Princess Adelheid of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
Princess Adelheid of Hohenlohe-Langenburg was Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein, a niece of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, a cousin of King Edward VII, the mother-in-law of Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany. She is a matrilineal ancestor of Felipe VI of Spain. Adelheid was born the second daughter of Ernst I, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg by his wife Princess Feodora of Leiningen, the older, maternal half-sister of the British Queen Victoria. In 1852, not long after Napoléon III became Emperor of France, he made a proposal of marriage to Adelheid's parents after he had been rebuffed by Princess Carola of Sweden. Although he had never met her, the political advantages of the marriage for the Emperor were obvious, it would provide dynastic respectability for the Bonaparte line, could promote a closer alliance between France and Britain, because Adelheid was Queen Victoria's niece. At the same time, she was not a member of the British royal family, so the risk of refusal was small. Adelheid could be expected to be grateful enough for her good fortune to convert to Roman Catholicism.
As it turned out, the proposal horrified Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, who preferred not to confer such hasty legitimacy upon France's latest "revolutionary" regime — the durability of, deemed dubious — nor to yield up a young kinswoman for the purpose. The British court maintained a strict silence toward the Hohenlohes during the marriage negotiations, lest the Queen seem either eager for or repulsed by the prospect of Napoléon as a nephew-in-law; the parents interpreting the British silence as disapproval, declined the French offer—to their sixteen-year-old daughter's dismay. This may have been only a maneuver by the Hohenlohes to obtain concessions from the French to secure their daughter's future interests, but before his ministers could press his case with further inducements, Napoléon gave up pursuit of a royal consort. Instead he offered marriage to Eugénie de Montijo, Countess of Teba, whom he had been soliciting to become his mistress, who had refused his advances. On September 11, 1856 Adelheid married Frederick Duke of Schleswig-Holstein.
They were parents to seven children: Prince Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg he died at the age of fourteen months. Princess Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg she married Wilhelm II of Germany on 27 February 1881, they had seven children. Princess Karoline Mathilde of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg she married Friedrich Ferdinand, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein on 19 March 1885, they had six children. Prince Gerhard of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg he died at the age of two months. Ernst Gunther, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein he married Princess Dorothea of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha on 2 August 1898. Princess Louise Sophie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg she married Prince Friedrich Leopold of Prussia on 24 June 1889, they had four children. Princess Feodora Adelheid of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg. With her husband, the Duchess first resided at Dolzig, in Nieder Lausitz, but in 1863 moved to Kiel when Duke Frederick became legitimate heir to the duchies of Schleswig-Holstein.
They returned to Dolzig only three years when after the Austrian-Prussian War the duchies were annexed by Prussia. In the following years the couple alternated between Dolzig and the family domains at Primkenau. Duke Frederick died in 1880, shortly before the couple's eldest daughter was engaged to the Prussian heir. After the marriage in February 1881, Duchess Adelheid settled in Dresden, where she lived a retired life, interesting herself chiefly in painting and music; the Duchess died at Dresden on 25 January 1900. A small island in Franz Josef Land, Adelaide Island, was named after Princess Adelheid by the Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition
Hohenlohe is the name of a German princely dynasty descended from the ancient Franconian Imperial immediate noble family that belonged to the German High Nobility. The family was granted the titles of Count and Prince. In 1806 the Princes of Hohenlohe lost their independence and their lands formed part of the Kingdoms of Bavaria and of Württemberg by the Act of the Confederation of the Rhine. At the time of this mediatization in 1806, the area of Hohenlohe was 1 760 km² and its estimated population was 108,000; the Act of the Confederation of the Rhine deprived the Princes of Hohenlohe of their Imperial immediacy, but did not confiscate their possessions. Until the German Revolution of 1918–19 the Princes of Hohenlohe, as other mediatized families, had important political privileges, they were considered equal by birth to the European Sovereign houses. In Bavaria, Prussia and Württemberg the Princes of Hohenlohe had hereditary right to sit in the House of Lords. In 1825 the Assembly / Diet of the German Confederation recognized the predicate of "Serene Highness" for the heads of the Hohenlohe lines.
An early ancestor was mentioned in 1153 as one Lord of Weikersheim. His son Conrad jun. called himself the possessor of Hohlach Castle near Uffenheim, the dynasty's influence was soon perceptible between the Franconian valleys of the Kocher, the Jagst and the Tauber Rivers, an area, to be called the Hohenlohe Plateau.. Heinrich I was the first to take the name of Hohenlohe, in 1230 his grandsons and Conrad, supporters of Emperor Frederick II, founded the lines of Hohenlohe-Hohenlohe and Hohenlohe-Brauneck, names taken from their respective castles; the latter became extinct in 1390, its lands passing to Brandenburg, while the former was divided into several branches, only two of which, Hohenlohe-Weikersheim and Hohenlohe-Uffenheim-Speckfeld, need be mentioned here. Hohenlohe-Weikersheim, descended from Count Kraft I underwent several divisions, that which took place after the deaths of Counts Albert and George in 1551 being specially important. At this time the lines of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein and Hohenlohe-Waldenburg were founded by the sons of Count George.
Meanwhile, in 1412, the family of Hohenlohe-Uffenheim-Speckfeld had become extinct, its lands had passed through the marriages of its heiresses into other families. George Hohenlohe was archbishop of Esztergom, serving the King Sigismund of Hungary. In 1450, the Roman King Frederick III granted Kraft of Hohenlohe and his brother, the sons of Elizabeth of Hanau, heiress to Ziegenhain, the title of Count of Hohenlohe and Ziegenhain and invested them with the County of Ziegenhain; the Landgraves of Hesse took the County of Ziegenhain, the House of Hohenlohe gave up the reference to Ziegenhain. The Hohenlohe possessions were located in the Franconian Circle, the family had two voices in its Diet / Assembly; the Hohenlohe family had six voices in the Franconian College of Imperial Counts of the Imperial Diet. The right to vote in the Imperial Diet / Assembly gave a German noble family the status of Imperial State and the right to belong to the High Nobility; the existing branches of the Hohenlohe family are descended from the lines of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein and Hohenlohe-Waldenburg, established in 1551 by Ludwig Kasimir and Eberhard, the sons of Count Georg.
The former of these became Protestant. Of the family of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein, which underwent several partitions and inherited Gleichen in 1631, the senior line became extinct in 1805, while in 1701 the junior line divided itself into three branches, those of Langenburg and Kirchberg. Kirchberg died out in 1861, but members of the families of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen are still alive, the latter being represented by the branches of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen and Hohenlohe-Öhringen; the Roman Catholic family of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg was soon divided into three branches, but two of these had died out by 1729. The surviving branch, that of Schillingsfürst, was divided into the lines of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst and Hohenlohe-Bartenstein; the family of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst possessed the duchy of Ratibor and still owns the principality of Corvey, inherited in 1834. The Roman Emperors granted the title of Imperial Prince to the Waldenburg line and to the Neuenstein line. In 1757, the Roman Emperor elevated possessions of the Waldenburg line to the status of Imperial Principality.
In 1772, the Roman Emperor elevated possessions of the Neuenstein and Langenburg lines to the status of Imperial Principality. Notable members of the von Hohenlohe family include: Heinrich von Hohenlohe, 13th-century Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Gottfried von Hohenlohe, 14th-century Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, Prussian general Louis Aloy de Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Bartenstein and peer of France August, Prince of Hohenlohe-Öhringen, general Prince Alexander of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, priest Kraft, Prinz zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, Prussian general and writer Victor I, Duke of
Countess Amalie Henriette of Solms-Baruth
Countess Amalie Henriette Charlotte of Solms-Baruth was a countess by birth of Solms-Baruth. She was the only child of John Christian II, Count of Solms-Baruth and his wife, Friederike Louise of Reuss-Köstritz, she married on 30 January 1789 with Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. They had the following children: Princess Louise of Hohenlohe-Langenburg Princess Elisabeth of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. King Philippe of Belgium is a descendant of Adelaide through her daughter Maria Josepha. Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg is a descendant of Adelaide through her daughters Marie Anne and Maria Antonia. King Charles XVI Gustav of Sweden is a son of Sibylla, the great-great-granddaughter of Amalie Henriette's son Ernest Christiaan. Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands is a daughter of Bernhard, a great-grandson of Amalie Henriette's daughter Emilie. Queen Sophia of Spain and Constantine II of Greece are children of Frederica of Hanover, whose grandmother Empress Augusta Victoria was a granddaughter of Amalie Henriette's son Ernest Christian
Carl Friedrich Wilhelm, 1st Prince of Leiningen
Carl Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Leiningen was a German nobleman. He was the eldest son of Friedrich Magnus, Count of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hartenburg and his wife Countess Anna Christine Eleonore von Wurmbrand-Stuppach, succeeded his father on the latter's death, 28 October 1756. On 3 July 1779, he was made a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the first Prince of Leiningen. On 24 June 1749, he married his first cousin Christiane Wilhelmine Luise, daughter of Wilhelm Carl Ludwig, Count of Solms-Rödelheim and Assenheim, by his wife Countess Maria Margareta Leopolda von Wurmbrand-Stuppach, she died on 6 January 1803, having borne him a son and three daughters: Elisabeth Christiane Marianne, born 27 October 1753, married 17 May 1768 to Count Karl Ludwig of Salm, died 16 February 1792. Charlotte Luise Polyxena, born 27 May 1755, married 1 September 1776 to Count Franz of Erbach-Erbach, died 13 January 1785. Karoline Sophie Wilhelmine, born 4 April 1757, married 21 September 1773 Count Friedrich Magnus of Solms-Wildenfels, died 18 March 1832.
Emich Carl, born 27 September 1763, succeeded his father as second Prince of Leiningen. In 1801, he was deprived of his lands on the left bank of the Rhine, namely Hardenburg and Durkheim, by France, but in 1803 received the secularized Amorbach Abbey as an ample compensation for these losses. Hitherto his titles were: Imperial Prince of Leiningen, Count palatine of Mosbach, Count of Düren, Lord of Miltenberg, Bischofsheim, Schüpf and Lauda. A few years the short-lived Principality of Leiningen at Amorbach was mediatized. Sources include: Marek, Miroslav. "leiningen/leiningen6.html". Genealogy. EU
Karl Ludwig, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
Karl Ludwig, 3rd Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg was the third Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. He was the first child of Prince Christian Albert of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and his wife, Princess Caroline of Stolberg-Gedern, he was an avid musician. From 1815 to 1825, he held a seat in the Estates Assembly and since 1820 the First Chamber of the reorganized Estates, but after 1819, he let himself be represented by his son Ernst. On 30 January 1789 at Kliczków Castle, he married Countess Amalie Henriette of Solms-Baruth, daughter of Count John Christian II of Solms-Baruth; the marriage produced the following thirteen children: Princess Louise of Hohenlohe-Langenburg Princess Elisabeth of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg is a descendant of Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg through her daughter, Infanta Marie Anne of Portugal. King Philippe of Belgium is a descendant of Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg through her daughter, Infanta Marie Jose of Portugal, mother of Elisabeth of Bavaria, Queen of Belgium.
Queen Sofía of Spain, mother of King Felipe VI of Spain, Constantine II of Greece are children of Frederica of Hanover, whose grandmother, Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein, was a granddaughter of Charles Louis's son, Ernst I, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden is a son of Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the great-great-granddaughter of Charles Louis's son, Ernst I. King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands is a grandson of Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, a great-great-grandson of Charles Louis's daughter, Emilie. Franz Josef Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst: Monarchen – Edelleute – Bürger. Die Nachkommen des Fürsten Carl Ludwig zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg 1762–1825, 2nd edition, Degener & Co. Neustadt a. d. Aisch, 1963 Genealogy of the Hohenlohe family
Countess Adelaide of Lippe-Biesterfeld
Countess Adelaide of Lippe-Biesterfeld was the eldest child of Ernest II, Count of Lippe-Biesterfeld and Countess Karoline of Wartensleben. Adelaide was born on 22 June 1870 to Ernest II, Count of Lippe-Biesterfeld and his wife Countess Karoline of Wartensleben. After the death of Woldemar, Prince of Lippe in 1895, her parents were involved in a regency and succession dispute to the principality of Lippe. Though Woldemar's younger brother Alexander succeeded, he was incapable of ruling due to a mental illness. Two branches of the House of Lippe argued over rights to a regency. Prince Adolf of Schaumburg-Lippe, a brother-in-law of Wilhelm II, German Emperor was chosen, but a court-settlement allowed Ernest to become the regent of Lippe-Detmold on 17 July 1897. At Neudorf, Adelaide married Prince Friedrich Johann of Saxe-Meiningen, a younger son of Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen on 24 April 1889, they had the following children together: Two branches of the House of Lippe debated over rights to the principality of Lippe-Detmold.
As Adelaide's great-grandmother was a member of the petite noblesse, her family's claim to full royalty was challenged. This claim threatened the succession to Saxe-Meiningen, as Adelaide was married to the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen's heir apparent. 22 June 1870 – 24 April 1889: Her Illustrious Highness Countess Adelaide of Lippe-Biesterfeld 24 April 1889 – 3 September 1948: Her Highness Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who