John Hervey, 2nd Baron Hervey
John Hervey, 2nd Baron Hervey, was an English courtier and political writer and memoirist, the eldest son of John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol, by his second wife, Elizabeth. He was known as Lord Hervey from 1723, upon the death of his elder half-brother, the only son of his father's first wife, but Lord Hervey never became Earl of Bristol, as he predeceased his father. Hervey was educated at Westminster School and at Clare College, where he took his M. A. degree in 1715. His father sent him to Paris in 1716, thence to Hanover to pay court to George I, he was a frequent visitor at the court of the Prince and Princess of Wales at Richmond, in 1720 he married Mary Lepell, daughter of Nicholas Lepell, one of the Princess's ladies-in-waiting, a great court beauty. In 1723 John's elder half-brother Carr died, whereby he became heir apparent to the Earldom of Bristol with the courtesy title of Lord Hervey. In 1725 he was elected M. P. for Bury St Edmunds. Hervey had been at one time on friendly terms with Frederick, Prince of Wales, but in about 1723 they quarrelled because they were rivals for the affection of Anne Vane.
These differences account for the scathing picture he draws of the Prince's callous conduct. Hervey had been hesitating between William Pulteney and Robert Walpole, but in 1730 he took sides with Walpole, of whom he was thenceforward a faithful adherent, he was assumed by Pulteney to be the author of Sedition and Defamation display'd, with a Dedication to the patrons of The Craftsman. Pulteney, who, up to this time, had been a firm friend of Hervey, replied with A Proper Reply to a late Scurrilous Libel, the quarrel resulted in a duel from which Hervey narrowly escaped with his life. Hervey is said to have denied the authorship of both the pamphlet and its dedication, but a note on the manuscript at Ickworth in his own hand, states that he wrote the latter, he was able to render valuable service to Walpole from his influence with the Queen. Through him the minister governed Queen Caroline and indirectly George II. Hervey was vice-chamberlain in a member of the Privy Council. In 1733 he was called to the House of Lords by writ of acceleration in his father's Barony.
He was elected a governor of the Foundling Hospital prior to its foundation in 1739. In spite of repeated requests he received no further preferment until after 1740, when he became Lord Privy Seal. After the fall of Sir Robert Walpole he was dismissed from his office. An excellent political pamphlet, Miscellaneous Thoughts on the present Posture of Foreign and Domestic Affairs, shows that he still retained his mental vigour, but he was liable to epilepsy, his weak appearance and rigid diet were a constant source of ridicule to his enemies, he predeceased his father. Hervey wrote detailed and brutally frank memoirs of the court of George II from 1727 to 1737, he gave a most unflattering account of the King, of Frederick, Prince of Wales, their family squabbles. For the Queen and her daughter, Princess Caroline, he had a genuine respect and attachment, the Princess's affection for him was said to be the reason for the close retirement in which she lived after his death; the manuscript of Hervey's memoirs was preserved by the family, but his son, Augustus John, 3rd Earl of Bristol, left strict injunctions that they should not be published until after the death of George III.
In 1848 they were published under the editorship of J. W. Croker, but the manuscript had been subjected to a certain amount of mutilation before it came into his hands. Croker softened in some cases the plainspokenness of the original. Hervey's account of court life and intrigues resembles in many points the memoirs of Horace Walpole, the two books corroborate one another in many statements that might otherwise have been received with suspicion; until the publication of the Memoirs Hervey was chiefly known as the object of savage satire on the part of Alexander Pope, in whose works he figured as Lord Fanny, Sporus and Narcissus. The quarrel is put down to Pope's jealousy of Hervey's friendship with Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. In the first of the Imitations of Horace, addressed to William Fortescue, Lord Fanny and Sappho were identified with Hervey and Lady Mary, although Pope denied the personal intention. Hervey had been attacked in the Dunciad and the Peribathous, he now retaliated. There is no doubt that he had a share in the Verses to the Imitator of Horace and it is possible that he was the sole author.
In the Letter from a nobleman at Hampton Court to a Doctor of Divinity, he scoffed at Pope's deformity and humble birth. Pope's reply was a Letter to a Noble Lord, dated November 1733, the portrait of Sporus in the Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot, which forms the prologue to the satires. Many of the insinuations and insults contained in it are borrowed from Pulteney's A Proper Reply to a late Scurrilous Libel; some literary critics, such as Martin C. Battestin, suggest that Pope's friend and fellow-satirist Henry Fielding intended the character of Beau Didapper in Joseph Andrews to be read as Hervey. Beau Didapper is described as obedient to the commands of a "Great Man" "which he implicitly submitted to, at the Expence of his Conscience, his Honour, of his Country." Didapper is compared to Hylas, is mistaken for a woman in the dark on account of his soft skin. The malicious caricature of Sporus does Hervey great injustice, he is not much better treated by Horace Walpole, who in reporting his death in a letter to Horace Mann, said h
Caroline of Ansbach
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach was Queen of Great Britain as the wife of King George II. Her father, Margrave John Frederick of Brandenburg-Ansbach, belonged to a branch of the House of Hohenzollern and was the ruler of a small German state, the Principality of Ansbach. Caroline was orphaned at a young age and moved to the enlightened court of her guardians, King Frederick I and Queen Sophia Charlotte of Prussia. At the Prussian court, her limited education was widened, she adopted the liberal outlook possessed by Sophia Charlotte, who became her good friend and whose views influenced Caroline all her life; as a young woman, Caroline was much sought-after as a bride. After rejecting the suit of the nominal King of Spain, Archduke Charles of Austria, she married George Augustus, the third-in-line to the British throne and heir apparent to the Electorate of Hanover, they had eight children. Caroline moved permanently to Britain in 1714; as Princess of Wales, she joined her husband in rallying political opposition to his father King George I.
In 1717, her husband was expelled from court after a family row. Caroline came to be associated with Robert Walpole, an opposition politician, a former government minister. Walpole rejoined the government in 1720, Caroline's husband and King George I reconciled publicly, on Walpole's advice. Over the next few years, Walpole rose to become the leading minister. Caroline became queen and electress consort upon her husband's accession in 1727, her eldest son, became Prince of Wales. He was a focus for the opposition, like his father before him, Caroline's relationship with him was strained; as princess and as queen, Caroline was known for her political influence, which she exercised through and for Walpole. Her tenure included four regencies during her husband's stays in Hanover, she is credited with strengthening the House of Hanover's place in Britain during a period of political instability. Caroline was mourned following her death in 1737, not only by the public but by the King, who refused to remarry.
Caroline was born on 1 March 1683 at Ansbach, the daughter of John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, his second wife, Princess Eleonore Erdmuthe of Saxe-Eisenach. Her father was the ruler of one of the smallest German states. Caroline and her only full sibling, her younger brother Margrave William Frederick, left Ansbach with their mother, who returned to her native Eisenach. In 1692, Caroline's widowed mother was pushed into an unhappy marriage with the Elector of Saxony, she and her two children moved to the Saxon court at Dresden. Eleonore Erdmuthe was widowed again two years after her unfaithful husband contracted smallpox from his mistress. Eleonore remained in Saxony for another two years, until her death in 1696; the orphaned Caroline and William Frederick returned to Ansbach to stay with their elder half-brother, Margrave George Frederick II. George Frederick was a youth with little interest in parenting a girl, so Caroline soon moved to Lützenburg outside Berlin, where she entered into the care of her new guardians, Elector of Brandenburg, his wife, Sophia Charlotte, a friend of Eleonore Erdmuthe.
Frederick and Sophia Charlotte became king and queen of Prussia in 1701. The queen was the daughter of Dowager Electress Sophia of Hanover, the sister of George, Elector of Hanover, she was renowned for her intelligence and strong character, her uncensored and liberal court attracted a great many scholars, including philosopher Gottfried Leibniz. Caroline was exposed to a lively intellectual environment quite different from anything she had experienced previously. Before she began her education under Sophia Charlotte's care, Caroline had received little formal education. With her lively mind, Caroline developed into a scholar of considerable ability, she and Sophia Charlotte developed a strong relationship in which Caroline was treated as a surrogate daughter. An intelligent and attractive woman, Caroline was much sought-after as a bride. Dowager Electress Sophia called her "the most agreeable Princess in Germany", she was considered for the hand of Archduke Charles of Austria, a candidate for the throne of Spain and became Holy Roman Emperor.
Charles made official overtures to her in 1703, the match was encouraged by King Frederick of Prussia. After some consideration, Caroline refused in 1704, as she would not convert from Lutheranism to Catholicism. Early in the following year, Queen Sophia Charlotte died on a visit to her native Hanover. Caroline was devastated, writing to Leibniz, "The calamity has overwhelmed me with grief and sickness, it is only the hope that I may soon follow her that consoles me."In June 1705, Queen Sophia Charlotte's nephew, Prince George Augustus of Hanover, visited the Ansbach court incognito, to inspect Caroline, as his father the Elector did not want his son to enter into a loveless arranged marriage as he himself had. The nephew of three childless uncles, George Augustus was under pressure to marry and father an heir to prevent endangering the Hanoverian succession, he had heard reports of Caroline's "incomparable beauty and mental attributes". He took a liking to her "good character" and the British envoy reported that George Augustus "would not think of anybody else after her".
For her part, Caroline was not fooled by the prince's disguise, found her suitor attractive. He was the heir a
Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards. One of the last Welsh princes, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was killed in battle in 1282 by Edward I, King of England, whose son Edward was invested as the first English Prince of Wales in 1301. Since the 14th century, the title has been a dynastic title granted to the heir apparent to the English or British monarch, but the failure to be granted the title does not affect the rights to royal succession; the title is granted to the heir apparent as a personal honour or dignity, is not heritable, merging with the Crown on accession to the throne. The title Earl of Chester is always given in conjunction with that of Prince of Wales; the Prince of Wales has other titles and honours. The current and longest-serving Prince of Wales is Prince Charles, the eldest son of Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other independent Commonwealth realms as well as Head of the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations; the wife of the Prince of Wales is entitled to the title Princess of Wales.
Prince Charles's first wife, used that title but his second wife, uses only the title Duchess of Cornwall because the other title has become so popularly associated with Diana. The Prince of Wales is the heir apparent of the monarch of the United Kingdom. No formal public role or responsibility has been legislated by Parliament or otherwise delegated to him by law or custom, either as heir apparent or as Prince of Wales; the current Prince now assists the Queen in the performance of her duties, for example, representing the Queen when welcoming dignitaries to London and attending State dinners during State visits. He has represented the Queen and the United Kingdom overseas at state and ceremonial occasions such as state funerals; the Queen has given the Prince of Wales the authority to issue royal warrants. For most of the post-Roman period, Wales was divided into several smaller states. Before the Norman conquest of England, the most powerful Welsh ruler at any given time was known as King of the Britons.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, this title evolved into Prince of Wales. In Latin, the new title was Princeps Walliae, in Welsh it was Tywysog Cymru; the literal translation of Tywysog is "leader". Only a handful of native princes had their claim to the overlordship of Wales recognised by the English Crown; the first known to have used such a title was Owain Gwynedd, adopting the title Prince of the Welsh around 1165 after earlier using rex Waliae. His grandson Llywelyn the Great is not known to have used the title "Prince of Wales" as such, although his use, from around 1230, of the style "Prince of Aberffraw, Lord of Snowdon" was tantamount to a proclamation of authority over most of Wales, he did use the title "Prince of North Wales" as did his predecessor Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd. In 1240, the title was theoretically inherited by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn, though he is not known to have used it. Instead he styled himself as "Prince of Wales" around 1244. In 1246, his nephew Llywelyn ap Gruffudd succeeded to the throne of Gwynedd, used the style as early as 1258.
In 1267, with the signing of the Treaty of Montgomery, he was recognised by both King Henry III of England and the representative of the Papacy as Prince of Wales. In 1282, Llywelyn was killed during Edward I of England's invasion of Wales and although his brother Dafydd ap Gruffudd succeeded to the Welsh princeship, issuing documents as prince, his principality was not recognised by the English Crown. Three Welshmen, claimed the title of Prince of Wales after 1283; the first was Madog ap Llywelyn, a member of the House of Gwynedd, who led a nationwide revolt in 1294-5, defeating English forces in battle near Denbigh and seizing Caernarfon Castle. His revolt was suppressed, after the Battle of Maes Moydog in March 1295, the prince was imprisoned in London. In the 1370s, Owain Lawgoch, an English-born descendant of one of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's brothers, claimed the title of Prince of Wales, but was assassinated in France in 1378 before he could return to Wales to claim his inheritance, it is Owain Glyndŵr, whom many Welsh people regard as having been the last native Prince.
On 16 September 1400, he was proclaimed Prince of Wales by his supporters, held parliaments at Harlech Castle and elsewhere during his revolt, which encompassed all of Wales. It was not until 1409 that his revolt in quest of Welsh independence was suppressed by Henry IV; the tradition of conferring the title "Prince of Wales" on the heir apparent of the monarch is considered to have begun in 1301, when King Edward I of England invested his son Edward of Caernarfon with the title at a Parliament held in Lincoln. According to legend, the king had promised the Welsh that he would name "a prince born in Wales, who did not speak a word of English" and produced his infant son, born at Caernarfon, to their surprise. However, the story may well be apocryphal, as it can only be traced to the 16th century, and, in the time of Edward I, the English aristocracy spoke Norman French, not English. William Camden wrote in his 1607 work Britannia that the title "Prince of Wales" was not conferred automatically upon the eldest living son o
Sophia of Hanover
Sophia of Hanover was the Electress of Hanover from 1692 to 1698. As a granddaughter of James I, she became heir presumptive to the crowns of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland under the Act of Settlement 1701. After the Acts of Union 1707, she became heir presumptive to the unified throne of the Kingdom of Great Britain, she died less than two months before she would have become queen succeeding her first cousin once removed, Queen Anne, her claim to the throne passed on to her eldest son, George Louis, Elector of Hanover, who ascended as George I on 1 August 1714. Born to Frederick V of the Palatinate, a member of the House of Wittelsbach, Elizabeth Stuart, in 1630, Sophia grew up in the Dutch Republic, where her family had sought refuge after the sequestration of their Electorate during the Thirty Years' War. Sophia's brother Charles Louis was restored to the Lower Palatinate as part of the Peace of Westphalia. Sophia married Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1658. Despite his jealous temper and frequent absences, Sophia loved him, bore him seven children who survived to adulthood.
A landless cadet, Ernest Augustus succeeded in having the House of Hanover raised to electoral dignity in 1692. Therefore, Sophia became Electress of the title by which she is best remembered. A patron of the arts, Sophia commissioned the palace and gardens of Herrenhausen and sponsored philosophers, such as Gottfried Leibniz and John Toland. A daughter of Frederick V of the Palatinate by Elizabeth Stuart known as the "Winter King and Queen of Bohemia" for their short rule in that country, Sophia was born in The Wassenaer Hof, The Hague, Dutch Republic, where her parents had fled into exile after the Battle of White Mountain. Through her mother, she was the granddaughter of James VI and I, king of Scotland and England. At birth, Sophia was granted an annuity of 40 thalers by the Estates of Friesland. Sophia was courted by her first cousin, Charles II of England, but she rebuffed his advances as she thought he was using her in order to get money from her mother's supporter, Lord William Craven.
Before her marriage, Sophia, as the daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine of the Rhine, was referred to as Sophie, Princess Palatine of the Rhine, or as Sophia of the Palatinate. The Electors of the Palatinate were the Calvinist senior branch of House of Wittelsbach, whose Catholic branch ruled the Electorate of Bavaria. On 30 September 1658, she married Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, at Heidelberg, who in 1692 became the first Elector of Hanover. Ernest August was a second cousin of Sophia's mother Elizabeth Stuart, as they were both great-grandchildren of Christian III of Denmark. Sophia became a friend and admirer of Gottfried Leibniz while he was librarian at the Court of Hanover, their friendship lasted from 1676 until her death in 1714. This friendship resulted in a substantial correspondence, first published in the nineteenth century, that reveals Sophia to have been a woman of exceptional intellectual ability and curiosity, she was well-read in the works of Baruch Spinoza.
Together with Ernest Augustus, she improved the Summer Palace of Herrenhausen and she was the guiding spirit in the creation of the gardens surrounding the palace, where she died. Sophia had seven children, they were: George I of Great Britain Frederick Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Imperial General Maximilian William of Brunswick-Lüneburg, field marshal in the Imperial Army Sophia Charlotte, Queen in Prussia Charles Philip of Brunswick-Lüneburg, colonel in the Imperial Army Christian Henry of Brunswick-Lüneburg Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Duke of York and Albany, became prince-bishop of OsnabrückSophia was absent for a year, 1664–65, during a long holiday with Ernest Augustus in Italy but she corresponded with her sons' governess and took a great interest in her sons' upbringing more so on her return. After Sophia's tour, she bore Ernest Augustus a daughter. In her letters, Sophia describes her eldest son as a responsible, conscientious child who set an example to his younger brothers and sisters.
Sophia was, at first, against the marriage of her son and Sophia Dorothea of Celle, looking down on Sophia Dorothea's mother and concerned by Sophia Dorothea's legitimated status, but was won over by the advantages inherent in the marriage. In September 1700, Sophia met William III of England, at Loo; this happened just two months after the death of Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, nephew of William III and son of the future Queen Anne. By this time, given the ailing William III's reluctance to remarry, the inclusion of Sophia in the line of succession was becoming more because she was a Protestant, as was her husband, her candidature was aided by the fact that, because she had grown up in the Netherlands she was well known to her cousin, William III, was able to converse fluently with him in Dutch, his native tongue. A year after their meeting, the Parliament of England passed the Act of Settlement 1701 declaring that, in the event of no legitimate issue from Anne or William III, the crowns of England and Scotland were to settle upon "the most excellent princess Sophia and duchess-dowager of Hanover" and "the heirs of her body, being Protestant".
The key excerpt from the Act, naming Sophia as heir presumptive, reads: Therefore for a further Provision of the Succession of the Crown in the Protestant Line We Your Majesties most dutifull a
John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach succeeded his father Albert II as margrave of Ansbach in 1667. He married his second wife Princess Eleonore Erdmuthe of Saxe-Eisenach on 4 November 1681, their daughter Wilhelmine Charlotte Caroline, Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach married George II of Great Britain before he became king. By Margravine Johanna Elisabeth of Baden-Durlach, daughter of Frederick VI, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, his wife Christina Magdalena of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken: Margrave Leopold Frederick of Brandenburg-Ansbach died in infancy. Margrave Christian Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach died unmarried. Margravine Dorothea Friederike of Brandenburg-Ansbach married Johann Reinhard III of Hanau-Lichtenberg and had issue, including Charlotte of Hanau, wife of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt Margrave George Frederick of Brandenburg-Ansbach died unmarried. Margravine Charlotte Sophie of Brandenburg-Ansbach died in infancy. By Princess Eleonore Erdmuthe of Saxe-Eisenach: Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach married George II of Great Britain and had issue.
Margrave Frederick Augustus of Brandenburg-Ansbach died in infancy. Margrave William Frederick of Brandenburg-Ansbach married Duchess Christiane Charlotte of Württemberg, daughter of Frederick Charles, Duke of Württemberg-Winnental and had issue
Jacopo Amigoni named Giacomo Amiconi, was an Italian painter of the late-Baroque or Rococo period, who began his career in Venice, but traveled and was prolific throughout Europe, where his sumptuous portraits were much in demand. He was born in Venice. Amigoni painted both mythological and religious scenes, his style influenced Giuseppe Nogari. Among his pupils were Charles Joseph Flipart, Michelangelo Morlaiter, Pietro Antonio Novelli, Joseph Wagner, Antonio Zucchi. Starting in 1717, he is documented as working in Bavaria in the Castle of Nymphenburg, he returned to Venice in 1726. His Arraignment of Paris hangs in the Villa Pisani at Stra. From 1730 to 1739 he worked in England, in Pown House, Moor Park Wolterton Hall and in the theatre of Covent Garden. From there, he helped convince Canaletto to travel to England by telling him of the ample patronage available. In London or during a trip to Paris in 1736, he met the celebrated castrato Farinelli, whose portrait he painted twice in 1735 and again in 1752.
Amigoni encountered the painting of François Lemoyne and François Boucher. In 1739 he returned to Italy to Naples and to Montecassino, in whose Abbey existed two canvases, he travelled to Venice to paint for Sigismund Streit, for the Casa Savoia and other buildings of the city. In 1747 he left Italy for Madrid, encouraged by Farinelli, he became court painter to Ferdinand VI of Spain and director of the Royal Academy of Saint Fernando. He painted a group portrait that included himself, Metastasio, Teresa Castellini, an unidentified young man; the young man may have been the Habsburg heir to the throne. Amigoni died in Madrid. Amigoni was the father of the pastellist Caterina Amigoni Castellini. Consul Marcus Curius Dentatus prefers turnips to the Samnites' gifts Caroline Wilhelmina of Brandenburg-Ansbach Print after Amigoni of Princess Amelia Sophia Eleanora Prints after portraits by Amigoni. Venus disarming cupid. Venus and Adonis 23 paintings by or after Jacopo Amigoni at the Art UK site
George I of Great Britain
George I was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death in 1727. George was born in Hanover and inherited the titles and lands of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg from his father and uncles. A succession of European wars expanded his German domains during his lifetime, in 1708 he was ratified as prince-elector of Hanover. At the age of 54, after the death of his second cousin Anne, Queen of Great Britain, George ascended the British throne as the first monarch of the House of Hanover. Although over 50 Roman Catholics were closer to Anne by primogeniture, the Act of Settlement 1701 prohibited Catholics from inheriting the British throne. In reaction, Jacobites attempted to depose George and replace him with Anne's Catholic half-brother, James Francis Edward Stuart, but their attempts failed. During George's reign, the powers of the monarchy diminished and Britain began a transition to the modern system of cabinet government led by a prime minister.
Towards the end of his reign, actual political power was held by Robert Walpole, now recognised as Britain's first de facto prime minister. George died of a stroke on a trip to his native Hanover, he was the last British monarch to be buried outside the United Kingdom. George was born on 28 May 1660 in the city of Hanover in the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire, he was the eldest son of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, his wife, Sophia of the Palatinate. Sophia was the granddaughter of King James I of England through Elizabeth of Bohemia. For the first year of his life, George was the only heir to the German territories of his father and three childless uncles. George's brother, Frederick Augustus, was born in 1661, the two boys were brought up together, their mother was absent for a year during a long convalescent holiday in Italy, but corresponded with her sons' governess and took a great interest in their upbringing more so upon her return. Sophia bore Ernest Augustus a daughter.
In her letters, Sophia describes George as a responsible, conscientious child who set an example to his younger brothers and sisters. By 1675 George's eldest uncle had died without issue, but his remaining two uncles had married, putting George's inheritance in jeopardy as his uncles' estates might pass to their own sons, should they have had any, instead of to George. George's father took him hunting and riding, introduced him to military matters. In 1679 another uncle died unexpectedly without sons, Ernest Augustus became reigning Duke of Calenberg-Göttingen, with his capital at Hanover. George's surviving uncle, George William of Celle, had married his mistress in order to legitimise his only daughter, Sophia Dorothea, but looked unlikely to have any further children. Under Salic law, where inheritance of territory was restricted to the male line, the succession of George and his brothers to the territories of their father and uncle now seemed secure. In 1682, the family agreed to adopt the principle of primogeniture, meaning George would inherit all the territory and not have to share it with his brothers.
The same year, George married his first cousin, Sophia Dorothea of Celle, thereby securing additional incomes that would have been outside Salic laws. The marriage of state was arranged as it ensured a healthy annual income and assisted the eventual unification of Hanover and Celle, his mother was at first against the marriage because she looked down on Sophia Dorothea's mother, because she was concerned by Sophia Dorothea's legitimated status. She was won over by the advantages inherent in the marriage. In 1683, George and his brother, Frederick Augustus, served in the Great Turkish War at the Battle of Vienna, Sophia Dorothea bore George a son, George Augustus; the following year, Frederick Augustus was informed of the adoption of primogeniture, meaning he would no longer receive part of his father's territory as he had expected. It led to a breach between father and son, between the brothers, that lasted until Frederick Augustus's death in battle in 1690. With the imminent formation of a single Hanoverian state, the Hanoverians' continuing contributions to the Empire's wars, Ernest Augustus was made an Elector of the Holy Roman Empire in 1692.
George's prospects were now better than as the sole heir to his father's electorate and his uncle's duchy. Sophia Dorothea had a second child, a daughter named after her, in 1687, but there were no other pregnancies; the couple became estranged—George preferred the company of his mistress, Melusine von der Schulenburg, Sophia Dorothea, had her own romance with the Swedish Count Philip Christoph von Königsmarck. Threatened with the scandal of an elopement, the Hanoverian court, including George's brothers and mother, urged the lovers to desist, but to no avail. According to diplomatic sources from Hanover's enemies, in July 1694 the Swedish count was killed with the connivance of George, his body thrown into the river Leine weighted with stones; the murder was claimed to have been committed by four of Ernest Augustus's courtiers, one of whom was paid the enormous sum of 150,000 thalers, about one hundred times the annual salary of the highest paid minister. Rumours supposed t