John in the Battle of Szina on 8 March 1528. John wanted to lodge a part of his wealth at the Sajólád Monastery. Martinuzzi denied to store John's property, he acted as John's personal envoy and visited Hungary three times to convince the expelled king's supporters—including Stephen Báthory of Somlyó, Jakab Tornallyai and Pál Ártándy—to remain loyal to him. Suleiman acknowledged John as the lawful king; the sultan's support enabled him to return to Hungary and seize the eastern and central territories of the kingdom by the end of 1529, but he could not reunite Hungary. Martinuzzi came back with John to Hungary, but the details of his life from 1529 to 1532 are unknown; the king made Alvise Gritti—a Venetian adventurer, the favourite of the Ottoman Grand Vizier, Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha—governor of Hungary. Gritti appointed Martinuzzi the provisor of Buda Castle, entrusting him with the administration of the royal demesne in 1532.
Gritti's other henchman, János Dóczy, murdered the popular bishop of Várad, Imre Czibak, in August 1534. The crime outraged the bishop's relatives and supporters who captured and killed Gritti on 28 September. Martinuzzi did not lose the king's favor, he succeeded Gritti as royal treasurer and the king made him the new bishop of Várad. The bishops of Várad were the ispáns of Bihar County; the consolidation of the royal treasury was Martinuzzi's principal task during the subsequent years. He centralized the administration of royal revenues and secured the regular investigation of the tax collectors' activities. Trading in leather, fleece and grain became a significant source of income for the royal treasury in the late 1530s; the strict control of state revenues caused many conflicts and Martinuzzi was accused of greed. Tamás Nádasdy deserted John Zápolya for Ferdinand of Habsburg after Martinuzzi deprived him of the administration of the salt mines in Máramaros County in 1534; the noblemen urged both kings to reach a compromise, because the civil war had caused much devastation in the whole kingdom.
John and Ferdinand's envoys started negotiations about the reunification of the country in 1534, but Martinuzzi was involved in the process only in 1536. In this year, Ferdinand's emissary, Johann von Wese, noted that the "White Monk" had taken full control of the negotiations. Martinuzzi wanted to reach an agreement, but he could prove himself determined to refute any compromise in order to strengthen John's position during the negotiations after a new war broke out between Ferdinand's brother, Emperor Charles V, King Francis I of France. Wese came to Várad to meet with Martinuzzi and Franjo Frankopan in November 1537. Martinuzzi hinted that he was willing to support Ferdinand and proudly claimed that he was the only politician to be able to mediate between the "Ottomans, Moldavians and Hungarians", according to Wese's notes. After a series of clandestine negotiations, they drafted an agreement on 24 February 1538; the secret Treaty of Várad acknowledged the provisional division of Hungary between János and Ferdinand, but it prescr
Battle of Mohács
The Battle of Mohács was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history. It was fought on 29 August 1526 near Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary, between the forces of the Kingdom of Hungary, led by Louis II, those of the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent; the Ottoman victory led to the partition of Hungary for several centuries between the Ottoman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Principality of Transylvania. Further, the death of Louis II as he fled the battle marked the end of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Hungary and Bohemia, whose dynastic claims passed to the House of Habsburg; the Battle of Mohács marked the end of the Middle Ages in Hungary. After the death of the absolutist King Matthias Corvinus in 1490, the Hungarian magnates, who did not want another heavy-handed king, procured the accession of Vladislaus II, King of Bohemia, because of his notorious weakness, he was known as King Dobře, or Dobrzse in Hungarian orthography, for his habit of accepting, without question, every petition and document laid before him.
The freshly elected King Vladislaus II donated most of the royal estates, régales and royalties to the nobility. By this method, the king tried to stabilize his new reign and preserve his popularity amongst the magnates. After the naive fiscal and land policy of the royal court, the central power began to experience severe financial difficulties due to the enlargement of feudal lands at his expense; the noble estate of the parliament succeeded in reducing their tax burden by 70–80%, at the expense of the country's ability to defend itself. Vladislaus became the magnates' helpless "prisoner"; the standing mercenary army of Matthias Corvinus was dissolved by the aristocracy. The magnates dismantled the national administration systems and bureaucracy throughout the country; the country's defenses sagged as border guards and castle garrisons went unpaid, fortresses fell into disrepair, initiatives to increase taxes to reinforce defenses were stifled. Hungary's international role declined, its political stability shaken, social progress was deadlocked.
The early appearance of Protestantism further worsened internal relations in the country. The strongest nobles were so busy oppressing the peasants and quarreling with the gentry class in the parliament that they failed to heed the agonized calls of King Louis II against the Turks. In 1514, the weakened and old King Vladislaus II faced a major peasant rebellion led by György Dózsa, ruthlessly crushed by the nobles, led by John Zápolya. After the Dózsa Rebellion, the brutal suppression of the peasants aided the 1526 Turkish invasion as the Hungarians were no longer a politically united people; the resulting degradation of order paved the way for Ottoman pre-eminence. King Louis II of Hungary married Mary of Habsburg in 1522; the Ottomans worked to break it. After Suleiman I came to power, the High Porte made the Hungarians at least one and two offers of peace, it is unclear. It is possible that King Louis was well aware of Hungary's situation and he believed that war was a better option than peace.
In peacetime the Ottomans raided Hungarian lands and conquered small territories, but a final battle still offered a glimmer of hope. To such ends, in June 1526, an Ottoman expedition advanced up the Danube. King Francis I of France was defeated at the Battle of Pavia on 24 February 1525 by the troops of the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. After several months in prison, Francis I was forced to sign the Treaty of Madrid. In a watershed moment in European diplomacy, Francis formed a formal Franco-Ottoman alliance with Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent as an ally against Charles V; the French-Ottoman strategic, sometimes tactical, alliance lasted for about three centuries. To relieve the Habsburg pressure on France, in 1525 Francis asked Suleiman to make war on the Holy Roman Empire, the road from Turkey to the Holy Roman Empire led across Hungary; the request of the French king coincided nicely with the ambitions of Suleiman in Europe and gave him an incentive to attack Hungary in 1526, leading to the Battle of Mohács.
The Hungarians had long opposed Ottoman expansion in southeastern Europe, but in 1521 the Turks advanced up the Danube River and took Nándorfehérvár – the strongest Hungarian fortress on the Danube – and Szabács. This left most of southern Hungary indefensible; the loss of Nandorfehervar caused great alarm in Hungary, but the huge 60,000 strong royal army – led by the king, but recruited too late and too – neglected to take food along. Therefore, the army disbanded spontaneously under pressure from hunger and disease without trying to recapture Belgrade from the newly installed Turkish garrisons. In 1523, Archbishop Pál Tomori, a valiant priest-soldier, was made Captain of Southern Hungary; the general apathy that had characterized the country forced him to lean on his own bishopric revenues when he started to repair and reinforce the second line of Hungary's border defense system. Pétervárad fell to the Turks on July 1526 due to the chronic lack of castle garrisons. For about 400 km along the Danube between Pétervárad and Buda there was no single Hungarian town, village, or fortification of any sort.
Three years an Ottoman army set out from Istanbul on 16 April 1526, led by Suleiman the Magnificent personally. The Hungarian nobles, who still did not realize the magnitude of t
Louis II of Hungary
Louis II was King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1516 to 1526. He was killed during the Battle of Mohács fighting the Ottomans, whose victory led to the Ottoman annexation of Hungary, he had no legitimate issue. At his premature birth in Buda on 1 July 1506, the court doctors kept him alive by slaying animals and wrapping him in their warm carcasses as a primitive incubator, he was Anne of Foix-Candale. Vladislaus II took steps to ensure a smooth succession by arranging for the boy to be crowned in his own lifetime. In 1515 Louis II was married to Mary of Austria, granddaughter of Emperor Maximilian I, as stipulated by the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, his sister Anne was married to Mary's brother Ferdinand a governor on behalf of his brother Charles V, Emperor Ferdinand I. During the greater part of his reign he was the puppet of the magnates and kept in such penury that he was obliged to pawn his jewels to get enough food and clothing, his guardians, Cardinal Tamás Bakócz and Count George Brandenburg-Ansbach, shamefully neglected him, squandered the royal revenues and distracted the whole kingdom with their endless dissensions.
Matters grew worse on the death of cardinal Bakócz, when the magnates István Báthory, John Zápolya and István Werbőczy fought each other furiously, used the diets as their tools. As king of Bohemia, Louis II became known as "Ludovicus the Child"; the first thaler coins were minted during his reign in Bohemia giving the name to the dollars used in different countries. After his father's death in 1516, the minor Louis II ascended to the throne of Croatia. Louis was adopted by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I in 1515; when Maximilian I died in 1519, Louis was raised by his legal guardian, his cousin George, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach. Following the accession to the throne of Suleiman I, the sultan sent an ambassador to Louis II to collect the annual tribute that Hungary had been subjected to. Louis refused to pay annual tribute and had the Ottoman ambassador executed and sent the head to the Sultan. Louis believed that the Papal States and other Christian States including Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor would help him.
This event hastened the fall of Hungary. Hungary was in a state of near anarchy in 1520 under the rule of the magnates; the king's finances were a shambles. The country's defenses weakened as border guards went unpaid, fortresses fell into disrepair, initiatives to increase taxes to reinforce defenses were stifled. In 1521 Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent was well aware of Hungary's weakness; the Ottoman Empire declared war on the Kingdom of Hungary, Suleiman postponed his plan to besiege Rhodes and made an expedition to Belgrade. Louis failed to gather his forces. At the same time, Hungary was unable to get assistance from other European states, which Louis had hoped for. Belgrade and many strategic castles in Serbia were captured by the Ottomans; this was disastrous for Louis' kingdom. After the siege of Rhodes, in 1526 Suleiman made a second expedition to subdue all of Hungary. Louis made a tactical error when he tried to stop the Ottoman army in an open field battle with a medieval army, insufficient firearms, obsolete tactics.
On 29 August 1526, Louis led his forces against Suleiman in the disastrous Battle of Mohács. The Hungarian army was surrounded by Ottoman cavalry in a pincer movement, in the center the Hungarian heavy knights and infantry were repulsed and suffered heavy casualties from the well-positioned Ottoman cannons and well-armed and trained Janissary musketeers. Nearly the entire Hungarian Royal army was destroyed on the battlefield. During the retreat, the twenty-year-old king died when he fell backwards off his horse while trying to ride up a steep ravine of Csele stream, he fell into the stream and, due to the weight of his armor, he drowned. As Louis had no legitimate children, Ferdinand was elected as his successor in the Kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary, but the Hungarian throne was contested by John Zápolya, who ruled the areas of the kingdom conquered by the Turks as an Ottoman client. Although Louis II's marriage remained childless, he had an illegitimate child with his mother's former lady-in-waiting, Angelitha Wass.
This son was called John. This name appears in sources in Vienna as either János Wass or János Lanthos; the former surname is his mother's maiden name. The latter surname may refer to his occupation. "Lanthos" means "lutenist", or "bard". He received incomes from the Royal Treasury regularly, he had further offspring. North of the town of Mohacs, there is a 5 meter high monument to the memory of Lajos II, it is located near the site of Louis' death in Csele Stream. On the monument there is a bronze plaque. On the top of the monument there is a figure of a sleeping lion. Soma Turcsányi, a hussar lieutenant, at his own expense, constructed the original commemorative column in 1864, it was reconstructed in 1897. The monument was restored by the local government in 1986. Agnew, Hugh; the Czechs and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown. Cazacu, Matei. Reinert, Stephen W. ed. Dracula. Brill. Johnson, Lonnie. Central Europe: Enemies, N