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Prince of Wales

Prince of Wales was a title granted to native Welsh princes before the 12th century. One of the last Welsh princes, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was killed in battle in 1282 by Edward I, King of England, whose son Edward was invested as the first English Prince of Wales in 1301. Since the 14th century, the title has been a dynastic title granted to the heir apparent to the English or British monarch, but the failure to be granted the title does not affect the rights to royal succession; the title is granted to the heir apparent as a personal honour or dignity, is not heritable, merging with the Crown on accession to the throne. The title Earl of Chester is always given in conjunction with that of Prince of Wales; the Prince of Wales has other titles and honours. The current and longest-serving Prince of Wales is Prince Charles, the eldest son of Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other independent Commonwealth realms as well as Head of the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations; the wife of the Prince of Wales is entitled to the title Princess of Wales.

Prince Charles's first wife, used that title, but his second wife, uses only the title Duchess of Cornwall because the other title has become so popularly associated with Diana. The Prince of Wales is the heir apparent of the monarch of the United Kingdom. No formal public role or responsibility has been legislated by Parliament or otherwise delegated to him by law or custom, either as heir apparent or as Prince of Wales; the current prince now assists the queen in the performance of her duties, for example, representing the queen when welcoming dignitaries to London and attending state dinners during state visits. He has represented the queen and the United Kingdom overseas at state and ceremonial occasions such as state funerals; the queen has given the Prince of Wales the authority to issue royal warrants. For most of the post-Roman period, Wales was divided into several smaller royal kingdoms. Before the Norman conquest of England, the most powerful Welsh ruler at any given time was known as King of the Britons.

In the 12th and 13th centuries, this title evolved into Prince of Wales. In Latin, the new title was Princeps Walliae, in Welsh it was Tywysog Cymru; the literal translation of Tywysog is "leader". Only a handful of native princes had their claim to the overlordship of Wales recognised by the English Crown; the first known to have used such a title was Owain Gwynedd, adopting the title Prince of the Welsh around 1165 after earlier using rex Waliae. Rhys ap Gruffydd held the kingdom of Deheubarth in south Wales from 1155 to 1197, he used the title Proprietary Prince of Deheubarth or Prince of South Wales, but two documents have been discovered in which he uses the title Prince of Wales or Prince of the Welsh. Rhys was one of the most successful and powerful Welsh princes and, after the death of Owain Gwynedd of Gwynedd in 1170, he became the dominant power in Wales, he is known as The Lord Rhys, in Welsh Yr Arglwydd Rhys. Llywelyn the Great, grandson of Owain Gwynedd, is not known to have used the title Prince of Wales as such, although his use, from around 1230, of the style Prince of Aberffraw, Lord of Snowdon was tantamount to a proclamation of authority over most of Wales, he did use the title Prince of North Wales, as did his predecessor Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd.

In 1240, the title was theoretically inherited by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn, though he is not known to have used it. Instead he styled himself as Prince of Wales around 1244. In 1246, his nephew Llywelyn ap Gruffudd succeeded to the throne of Gwynedd, used the style as early as 1258. In 1267, with the signing of the Treaty of Montgomery, he was recognised by both King Henry III of England and the representative of the Papacy as Prince of Wales. In 1282, Llywelyn was killed during Edward I of England's conquest of Wales and although his brother Dafydd ap Gruffudd succeeded to the Welsh princeship, issuing documents as prince, his principality was not recognised by the English Crown. Three Welshmen, claimed the title of Prince of Wales after 1283; the first was Madog ap Llywelyn, a member of the House of Gwynedd, who led a nationwide revolt in 1294-5, defeating English forces in battle near Denbigh and seizing Caernarfon Castle. His revolt was suppressed, after the Battle of Maes Moydog in March 1295, the prince was imprisoned in London.

In the 1370s, Owain Lawgoch, an English-born descendant of one of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's brothers, claimed the title of Prince of Wales, but was assassinated in France in 1378 before he could return to Wales to claim his inheritance. Owain Glyndŵr was proclaimed Prince of Wales by his supporters on 16 September 1400, held parliaments at Harlech Castle and elsewhere during his revolt, which encompassed all of Wales, it was not until 1409 that his revolt in quest of Welsh independence was suppressed by Henry IV. The tradition of conferring the title "Prince of Wales" on the heir apparent of the monarch is considered to have begun in 1301, when King Edward I of England invested his son Edward of Caernarfon with the title at a Parliament held in Lincoln. According to legend, the king had promised the Welsh that he would name "a prince born in

Martin Ziguélé

Martin Ziguélé is a Central African politician, Prime Minister of the Central African Republic from 2001 to 2003. He placed second in the 2005 presidential election and is the President of the Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People. Ziguélé was appointed as Prime Minister on 1 April 2001 by President Ange-Félix Patassé, replacing Anicet-Georges Dologuélé, he had lived in Lomé, Togo for twenty years and was an executive member of the MLPC. He left office when rebel leader François Bozizé took power upon capturing the capital, Bangui, on 15 March 2003. Ziguélé was allowed to go into exile in France. Ziguélé was barred from running in the 2005 presidential election, along with six other candidates, by a court ruling on December 30, 2004, he was subsequently reinstated as a candidate by Bozizé, along with two other candidates, on January 4. In January, all barred candidates, with the lone exception of Patassé, were allowed to run, he had been running as an independent. The election was held on March 13, 2005, Ziguélé placed second with 23.5% of the votes according to official results.

He faced Bozizé in a second round of voting, tried to distance himself from Patassé in campaigning, but was defeated and took 35.4% of the vote. Ziguélé was elected as President of the MLPC on a provisional basis for one year at an extraordinary party congress in late June 2006, while Patassé was suspended from the party. On June 23, 2007, at the end of the MLPC's third ordinary congress, Ziguélé was elected to a three-year term as President. In the December 2015 presidential election, Ziguélé placed fourth. In the February–March 2016 parliamentary election, he was elected to the National Assembly as the MLPC candidate in the third constituency of Bocaranga, winning in the first round with 66.25%% of the vote. ]

Gwen B. Giles

Gwen B. Giles, was the first African-American woman in the Missouri senate. Giles was involved in the civil rights movement and Democratic politics while working to improve life for the American Americans living in St. Louis, Missouri. Throughout her career, she was a leader in her community and an activist toward African American equality. Gwen B. Giles was born on May 14, 1932 in Atlanta, Georgia to Irene Burdette. In 1935, the Burdette family moved to St. Louis, Missouri where she attended St. Rita Academy and graduated from St. Alphonsus Ligouri High School, she went on to take classes at St. Washington Universities. In 1955, she married Eddie E. Giles and had a son, a daughter, Carla. In her life, she married John W. Holmes Jr. Giles started off her political career in 1968 as a campaign manager for Ruth C. Porter and William L. Clay. Throughout this time, she was involved in the civil rights movement. In 1970, Giles was appointed executive secretary of the St. Louis council by Mayor Alfonso J. Cervantes.

During her time on the council, Giles worked to eliminate discrimination against minorities. She contributed to this by updating a city ordinance to protect women, the elderly, the handicapped, she promoted the passage of the 1976 Comprehensive Civil Rights Ordinance. In a 1977 special election, Giles was elected to serve as the state senator from the Fourth District filling the seat of Democrat Franklin Payne, she won with an overwhelming majority of 92 percent. During her time in office, she was vice chair of Industrial Development and served on committees including Military and Veteran Affairs and Management Relations, Public Health, Mental Health, Developmental Disabilities and Medicaid, Consumer Protections. Giles used her experience to advance her causes; as co-chair of the Legislative Black Caucus, she looked at discrimination in hiring practices. Giles sponsored bills including endorsing the Equal Rights Amendment, eliminating blue laws, processing personal-injury claims, making public assistance easier to deposit for citizens, increasing aid to dependent children of unemployed parents.

Under her leadership, the West End Community Conference in St. Louis addressed local school desegregation and received $30 million to address housing in the area. Due to her strong advocacy, U. S. President Jimmy Carter selected her for a national task force to promote more women's involvement in the federal government. Giles served as a delegate to the Democratic National Convention twice, she was a member of the Order of Women Legislators, NAACP, the International Consultation on Human Rights, the National Council of Negro Women. She co-founded the Missouri Black Leadership Conference. In 1981 Giles resigned her senate seat to fulfill another first in Missouri history, she became the first woman and first African-American to lead the St. Louis City Assessor's Office. Mayor Vincent Schoemehl Jr. who appointed her, said Giles "guided the city through state-ordered property reassessment'fairly and efficiently.'" She served in this capacity until her death in 1986. Gwen Giles is remembered for breaking barriers as a minority in public service.

At every level of government she fought to secure equal freedoms for all and to improve the lives of not only the citizens of St. Louis but of those across the United States. After a battle with lung cancer Giles died March 26, 1986, at the age of 53. At her funeral, Mayor Schoemehl said, "She was an early and active proponent of civil rights and worked tirelessly to help those in need, her intelligence and dedication earned her the respect of the entire community." She is buried in St. Peter's Cemetery in Missouri. Two places in St. Louis were renamed in Giles' memory; the Wellston Post Office is now the Gwen B. Giles Post Office Building, Catalpa Park near where she lived is Gwen Giles Park