Princess Christina of the Netherlands

Princess Christina of the Netherlands was the youngest of four daughters of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands and Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld. Princess Christina, known as Princess Marijke in her youth, was born on 18 February 1947, at Soestdijk Palace, the Netherlands, her mother was Crown Princess Juliana, the only child of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands and Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld. At the time of her birth, she was fifth in the line to the throne after her mother and three older sisters: Princess Beatrix, Princess Irene and Princess Margriet, she was baptised on 9 October 1947 and her godparents included Queen Wilhelmina, her eldest sister Princess Beatrix, Sir Winston Churchill, her paternal grandmother Baroness Armgard, Prince Felix of Luxembourg and his niece Princess Anne of Bourbon-Parma. On 4 September 1948, after a reign of nearly 58 years, Christina's grandmother Queen Wilhelmina abdicated the throne and her mother was inaugurated as Queen of the Kingdom of the Netherlands on 6 September 1948.

While her mother was pregnant with Christina, she contracted the German Measles or rubella and as a result, Christina was born nearly blind. With medical treatment and custom eye-glasses, her vision improved to a point that she could attend school and live a normal life. In 1963, she changed her name from Marijke to Christina, she graduated from secondary school in 1965 and went on to attended the University of Groningen where she studied teaching theory. At age 21 she moved to Canada to study classical music in at the École de musique Vincent-d’Indy in Montreal where she studied vocal teaching. While living in New York as Christina van Oranje, the Princess started a relationship with Cuban exile Jorge Guillermo. Although societal attitudes were changing, because Guillermo was a Roman Catholic, it was still possible that a marriage could cause a public scandal in the Netherlands such as the one that occurred in 1964 when Christina's sister Princess Irene married the Catholic Prince Carlos Hugo of Bourbon-Parma.

Accordingly, Princess Christina, at that time ninth in line for the Dutch throne, renounced her and her descendants' rights to the throne before announcing her engagement on St. Valentine's Day, 1975, she converted to Catholicism in 1992. The couple were married on 28 June 1975, civilly in Baarn and religiously in an ecumenical ceremony in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht. After their wedding, they lived in New York but moved to the Netherlands, where they built Villa Eikenhorst in Wassenaar, near The Hague; the couple built up an extensive art collection. They had three children: Bernardo, Nicolás, Juliana. By her request, the couple divorced on 25 April 1996, she began teaching singing in New York after completing her vocal teaching studies at the École de musique Vincent-d’Indy in Montreal. She recorded and released several CDs in 2000 and 2002, was a long term supporter of the Youth Music Foundation in the Netherlands. In 1989, she allowed her name to be used for the Prinses Christina Concours an annual competition held in the Netherlands to encourage the musical talents of children in the Netherlands.

She performed at the marriage of her nephew Prince Bernhard Jr. and this was one of her few public performances. She sang at the funerals of her both her parents Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard in the New Church, she completed a dance therapist training and worked, in the part of her career, with sound and dance therapy. She worked to share her knowledge in the fields of dance/sound therapy and physical contact, with the blind, she worked for the Visio foundation in the towns of Breda to achieve this. Early 2019, Christina made headlines; these works came to her through inheritance from the Dutch royal family: art lover William II of the Netherlands. Dutch institutions including the Museum Boymans Van Beuningen did not have enough funds to purchase the major piece of the auction, an anatomical drawing by Peter Paul Rubens, it was sold by Sotheby's for $8.2 million. In June 2018, it was announced, she died on 16 August 2019, aged 72. Her body was taken to Fagel's Garden Pavilion nearby Noordeinde Palace for a private service held on 22 August, her remains were cremated.

1947 – 1963: Her Royal Highness Princess Maria Christina of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld 1963 – 1975: Her Royal Highness Princess Christina of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld 1975 – 1996: Her Royal Highness Princess Christina of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld, Mrs. Guillermo 1996 – 2019: Her Royal Highness Princess Christina of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion Netherlands: Recipient of the Silver Wedding Anniversary Medal of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard 1962 Luxembourg Grand Duchy: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Oak Crown Nepalese Royal Family: Member Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Three Divine Powers Royal House of the Netherlands Princess Christina singing "My sweetheart's the Man in the Moon" on YouTube

Eivind Kolding

Eivind Drachmann Kolding is a Danish businessman and entrepreneur. He is the former CEO of the world's largest container shipping company, he was the Chairman of the board at Danske Bank, the largest bank in Denmark, before being appointed CEO until his firing in 2013. Kolding was appointed CEO of Maersk Line 1 July 2006, at which time he became a partner at the A. P. Moller-Maersk Group, he is a member of the Executive Board of the company. In 1983, he graduated as Law from University of Copenhagen, he was admitted lawyer to the bar in 1986, joined A. P. Moller in 1989, he has held positions as Managing Director of Maersk Hong Kong Ltd. and as CFO in the A. P. Moller-Maersk Group, from 1998 to 2006. On a press conference in London on 21 February 2011, Eivind Kolding revealed that Maersk Line had just signed a deal with Korea's Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering Co. ordering 10 gigantic vessels to be delivered in 2013-14. Each of these vessels will be capable of carrying 18,000 twenty foot containers, making them the largest container vessels the world has seen.

During the presentation in London, Eivind Kolding stated that the size and capacity of these vessels, at 400 metres long and 59 metres wide, will help reduce energy consumption and lower CO2 emissions far beyond what regulators imagined possible at that point. A website following the making of the vessels was launched for the occasion, the news caught worldwide media attention; the name of the new vessel class is Triple-E. The three E's stand for "Economies of scale", "Energy efficient" and "Environmentally improved". In June 2011 Maersk Line exercised its option with Daewoo to build an additional 10 Triple-E vessels. On 7 June 2011 Eivind Kolding addressed the container shipping and logistics industry as the keynote speaker at the TOC conference in Antwerp, Belgium, he said that the container industry might be "only a few years from being overtaken" by new technology, called for radical changes in the industry to “assure itself of a license to operate in the future.”In his keynote, Eivind Kolding pointed out what kind of radical changes he believes are necessary for the industry to survive.

First, the reliability or on-time delivery of the carriers has to improve. Secondly, the industry has to be much easier to do business with, and thirdly, shipping companies need to focus harder on the environmental impact of their operations. On the occasion, Eivind Kolding presented a manifesto named "The new normal" with more detailed information about the thoughts and studies behind his call for change. Eivind Kolding's call for change was well received by both media and shippers around the globe and led to both intense and constructive discussions at the website launched for the occasion. On the website, Eivind Kolding repeats the core messages from his keynote speech in Antwerp. Video recordings of his full keynote speech was published on the internet. On 12 September 2011 Eivind Kolding yet again took center stage when he revealed a new product offering by Maersk Line at a press conference in London; the product which the company has named Daily Maersk was said to be the introduction of “absolute reliability”.

Daily Maersk entails daily cut-offs, absolute reliability and promised delivery on the Asia to North Europe trade route, the largest and arguably most important trade route in the shipping industry. The launch of Daily Maersk caught worldwide media attention as the press conference was streamed live on the website launched for the occasion, the industry press reacted positively to the news. Daily Maersk can be seen as part of Maersk Line’s answer to Eivind Kolding’s call for change a few months earlier. On 19 December 2011 it was announced that Eivind Kolding will take over the position as CEO of Danske Bank, effective 15 February 2012. In Maersk Line, he will be replaced by Søren Skou. On 16 September 2013 he was fired and replaced by Thomas Borgen. Profile on Profile on Profile on Profile on BusinessWeek Website: Triple-E - the world's largest ship Video recording of Eivind Kolding's presentation of the Triple-E vessel at a press conference in London on YouTube Website: Changing the way we think about shipping "The new normal" - Eivind Kolding's manifesto Video recordings of Eivind Koldng's full keynote speech in Antwerp on YouTube Website presenting Daily Maersk


Synergini is a tribe of tropical gall wasps in the subfamily Cynipinae. The following genera are accepted within Synergini: All of these except Lithosaphonecrus and Rhoophilus are found in the eastern Palearctic realm. Synergus has the greatest number of species in Synergini. A proposed reworking of the entire Cynipidae family published in 2015 transferred Ceroptres to a tribe of its own, Periclistus and Synophromorpha to the tribe Diastrophini. In this proposed revision, Lithonecrus, Rhoophilus, Synophrus, Ufo remain within Synergini. Members of Synergini have lost the ability to create their own galls, instead make use of galls left behind by other wasps; as a result, they are classified as inquilines. Species in Synergini make use of galls left by wasps in tribe Cynipini. Members of genus Periclistus reside in rose-cynipid galls, Synophromorpha on galls in Rubus plants, the remainder in oak-cynipid galls