Maria Kunigunde of Saxony
Maria Kunigunde of Saxony was Princess-Abbess of Essen and Thorn. She was a titular Princess of Poland and Saxony of the Albertine branch of the House of Wettin, she was a member of the Order of the Starry Cross and a collegiate lady in the abbey at Münsterbilzen. She was the 15th and youngest child of King Augustus III of Poland, Elector of Saxony as Frederick August II, his wife Maria Josepha of Austria, her father liked hunting went to the opera, kept an extensive art collection, showed a great sense of family. However, he neglected his daily government duties and left them to his first ministers Count Heinrich von Brühl and Count Aleksander Józef Sułkowski, her parents placed great emphasis on the education of all their children. Maria Kunigunde was taught Polish, French, philosophy, religion, drawing and dance; as a young girl, she took part in Singspiele performed at court in Dresden. She sang the title rôle in the opera Leucippo by Johann Adolph Hasse; as a daughter of a ruling family, she was destined to marry a prince to strengthen the political relations of the House of Wettin.
The candidate her father considered was Archduke Joseph of Austria, who became Emperor as Joseph II. His first wife, Isabella of Bourbon-Parma had died without producing an heir and his mother, Maria Theresa pressured him to remarry and produce an heir. Joseph considered marrying Isabella's younger sister Maria Louisa. Joseph asked Charles' father Charles III to break off this engagement; the Empress and her chancellor asked him to choose a princess from Bavaria or Saxony. In 1764, he left Vienna to meet potential brides; the Saxon court in Dresden favoured a marriage between Joseph and Maria Kunigunde, if only because he might help the Saxons solve their financial difficulties. A "secret" dinner meeting was arranged between the two at Teplice in Bohemia. However, Maria Kunigunde hardly said a word during this meal and Joseph decided she was too timid to be his bride, he married her first cousin, Maria Josepha of Bavaria, whom he considered not pretty, but confident. Maria Josepha's marriage was an unhappy one.
However, the story of her failed "secret" meeting in Bohemia spread around the European courts, making it impossible to arrange a suitable marriage for her. One of the policy objectives of the House of Wettin was to increase their influence in the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle in the northwestern part of the Holy Roman Empire; the court in Dresden demanded that Vienna make her princess-abbess of a prestigious ladies' abbey as compensation for the failed marriage plans. The two courts had some problems agreeing on a suitable abbey. Vienna proposed to make Maria Kunigude coadjutor and heir designate of Hradčany Abbey, which Empress Maria Theresa had founded in the Prague Castle. However, Dresden rejected this, because the abbey was a subject of the Bohemian Crown, which Dresden considered beneath the dignity of a Saxon princess. Dresden demanded she be given an immediate Abbey, which would make Maria Kunigunde an Imperial Princess. In 1766, they demanded that she be given the abbeys in Münsterbilsen and Thorn.
The Saxon attempts to have Maria Kunigunde appointed as Abbess of Münsterbilsen failed in 1766. The incumbent, Antoinette of Eltz-Kempenich, was willing to abdicate in Maria Kunigunde's favour. For example, Sophia of Stadion-Tannhausen requested proof of Maria Kunigunde's nobility, confirmed by two electors or imperial princes, that the next abbess reside at the Abbey — this was not an unusual requirement at ladies' abbeys, but it was unacceptable to the court in Dresden; the court interpreted the demand for proof of nobility as an insult. Only after a papal dispensation from the residence requirement was obtained, Joseph II had impounded the Abbey's possessions, did the chapter concede and admitted Maria Kunigunde as a collegiate lady. At this point, the debate was no longer about appointing her abbess, but about preserving the dignity of the imperial court; the court had decided that she would be installed as abbess in Essen and Thorn. In 1775 Maria Kunigunde was elected coadjutor of Essen and Thorn with the right to succeed, while her predecessor Francisca Christina of Sulzbach was still alive.
The election was unanimous, not surprising, considering that the courts in Vienna and Dresden paid 45000guilders to the canons and canonesses eligible to vote. Francisca Christina was 79 years old and in failing health, she died on 16 July 1776 and Maria Kunigunde succeeded her on the same day. As princess abbess of an Imperial Free Abbey, she had a seat and a vote in the Imperial Diet and all the rights and obligations of an Imperial Princess (such as low justice, right of taxation, right of legislation, right of coinage and sovereign immunity; the abbey in Essen was regarded at the time of Maria Kunigunde's accession to the throne. However, it was hardly fit for a court life like that of her father in Dresden, or her brother Wenceslas in Koblenz, where Maria Kunigunde spent most of her time after 1769; the main building of the abbey was so damp that the representative of the court in Dresden who came to oversee her election refused to spend the night in the building. The city of Essen was provincial.
Reims, a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies 129 km east-northeast of Paris. The 2013 census recorded 182,592 inhabitants in the city of Reims proper, 317,611 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, its primary river, the Vesle, is a tributary of the Aisne. Founded by the Gauls, it became a major city during the period of the Roman Empire. Reims played a prominent ceremonial role in French monarchical history as the traditional site of the crowning of the kings of France; the Cathedral of Reims housed the Holy Ampulla containing the Saint Chrême brought by a white dove at the baptism of Clovis in 496. It was used for the most important part of the coronation of French kings. Reims functions as a subprefecture of the department of Marne, in the administrative region of Grand Est. Although Reims is by far the largest commune in its department, Châlons-en-Champagne is the prefecture. Before the Roman conquest of northern Gaul, founded circa 80 BC as *Durocorteron, served as the capital of the tribe of the Remi — whose name the town would subsequently echo.
In the course of Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul, the Remi allied themselves with the Romans, by their fidelity throughout the various Gallic insurrections secured the special favour of the imperial power. At its height in Roman times the city had a population in the range of 30,000 - 50,000 or up to 100,000. Christianity had become established in the city by 260, at which period Saint Sixtus of Reims founded the bishopric of Reims; the consul Jovinus, an influential supporter of the new faith, repelled the Alamanni who invaded Champagne in 336. In 496 – ten years after Clovis, King of the Salian Franks, won his victory at Soissons — Remigius, the bishop of Reims, baptized him using the oil of the sacred phial – purportedly brought from heaven by a dove for the baptism of Clovis and subsequently preserved in the Abbey of Saint-Remi. For centuries the events at the crowning of Clovis I became a symbol used by the monarchy to claim the divine right to rule. Meetings of Pope Stephen II with Pepin the Short, of Pope Leo III with Charlemagne, took place at Reims.
King Louis IV gave the city and countship of Reims to the archbishop Artaldus in 940. King Louis VII gave the title of duke and peer to William of Champagne, archbishop from 1176 to 1202, the archbishops of Reims took precedence over the other ecclesiastical peers of the realm. By the 10th century Reims had become a centre of intellectual culture. Archbishop Adalberon, seconded by the monk Gerbert, founded schools which taught the classical "liberal arts"; the archbishops held the important prerogative of the consecration of the kings of France – a privilege which they exercised from the time of Philippe II Augustus to that of Charles X. Louis VII granted the city a communal charter in 1139; the Treaty of Troyes ceded it to the English, who had made a futile attempt to take it by siege in 1360. Louis XI cruelly suppressed a revolt at Reims, caused in 1461 by the salt tax. During the French Wars of Religion the city sided with the Catholic League, but submitted to King Henri IV after the battle of Ivry.
In the invasions of the War of the Sixth Coalition in 1814, anti-Napoleonic allied armies captured and re-captured Reims. In August 1909 Reims hosted the first international aviation meet, the Grande Semaine d'Aviation de la Champagne. Major aviation personages such as Glenn Curtiss, Louis Blériot and Louis Paulhan participated. Hostilities in World War I damaged the city. German bombardment and a subsequent fire in 1914 did severe damage to the cathedral; the ruined cathedral became one of the central images of anti-German propaganda produced in France during the war, which presented it, along with the ruins of the Cloth Hall at Ypres and the University Library in Louvain, as evidence that German aggression targeted cultural landmarks of European civilization. From the end of World War I to the present day an international effort to restore the cathedral from the ruins has continued; the Palace of Tau, St Jacques Church and the Abbey of St Remi were protected and restored. The collection of preserved buildings and Roman ruins remains monumentally impressive.
During World War II the city suffered additional damage. But in Reims, at 2:41 on the morning of 7 May 1945, General Eisenhower and the Allies received the unconditional surrender of the German Wehrmacht. General Alfred Jodl, German Chief-of-Staff, signed the surrender at the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force as the representative for German President Karl Dönitz; the British statesman Leslie Hore-Belisha died of a cerebral haemorrhage while making a speech at the Reims hôtel de ville in February 1957. The principal squares of Reims include the
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VI succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary and Croatia and Archduke of Austria in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain following the death of his relative, Charles II, In 1708 He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, by whom he had his two children: Maria Theresa, the last Habsburg sovereign, Maria Anna, Governess of the Austrian Netherlands. Four years before the birth of Maria Theresa, faced with his lack of male heirs, Charles provided for a male-line succession failure with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713; the Emperor favoured his own daughters over those of his elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, in the succession, ignoring the decree he had signed during the reign of his father, Leopold I. Charles sought the other European powers' approval, they exacted harsh terms: Britain demanded that Austria abolish its overseas trading company. In total, Great Britain, Saxony-Poland, the Dutch Republic, Venice, States of the Church, Russia, Savoy-Sardinia and the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire recognised the sanction.
France, Saxony-Poland and Prussia reneged. Charles died in 1740, sparking the War of the Austrian Succession, which plagued his successor, Maria Theresa, for eight years. Archduke Charles, the second son of the Emperor Leopold I and of his third wife, Princess Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg, was born on 1 October 1685, his tutor was Anton Prince of Liechtenstein. Following the death of Charles II of Spain, in 1700, without any direct heir, Charles declared himself King of Spain—both were members of the House of Habsburg; the ensuing War of the Spanish Succession, which pitted France's candidate, Duke of Anjou, Louis XIV of France's grandson, against Austria's Charles, lasted for 14 years. The Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of England, Scotland and the majority of the Holy Roman Empire endorsed Charles's candidature. Charles III, as he was known, disembarked in his kingdom in 1705, stayed there for six years, only being able to exercise his rule in Catalonia, until the death of his brother, Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Not wanting to see Austria and Spain in personal union again, the new Kingdom of Great Britain withdrew its support from the Austrian coalition, the war culminated with the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt three years later. The former, ratified in 1713, recognised Philip as King of Spain. To prevent a union of Spain and France, Philip was forced to renounce his right to succeed his grandfather's throne. Charles was discontented at the loss of Spain, as a result, he mimicked the staid Spanish Habsburg court ceremonial, adopting the dress of a Spanish monarch, according to British historian Edward Crankshaw, consisted of "a black doublet and hose, black shoes and scarlet stockings". Charles's father and his advisors went about arranging a marriage for him, their eyes fell upon Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the eldest child of Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. She was held to be strikingly beautiful by her contemporaries. On 1 August 1708, in Barcelona, Charles married her by proxy.
She gave him two daughters that survived to Maria Theresa and Maria Anna. When Charles succeeded his brother in 1711, he was the last male Habsburg heir in the direct line. Since Habsburg possessions were subject to Salic law, barring women from inheriting in their own right, his own lack of a male heir meant they would be divided on his death; the Pragmatic Sanction of 19 April 1713 abolished male-only succession in all Habsburg realms and declared their lands indivisible, although Hungary only approved it in 1723. Charles had Maria Theresa, Maria Anna and Maria Amalia but no surviving sons; when Maria Theresa was born, he disinherited his nieces and the daughters of his elder brother Joseph, Maria Josepha and Maria Amalia. It was this act that undermined the chances of a smooth succession and obliged Charles to spend the rest of his reign seeking to ensure enforcement of the Sanction from other European powers, they exacted harsh terms. However, by 1735 he had secured approvals from key states, most the Imperial Diet, which in theory bound all its members including Prussia and Bavaria.
Other signatories included Britain, the Dutch Republic, Russia and Savoy-Sardinia but subsequent events underlined Eugene of Savoy's comment that the best guarantee was a powerful army and full Treasury. His nieces were married to the rulers of Saxony and Bavaria, both of whom refused to be bound by the decision of the Imperial Diet and despite publicly agreeing to the Pragmatic Sanction in 1735, France signed a secret treaty with Bavaria in 1738 promising to back the'just claims' of Charles Albert of Bavaria. In the first part of his reign, Austrian continued to expand; this extended Austrian rule to the lower Danube. The War of the Quadruple Alliance followed, it too ended in an A
Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria. It is in the Inn valley, at its junction with the Wipp valley, which provides access to the Brenner Pass some 30 km to the south. Located in the broad valley between high mountains, the so-called North Chain in the Karwendel Alps to the north, the Patscherkofel and Serles to the south. Innsbruck is an internationally renowned winter sports center, hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics as well as the 1984 and 1988 Winter Paralympics. Innsbruck hosted the first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012; the name translates as "Inn Bridge". The earliest traces suggest initial inhabitation in the early Stone Age. Surviving pre-Roman place names show that the area has been populated continuously. In the 4th century the Romans established the army station Veldidena at Oenipons, to protect the economically important commercial road from Verona-Brenner-Augsburg in their province of Raetia; the first mention of Innsbruck dates back to the name Oeni Pontum or Oeni Pons, Latin for bridge over the Inn, an important crossing point over the Inn river.
The Counts of Andechs acquired the town in 1180. In 1248 the town passed into the hands of the Counts of Tyrol; the city's arms show a bird's-eye view of the Inn bridge, a design used since 1267. The route over the Brenner Pass was a major transport and communications link between the north and the south of Europe, the easiest route across the Alps, it was part of a medieval imperial road under special protection of the king. The revenues generated by serving. Innsbruck became the capital of all Tyrol in 1429 and in the 15th century the city became a centre of European politics and culture as Emperor Maximilian I resided in Innsbruck in the 1490s; the city benefited from the emperor's presence. Here a funeral monument for Maximilian was planned and erected by his successors; the ensemble with a cenotaph and the bronze statues of real and mythical ancestors of the Habsburg emperor are one of the main artistic monuments of Innsbruck. A regular postal service between Innsbruck and Mechelen was established in 1490 by the Thurn-und-Taxis-Post.
In 1564 Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria received the rulership over Tirol and other Further Austrian possessions administered from Innsbruck up to the 18th century. He had Schloss Ambras built and arranged there his unique Renaissance collections nowadays part of Vienna's Kunsthistorisches Museum. Up to 1665 a stirps of the Habsburg dynasty ruled in Innsbruck with an independent court. In the 1620s the first opera house north of the Alps was erected in Innsbruck. In 1669 the university was founded; as a compensation for the court as Emperor Leopold I again reigned from Vienna and the Tyrolean stirps of the Habsburg dynasty had ended in 1665. During the Napoleonic Wars Tyrol was ceded to ally of France. Andreas Hofer led a Tyrolean peasant army to victory in the Battles of Bergisel against the combined Bavarian and French forces, made Innsbruck the centre of his administration; the combined army overran the Tyrolean militia army and until 1814 Innsbruck was part of Bavaria. After the Vienna Congress Austrian rule was restored.
Until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy, head of the district of the same name, one of the 21 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Tyrol province. The Tyrolean hero Andreas Hofer was executed in Mantua. During World War I, the only recorded action taking place in Innsbruck was near the end of the war. On February 20, 1918, Allied planes flying out of Italy raided Innsbruck, causing casualties among the Austrian troops there. No damage to the town is recorded. In November 1918 Innsbruck and all Tyrol were occupied by the 20 to 22 thousand soldiers of the III Corps of the First Italian Army. In 1929, the first official Austrian Chess Championship was held in Innsbruck. In 1938 Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in the Anschluss. Between 1943 and April 1945, Innsbruck suffered heavy damage. In 1996, the European Union approved further cultural and economic integration between the Austrian province of Tyrol and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino by recognizing the creation of the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino.
Innsbruck has a humid continental climate, since it has larger annual temperature differences than most of Central Europe due to its location in the centre of the Continent and its position around mountainous terrains. Winters are very cold and snowy, although the foehn wind sometimes brings pronounced thaws. Spring is brief. Summer is variable and unpredictable. Days can be cool 17 °C and rainy, or sunny and hot, sometimes hitting 34 °C. In summer, as expected for an alpine-influenced climate, the diurnal temperature variation is very high as nights remain cool, being 12 °C on average, but sometimes dipping as low as 6 °C; the average annual temperature is 9 °C. Innsbruck is divided into nine boroughs that were formed from previo
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
Francis I was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife Maria Theresa executed the real powers of those positions. They were the founders of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. Francis traded the duchy to the ex-Polish king Stanisław Leszczyński in exchange for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany as one of the terms ending the War of the Polish Succession in November 1738; the duchy and the ducal title to Lorraine and Bar passed to King Louis XV of France upon Leszczynski's death in 1766, though Francis and his successors retained the right to style themselves as dukes of Lorraine and Bar. Francis was born in Nancy, the oldest surviving son of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine, his wife Princess Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, he was connected with the Habsburgs through his grandmother Eleonore, daughter of Emperor Ferdinand III. He was close to his brother Charles and sister Anne Charlotte. Emperor Charles VI favoured the family, besides being his cousins, had served the house of Austria with distinction.
He had designed to marry his daughter Maria Theresa to Francis' older brother Leopold Clement. On Leopold Clement's death, Charles adopted the younger brother as his future son-in-law. Francis was brought up in Vienna with Maria Theresa with the understanding that they were to be married, a real affection arose between them. At the age of 15, when he was brought to Vienna, he was established in the Silesian Duchy of Teschen, mediatised and granted to his father by the emperor in 1722. Francis succeeded his father as Duke of Lorraine in 1729. In 1731 he was initiated into freemasonry by John Theophilus Desaguliers at a specially convened lodge in The Hague at the house of the British Ambassador, Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield. During a subsequent visit to England, Francis was made a Master Mason at another specially convened lodge at Houghton Hall, the Norfolk estate of British Prime Minister Robert Walpole. Maria Theresa arranged for Francis to become "Lord Lieutenant" of Hungary in 1732.
He was not excited about this position. In June 1732 he agreed to go to Pressburg; when the War of the Polish Succession broke out in 1733, France used it as an opportunity to seize Lorraine, since France's prime minister, Cardinal Fleury, was concerned that, as a Habsburg possession, it would bring Austrian power too close to France. A preliminary peace was concluded in October 1735 and ratified in the Treaty of Vienna in November 1738. Under its terms, Stanisław I, the father-in-law of King Louis XV and the losing claimant to the Polish throne, received Lorraine, while Francis, in compensation for his loss, was made heir to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, which he would inherit in 1737. Although fighting stopped after the preliminary peace, the final peace settlement had to wait until the death of the last Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany, Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737, to allow the territorial exchanges provided for by the peace settlement to go into effect. In March 1736 the Emperor persuaded Francis, his future son-in-law, to secretly exchange Lorraine for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
France had demanded that Maria Theresa's fiancé surrender his ancestral Duchy of Lorraine to accommodate the deposed King of Poland. The Emperor considered other possibilities before announcing the engagement of the couple. If something were to go wrong, Francis would become governor of the Austrian Netherlands. Elisabeth of Parma had wanted the Grand Duchy of Tuscany for her son Charles III of Spain; as a result, Elisabeth's sons could claim by right of being a descendant of Margherita. On 31 January 1736 Francis agreed to marry Maria Theresa, he hesitated three times. His mother Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans and his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine were against the loss of Lorraine. On 1 February, Maria Theresa sent Francis a letter: she would withdraw from her future reign, when a male successor for her father appeared, they married on 12 February in the Augustinian Vienna. The wedding was held on 14 February 1736; the treaty between the Emperor and Francis was signed on 4 May 1736.
In January 1737, the Spanish troops withdrew from Tuscany, were replaced by 6,000 Austrians. On 24 January 1737 Francis received Tuscany from his father-in-law; until Maria Theresa was Duchess of Lorraine. Gian Gastone de' Medici, who died on 9 July 1737, was the second cousin of Francis, who had Medici blood through his maternal great-great-grandmother Marie de' Medici, Queen consort of France and Navarre. In June 1737 Francis went to Hungary again to fight against the Turks. In October 1738 he was back in Vienna. On 17 December 1738 the couple travelled south, accompanied by his brother Charles to visit Florence for three months, they arrived on 20 January 1739. In 1744 Francis' brother Charles married a younger sister of Maria Theresa, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria. In 1744 Charles became governor of the Austrian Netherlands, a post he held until his death in 1780. Maria Theresa secured in the Treaty of Füssen his election to the Empire on 13 September 1745, in succession to Charles VII, she made him co-regent of her hereditary dominions.
Francis was well content to leave the wielding of power to his able wife. He had a natural fund of good sense and brilliant business c
Louis XV of France
Louis XV, known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five; until he reached maturity on 15 February 1723, the kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, as Regent of France. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom, his reign of 59 years was the second longest in the history of France, exceeded only by his predecessor and great-grandfather, Louis XIV, who had ruled for 72 years. In 1748, Louis returned the Austrian Netherlands, won at the Battle of Fontenoy of 1745, he ceded New France in North America to Spain and Great Britain at the conclusion of the disastrous Seven Years' War in 1763. He incorporated the territories of the Duchy of Lorraine and the Corsican Republic into the Kingdom of France, he was succeeded in 1774 by his grandson Louis XVI, executed by guillotine during the French Revolution.
Two of his other grandsons, Louis XVIII and Charles X, occupied the throne of France after the fall of Napoleon I. Historians give his reign low marks as wars drained the treasury and set the stage for the governmental collapse and French Revolution in the 1780s. Louis XV was the great-grandson of Louis XIV and the third son of the Duke of Burgundy, his wife Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, the eldest daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, he was born in the Palace of Versailles on 15 February 1710. When he was born, he was named the Duke of Anjou; the possibility of his becoming King seemed remote. However, the Grand Dauphin died of smallpox on 14 April 1711. On 12 February 1712 the mother of Louis, Marie Adélaïde, was stricken with measles and died, followed on 18 February by Louis's father, the former Duke of Burgundy, next in line for the throne. On 7 March, it was found that both Louis and his older brother, the former Duke of Brittany, had the measles; the two brothers were treated with bleeding.
On the night of 8–9 March, the new Dauphin died from the combination of the disease and the treatment. The governess of Louis, Madame de Ventadour, would not allow the doctors to bleed Louis further; when Louis XIV died on 1 September 1715, Louis, at the age of five, inherited the throne. The Ordinance of Vincennes from 1374 required that the kingdom be governed by a regent until Louis reached the age of thirteen; the title of Regent was given to his cousin Philippe, the Duke of Orleans. Louis XIV, distrusted Philippe, a renowned soldier, but was regarded by the King as an atheist and libertine; the King referred to Philippe as a Fanfaron des crimes. Louis XIV wanted France to be ruled by his favorite but illegitimate son, Duke of Maine, in the council. In August 1714, shortly before his own death, the King rewrote his will to restrict the powers of the regent. Philippe, nephew of Louis XIV, was named president of the council, but other members included the Duke of Maine and his allies. Decisions were to be made by majority vote, meaning that the Regent could be outvoted by Maine's party.
Orléans saw the trap, after the death of the King, he went to the Parlement of Paris, an assembly of nobles where he had many allies, had the Parlement annul the King's will. In exchange for their support, he restored to the Parlement its droit de remontrance – the right to challenge the King's decisions, removed by Louis XIV; the droit de remontrance would impair the monarchy's functioning and marked the beginning of a conflict between the Parlement and King which led to the French Revolution in 1789. On 9 September 1715, the Regent had the young King transported away from the court in Versailles to Paris, where the Regent had his own residence in the Palais Royal. On 12 September, he performed his first official act, opening the first lit de justice of his reign at the Palais Royal. From September 1715 until January 1716 he lived in the Château de Vincennes, before moving to the Tuileries Palace. In February 1717, when he reached the age of seven, he was taken from his governess Madame Ventadour and placed in the care of François de Villeroy, the 73-year-old Duke and Maréchal de France, named as his governor in Louis XIV's will of August 1714.
Villeroy instructed the young King in court etiquette, taught him how to review a regiment, how to receive royal visitors. His guests included the Russian Tsar Peter the Great in 1717. Louis learned the skills of horseback riding and hunting, which became the great passion of the young King. In 1720, following the example of Louis XIV, Villeroy had the young Louis dance in public in two ballets at the Tuileries Palace on 24 February 1720, again in The Ballet des Elements on 31 December 1721; the shy Louis evidently did not enjoy the experience. The King's tutor was the Abbé André-Hercule de Fleury, the bishop of Fréjus, who saw that he was instructed in Latin, history
Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand III was Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. Ferdinand was born in Graz, the eldest son of Emperor Ferdinand II of Habsburg and his first wife, Maria Anna of Bavaria, was baptised as Ferdinand Ernst. Educated by the Jesuits, he became Archduke of Austria in 1621, King of Hungary in 1625, King of Bohemia in 1627. In 1627 Ferdinand enhanced his authority and set an important legal and military precedent by issuing a Revised Land Ordinance that deprived the Bohemian estates of their right to raise soldiers, reserving this power for the monarch. Following the death of Albrecht von Wallenstein in 1634, he was made titular head of the Imperial Army in the Thirty Years' War; that year he joined with his cousin, the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand, nominally responsible for the capture of Donauwörth and Regensburg, for the defeat of the Swedes at the Battle of Nördlingen. Leader of the peace party at court, he helped negotiate the Peace of Prague with the Protestant states Saxony in 1635.
Having been elected King of the Romans in 1636, he succeeded his father as Holy Roman Emperor in 1637. He hoped to make peace soon with France and Sweden, but the war dragged on ending in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia, negotiated by his envoy Maximilian von und zu Trauttmansdorff, a diplomat, made a count in 1623 by his father Ferdinand II. During the last period of the war, in 1644 Ferdinand III gave all rulers of German states the right to conduct their own foreign policy – the emperor hoped to gain more allies in the negotiations with France and Sweden; this edict, contributed to the gradual erosion of the imperial authority in the Holy Roman Empire. After 1648 the emperor was engaged in carrying out the terms of the treaty and ridding Germany of the foreign soldiery. In 1656 he sent an army into Italy to assist Spain in her struggle with France, he had just concluded an alliance with Poland to check the aggressions of Charles X of Sweden when he died on 2 April 1657. On 20 February 1631, Ferdinand III married Maria Anna of Spain.
She was the youngest daughter of Philip III of Margaret of Austria. They were first cousins, they were parents to six children: Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans Maria Anna "Mariana", Archduchess of Austria. Married her maternal uncle Philip IV of Spain. Philip August, Archduke of Austria Maximilian Thomas, Archduke of Austria Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Maria, Archduchess of Austria On 2 July 1648 in Linz, Ferdinand III married his second wife, Archduchess Maria Leopoldine of Austria, she was a daughter of Leopold V, Archduke of Austria, Claudia de' Medici. They were first cousins as male-line grandchildren of Charles II, Archduke of Austria, Maria Anna of Bavaria, they had a single son: Archduke of Austria. He was Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights from 1662 to his death. On 30 April 1651, Ferdinand III married Eleonora Gonzaga, she was a daughter of Duke of Rethel. They were parents to four children: Theresia Maria Josefa, Archduchess of Austria Eleonora Maria of Austria, who married first Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki, King of Poland, Charles Léopold, Duke of Lorraine.
Maria Anna Josepha of Austria, who married Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine. Ferdinand Josef Alois, Archduke of Austria Ferdinand III was a well-known patron of music and a composer, he studied music under Giovanni Valentini, who bequeathed his musical works to him, had close ties with Johann Jakob Froberger, one of the most important keyboard composers of the 17th century. Froberger lamented the emperor's death and dedicated to him one of his most celebrated works, Lamentation faite sur la mort très douloureuse de Sa Majesté Impériale, Ferdinand le troisième; some of Ferdinand's own compositions survive in manuscripts: masses, motets and other sacred music, as well as a few secular pieces. His Drama musicum was praised by Athanasius Kircher, the extant works, although influenced by Valentini, show a composer with an individual style and a solid technique. Recordings of Ferdinand's compositions include: Jesu Redemptor Omnium. Deus Tuorum. Humanae Salutis. With Schmelzer: Lamento Sopra La Morte de Ferdinand III.
Joseph I: Regina Coeli. Leopold I: Sonata Piena. Wiener Akademie, dir. Martin Haselböck, CPO 1997. Ferdinand III: Hymnus "Jesu Corona Virginum". On Musik für Gamben-Consort. Klaus Mertens, Hamburger Ratsmusik, dir. Simone Eckert CPO 2010 Ferdinand III, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King of Germany, King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Slavonia, Serbia, Lodomeria and Bulgaria, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Styria, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, of the Higher and Lower Silesia, of Württemberg and Teck, Prince of Swabia, Count of Habsburg, Tyrol and Goritia, Marquess of the Holy Roman Empire, the Higher and Lower Lusace, Lord of the Marquisate of Slavonia, of Port Nao