Princess Augusta Sophia of the United Kingdom
Princess Augusta Sophia of the United Kingdom was the sixth child and second daughter of King George III and Queen Charlotte. Princess Augusta Sophia was born at Buckingham House, the sixth child and second daughter of George III and his wife Queen Charlotte, her father so much wanted the new baby to be a girl that the doctor presiding over the labor thought fit to protest that "whoever sees those lovely Princes above stairs must be glad to have another." The King was so upset by this view he replied that "whoever sees that lovely child the Princess Royal above stairs must not wish to have the fellow to her." To the King's delight, the Queen's relief, the baby was a small and pretty girl. The young princess was christened on 6 December 1768, by Frederick Cornwallis, The Archbishop of Canterbury, in the Great Council Chamber at St. James's Palace, her godparents were Prince Charles of Mecklenburg, The Queen-consort of Denmark and The Hereditary Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Lady Mary Coke declared the month-old Augusta "the most beautiful infant I saw".
Princess Augusta was the middle of the elder trio of princesses that consisted of her, her older sister Charlotte and her younger sister Elizabeth. In 1771, the two elder Princesses started traveling to Kew to take lessons under the supervision of Lady Charlotte Finch and Miss Frederica Planta; the Princesses, close to their brothers now saw little of them, except when their paths crossed on daily walks. In 1774, Martha Goldsworthy, or "Gouly" became the new head of their educations; the Princesses learned feminine pursuits, such as deportment, music and arts, but their mother ensured that they learned English, German and had well-educated governesses. The young Augusta was a great favorite with Miss Planta, who called her "the handsomest of all the Princesses" though compared to her older sister, she was "childish". However, the princess was painfully shy, stammered when in front of people she didn't know. From an early age Augusta was fixed on being good and was upset when she did not succeed.
Her behavior veered in between well-mannered. She sometimes threw tantrums and hit her governesses, though she often had a calm disposition and family-minded ways, she disliked the political tensions that by 1780 had sprung up between her elder brothers and their parents, preferred to occupy herself with her coin collection. As all her sisters were, Augusta was sheltered from the outside world so much that her only friends were her attendants, with whom she kept up a frequent correspondence. In 1782, Augusta had her debut into society at the King's birthday celebrations; as she was still terrified of crowds, her mother did not tell her daughter about her debut until two days before it happened. That year, the Princess's youngest brother, died, followed eight months by her next youngest brother, Octavius; when the Princesses went to see the summer exhibition in 1783 at the Royal Academy, they were so distraught by the portraits of their two youngest brothers that they broke down and cried in front of everyone.
In August 1783 came the birth of Augusta's youngest sibling, Amelia. She stood as a godmother, along with George. Although the birth of her sister did not erase the pain she felt at losing her brothers, Augusta did not dwell on their deaths as her father did. By the time they reached their teens, the three eldest Princesses were spending a great deal of time with their parents, they accompanied them to the theater, to the Opera, to Court, their once academic lessons began to wind down, with music and the arts becoming the new focus. They heard famous actresses such as Sarah Siddons read, along with Charlotte and their parents, Augusta met John Adams when he was presented to the Queen; the three girls were always dressed alike at public functions, the only difference in their dresses being color. Though so displayed in public, Augusta still was happiest at home, where she adored her younger brothers Ernest and Adolphus, she was extremely close to her sister Elizabeth, as Charlotte was haughty and overly conscious of her position as Princess Royal.
Since they were approaching a marriageable age and the Princess Royal were given their first lady-in-waiting in July 1783. Augusta wrote to her elder brother William, in Hanover for military training, she was a good correspondent, telling him family news and encouraging him to tell her what was happening in his life. She reveled in his attention and in the little gifts he sent her though the Queen tried to discourage William from taking up his sister's valuable time. Though their academic lessons were nearly over, the Queen was loath to have her daughters waste time, made sure that the Princesses spent hours studying music or art, learning many types of specialty work from different masters; the princesses did not "dress" until dinner, wearing morning gowns nearly all day. When "dressed", the Royal family wore plain clothes, far removed from the ornate splendor of other courts; as there were six princesses, the Queen's expenses for these clothes was enormous, she tried to keep costs down and within the allowance she was given.
Moving into this new phase of life meant that the amount of money the Queen was spending on her three eldest daughters was increasing. The Princesses consta
Caroline of Ansbach
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach was Queen of Great Britain as the wife of King George II. Her father, Margrave John Frederick of Brandenburg-Ansbach, belonged to a branch of the House of Hohenzollern and was the ruler of a small German state, the Principality of Ansbach. Caroline was orphaned at a young age and moved to the enlightened court of her guardians, King Frederick I and Queen Sophia Charlotte of Prussia. At the Prussian court, her limited education was widened, she adopted the liberal outlook possessed by Sophia Charlotte, who became her good friend and whose views influenced Caroline all her life; as a young woman, Caroline was much sought-after as a bride. After rejecting the suit of the nominal King of Spain, Archduke Charles of Austria, she married George Augustus, the third-in-line to the British throne and heir apparent to the Electorate of Hanover, they had eight children. Caroline moved permanently to Britain in 1714; as Princess of Wales, she joined her husband in rallying political opposition to his father King George I.
In 1717, her husband was expelled from court after a family row. Caroline came to be associated with Robert Walpole, an opposition politician, a former government minister. Walpole rejoined the government in 1720, Caroline's husband and King George I reconciled publicly, on Walpole's advice. Over the next few years, Walpole rose to become the leading minister. Caroline became queen and electress consort upon her husband's accession in 1727, her eldest son, became Prince of Wales. He was a focus for the opposition, like his father before him, Caroline's relationship with him was strained; as princess and as queen, Caroline was known for her political influence, which she exercised through and for Walpole. Her tenure included four regencies during her husband's stays in Hanover, she is credited with strengthening the House of Hanover's place in Britain during a period of political instability. Caroline was mourned following her death in 1737, not only by the public but by the King, who refused to remarry.
Caroline was born on 1 March 1683 at Ansbach, the daughter of John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, his second wife, Princess Eleonore Erdmuthe of Saxe-Eisenach. Her father was the ruler of one of the smallest German states. Caroline and her only full sibling, her younger brother Margrave William Frederick, left Ansbach with their mother, who returned to her native Eisenach. In 1692, Caroline's widowed mother was pushed into an unhappy marriage with the Elector of Saxony, she and her two children moved to the Saxon court at Dresden. Eleonore Erdmuthe was widowed again two years after her unfaithful husband contracted smallpox from his mistress. Eleonore remained in Saxony for another two years, until her death in 1696; the orphaned Caroline and William Frederick returned to Ansbach to stay with their elder half-brother, Margrave George Frederick II. George Frederick was a youth with little interest in parenting a girl, so Caroline soon moved to Lützenburg outside Berlin, where she entered into the care of her new guardians, Elector of Brandenburg, his wife, Sophia Charlotte, a friend of Eleonore Erdmuthe.
Frederick and Sophia Charlotte became king and queen of Prussia in 1701. The queen was the daughter of Dowager Electress Sophia of Hanover, the sister of George, Elector of Hanover, she was renowned for her intelligence and strong character, her uncensored and liberal court attracted a great many scholars, including philosopher Gottfried Leibniz. Caroline was exposed to a lively intellectual environment quite different from anything she had experienced previously. Before she began her education under Sophia Charlotte's care, Caroline had received little formal education. With her lively mind, Caroline developed into a scholar of considerable ability, she and Sophia Charlotte developed a strong relationship in which Caroline was treated as a surrogate daughter. An intelligent and attractive woman, Caroline was much sought-after as a bride. Dowager Electress Sophia called her "the most agreeable Princess in Germany", she was considered for the hand of Archduke Charles of Austria, a candidate for the throne of Spain and became Holy Roman Emperor.
Charles made official overtures to her in 1703, the match was encouraged by King Frederick of Prussia. After some consideration, Caroline refused in 1704, as she would not convert from Lutheranism to Catholicism. Early in the following year, Queen Sophia Charlotte died on a visit to her native Hanover. Caroline was devastated, writing to Leibniz, "The calamity has overwhelmed me with grief and sickness, it is only the hope that I may soon follow her that consoles me."In June 1705, Queen Sophia Charlotte's nephew, Prince George Augustus of Hanover, visited the Ansbach court incognito, to inspect Caroline, as his father the Elector did not want his son to enter into a loveless arranged marriage as he himself had. The nephew of three childless uncles, George Augustus was under pressure to marry and father an heir to prevent endangering the Hanoverian succession, he had heard reports of Caroline's "incomparable beauty and mental attributes". He took a liking to her "good character" and the British envoy reported that George Augustus "would not think of anybody else after her".
For her part, Caroline was not fooled by the prince's disguise, found her suitor attractive. He was the heir a
Sophia Dorothea of Celle
Sophia Dorothea of Celle was the repudiated wife of future King George I of Great Britain, mother of George II. The union with her first cousin was an arranged marriage of state, instigated by the machinations of his mother, Sophia of Hanover, she is best remembered for her alleged affair with Philip Christoph von Königsmarck that led to her being imprisoned in the Castle of Ahlden for the last thirty years of her life. Sophia Dorothea was born on 15 September 1666, the only child of George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg by his long-term mistress, Eleonore d'Esmier d'Olbreuse, Countess of Williamsburg, a Huguenot lady, the daughter of Alexander II d'Esmiers, Marquess of Olbreuse. George William married Eleonore in 1676. There was some talk of marriage between Sophia Dorothea and the future king of Denmark, but the reigning queen was talked out of it by Sophia of Hanover. Another engagement, to the Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, was broken off after Duchess Sophia convinced her brother-in-law of the advantage of having Sophia Dorothea marry her cousin.
This occurred on the day the engagement between Sophia Dorothea and the Duke was to be announced. When told of the change in plans and her new future husband, Sophia Dorothea shouted that "I will not marry the pig snout!", threw against the wall a miniature of George Louis brought for her by Duchess Sophia. Forced by her father, she fainted into her mother's arms on her first meeting with her future mother-in-law, she fainted again. On 22 November 1682, in Celle, Sophia Dorothea married George Louis. In 1705 he would inherit the Principality of Lüneburg after the death of his father-in-law and uncle, George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, in 1714 the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland and became King George I of Great Britain through his mother, Duchess Sophia, a granddaughter of James VI and I; the marriage of George Louis and Sophia Dorothea was an unhappy one. His immediate family his mother Duchess Sophia and despised Sophia Dorothea; the desire for the marriage was purely financial, as Duchess Sophia wrote to her niece Elizabeth Charlotte, "One hundred thousand thalers a year is a goodly sum to pocket, without speaking of a pretty wife, who will find a match in my son George Louis, the most pigheaded, stubborn boy who lived, who has round his brains such a thick crust that I defy any man or woman to discover what is in them.
He does not care much for the match itself, but one hundred thousand thalers a year have tempted him as they would have tempted anybody else". These feelings of contempt were shared by George Louis himself, oddly formal to his wife. Sophia Dorothea was scolded for her lack of etiquette, the two had loud and bitter arguments. Things seemed better after the birth of their first two children: George Augustus, born 1683 King George II of Great Britain Sophia Dorothea, born 1686 wife of King Frederick William I of Prussia, mother of Frederick the GreatBut George Louis acquired a mistress, Melusine von der Schulenburg, started pointedly neglecting his wife, his parents asked him to be more circumspect with his mistress, fearful that a disruption in the marriage would disrupt the payment of the 100,000 thalers. George Louis and Sophia Dorothea became estranged—George preferred the company of his mistress, Melusine von der Schulenburg, Sophia Dorothea, had her own romance with the Swedish Count Philip Christoph von Königsmarck.
Threatened with the scandal of an elopement, the Hanoverian court, including George's brothers and mother, urged the lovers to desist, but to no avail. According to diplomatic sources from Hanover's enemies, in July 1694 the Swedish count was killed with the connivance of George, his body thrown into the river Leine weighted with stones; the murder was claimed to have been committed by four of Ernest Augustus's courtiers, one of whom was paid the enormous sum of 150,000 thalers, about one hundred times the annual salary of the highest paid minister. Rumours supposed that Königsmarck was hacked to pieces and buried beneath the Hanover palace floorboards. However, sources in Hanover itself, including Sophia, denied any knowledge of Königsmarck's whereabouts. George's marriage to Sophia Dorothea was dissolved, not on the grounds that either of them had committed adultery, but on the grounds that Sophia Dorothea had abandoned her husband. With the agreement of her father, George had Sophia Dorothea imprisoned in Ahlden House in her native Celle, where she stayed until she died more than thirty years later.
She was denied access to her children and father, forbidden to remarry and only allowed to walk unaccompanied within the mansion courtyard. She was, endowed with an income and servants, was allowed to ride in a carriage outside her castle, albeit under supervision, she remained under house arrest until her death more than thirty years later. Sophia Dorothea is sometimes referred to as the "princess of Ahlden". Sophia Dorothea fell ill in August 1726, she died aged 60 on 13 November 1726 of liver gall bladder occlusion. George placed an announcement in The London Gazette to the effect that the "Duchess of Ahlden" had died, but would not allow the wearing of mourning in London or Hanover, he was furious. Sophia Dorothea's body deposited in the castle's cellar, it was moved to Celle in May 1727 to be buried beside her parents in the Stadtkirche. Geor
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
Frederick II was Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1760 to 1785. He ruled as an enlightened despot, raised money by renting soldiers to Great Britain to help fight the American Revolutionary War, he combined Enlightenment ideas with Christian values, cameralist plans for central control of the economy, a militaristic approach toward international diplomacy. Frederick was born at Kassel in Hesse, the son of William VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and his wife Dorothea Wilhelmine of Saxe-Zeitz, his paternal grandfather was Charles I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, his paternal uncle was Frederick I of Sweden. His education was entrusted to Colonel August Moritz von Donop and from 1726 to 1733 to the Swiss theologian and philosopher, Jean-Pierre de Crousaz. On 8 May 1740, by proxy in London, on 28 June 1740 in person in Kassel, Frederick married Princess Mary, fourth daughter of King George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach, they had four sons: William William I, Elector of Hesse Charles Frederick, father of Prince William of Hesse-Kassel and grandfather of Queen Louise of Denmark.
In December 1745, Frederick landed in Scotland with 6000 Hessian troops to support his father-in-law, George II of Great Britain, in dealing with the Jacobite rising. Although he supported the "Protestant succession" in Great Britain on this occasion, Frederick converted from Calvinism to Catholicism. In February 1749, Frederick and his father visited the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, Clemens August of Bavaria, who received Frederick into the Catholic Church. Despite his exertions in support of her father, Frederick's marriage with the British princess was not a happy one; the couple were living apart from each other by 1747, were formally separated in 1755. Mary moved to Denmark the following year, to care for the children of her late sister Louise of Great Britain, who had died in 1751. All three of the couple's surviving sons moved with Mary to Denmark. Two of them, including Frederick's heir William married Danish princesses, their first cousins; the younger sons lived permanently in Denmark.
He later succeeded Frederick as Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. Mary died in 1772, Frederick lost little time in marrying again. On 10 January 1773, at Berlin, he married Margravine Philippine, daughter of Frederick William, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt and Sophia Dorothea of Prussia. No children were born of this marriage. After being formally separated from his wife in 1755, Friedrich entered active service in the Prussian military. In 1760, he succeeded his father as Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. Despite Frederick's Catholicism, the principality remained Calvinist, Frederick's children were raised as Protestants in Denmark. During the 17th and 18th centuries, it was a widespread practice for smaller principalities to rent out troops to other princes. However, the practise was carried to excess in Hesse-Kassel, which maintained 7% of its entire population under arms throughout the eighteenth century. Frederick hired out so many troops to his nephew, King George III of Great Britain, for use in the American War of Independence, that "Hessian" has become an American term for all German soldiers deployed by the British in the War.
Frederick used the revenue to finance his patronage of his opulent lifestyle. The architect Simon Louis du Ry transformed for Frederick II; the town of Kassel into a modern capital. Landgrave Frederick II died in 1785 at Kassel, he was succeeded by William. Charles W. Ingrao, The Hessian Mercenary State: Ideas and Reform under Frederick II, 1760–1785 Arthur Wyß, "Friedrich II. Landgraf von Hessen-Cassel", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 7, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 524–528
Leicester Square is a pedestrianised square in the West End of London, England. It was laid out in 1670 and is named after the contemporary Leicester House, itself named after Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester; the square was a gentrified residential area, with tenants including Frederick, Prince of Wales and artists William Hogarth and Joshua Reynolds. It became more down-market in the late 18th century as Leicester House was demolished and retail developments took place, becoming a centre for entertainment. Several major theatres were established in the 19th century, which were converted to cinemas towards the middle of the next. Leicester Square holds a number of nationally important cinemas such as the Odeon Leicester Square, Leicester Square, which are used for film premieres; the nearby Prince Charles Cinema is popular for showing cult films and marathon film runs. The square remains a popular tourist attraction, including hosting events for the Chinese New Year; the square has always had a park in its centre, Lammas land.
The park's fortunes have varied over the centuries, reaching near dilapidation in the mid-19th century after changing ownership several times. It was restored under the direction of Albert Grant, which included the construction of four new statues and a fountain of William Shakespeare; the square was extensively refurbished and remodelled for the 2012 London Olympics, costing more than £15m and taking over 17 months to complete. The square lies within an area bound to the north; the park at the centre of the Square is bound to the north. It is within the City of Westminster, north of Trafalgar Square, east of Piccadilly Circus, west of Covent Garden, south of Cambridge Circus; the nearest Underground station is Leicester Square, which opened in 1906. London bus routes 29 and 176 run on nearby Charing Cross Road. Leicester Square has been used as name for the immediate surrounding area corresponding with Coventry Street, Cranbourn Street, Charing Cross Road and St Martin's Street; this includes Bear Street, Hobhouse Court, Hunt's Court, Irving Street, Orange Street, Oxdendon Street, Panton Street, Trafalgar Square.
The land where Leicester Square now lies once belonged to the Abbot and Convent of Westminster Abbey and the Beaumont family. In 1536, Henry VIII took control of 3 acres of land around the square, with the remaining 4 acres being transferred to the king the following year; the square is named after Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester, who purchased this land in 1630. By 1635, he had built himself Leicester House, at the northern end; the area in front of the house was enclosed, depriving inhabitants of St Martin in the Fields parish of their right to use the common land. The parishioners appealed to King Charles I, he appointed three members of the privy council to arbitrate. Lord Leicester was ordered to keep part of his land open for the parishioners; the square was developed in the 1670s. The area was entirely residential, with properties laid out in a similar style to nearby Pall Mall. In 1687, the northern part of the square became part of the new parish of Soho; the 7th Earl of Leicester took ownership of the property in 1728 and it was the residence of Frederick, Prince of Wales from 1742 until Leicester's death the following year.
The poet Matthew Prior lived at what is now No. 21 around 1700 and artist William Hogarth resided at No 30 between 1733 and 1764, where he produced some of his best known works including Gin Lane. The magistrate Thomas de Veil to found Bow Street Magistrates' Court, lived at No 40 between 1729 and 1737; the painter Joshua Reynolds lived at No 47 from 1760 until his death in 1792. At the end of the 17th century, Lord Leicester's heir, Philip Sidney, 3rd Earl of Leicester, permitted a small amount of retail development in booths along the front of Leicester House. A statue of King George I was built on the square in 1760 following the coronation of his grandson, George III; the square remained fashionable throughout most of the 18th century, with notable residents including the architect James Stuart at No 35 from 1766 to 1788 and the painter John Singleton Copley at No. 28 from 1776 to 1783. Leicester House was intermittently inhabited during the mid-18th century, was sold to the naturalist Ashton Lever in 1775.
Lever turned the house into a museum with a significant amount of natural history objects. In turn, the square began to serve as a venue for popular entertainments. Brothels started appearing around Leicester Square during the century, visitors could pay to watch the severed heads of traitors executed at Temple Bar through a telescope. Leicester House became, it was demolished in 1791–72 due to rising debts following the extinction of the Leicester peerage, replaced by Leicester Place. That in turn was converted into a church in 1865 and is now the site
Sophia Dorothea of Hanover
Sophia Dorothea of Hanover was a Queen consort in Prussia as spouse of Frederick William I. She was the sister of George II, King of Great Britain and the mother of Frederick II, King of Prussia. Sophia Dorothea was born on 16 March 1687, in Hanover, she was the only daughter of George Louis of Hanover King George I of Great Britain, his wife Sophia Dorothea of Celle. She was detested by King George II of Great Britain. After the divorce and imprisonment of her mother, she was raised in Hanover under the supervision of her paternal grandmother, educated by her Huguenot teacher Madame de Sacetot. Sophia Dorothea married her cousin, Crown Prince Frederick William of Prussia, heir apparent to the Prussian throne, on 28 November 1706, they had met as children when Frederick William had spent some time in Hanover under the care of their grandmother, Sophia of Hanover, though Sophia Dorothea disliked him, Frederick William had felt an attraction to her early on. When a marriage was to be arranged for Frederick William, he was given three alternatives: Princess Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden, Princess Amalia of Nassau-Dietz, or Sophia Dorothea of Hanover.
The Swedish match was preferred by his father, who wished to form a matrimonial alliance with Sweden, thus the official Finck was sent to Stockholm under the pretext of an adjustment of the disputes regarding Pomerania, but in reality to observe the princess before issuing formal negotiations: Frederick William, preferred Sophia Dorothea and tasked Finck with making such a deterring report of Ulrika Eleonora to his father that he would encounter less opposition when he informed his father of his choice. A marriage alliance between Prussia and Hanover was regarded as a noncontroversial choice by both courts and the negotiations were swiftly conducted. In order for Sophia Dorothea to make as good an impression as possible in Berlin, her grandmother, Electress Sophia, commissioned her niece Elizabeth Charlotte, Princess of the Palatinate to procure her trousseau in Paris, her bridal paraphernalia attracted great attention and was referred to as the greatest of any German Princess yet. The wedding by proxy took place in Hanover on 28 November 1706, she arrived in Berlin on 27 November, where she was welcomed by her groom and his family outside of the city gates and before making her entrance into the capital.
Thereafter followed a second wedding, the stately torch-dance, six weeks of banquets and balls. Sophia Dorothea was described as tall, with a beautiful slender figure and dignified with big blue eyes. Though not regarded as beautiful, she was seen as quite attractive at the time of her marriage and described as charming in her manners, making a good impression in Berlin. Frederick William called her "Fiekchen". Sophia Dorothea and Frederick William differed from each other in every aspect and the marriage suffered as a result. Sophia Dorothea was interested in art, science and fashion, while Frederick William was described as an unpolished and spartan military man with rough manners. Though he was never unfaithful to her, he was unable to win her affection. One of the most important differences between them was that Sophia Dorothea, unlike her husband, loved entertainment, something he regarded to be frivolous. Frederick William contemplated divorcing her the same year they married and, judging by her letters, accused her of not wanting to be married to him.
According to Morgenstern, "He had none of that astonishing complaisance by which lovers, whether husbands or friends, seek to win the favor of the beloved object. As far as can be gathered from the words he let drop, the crossing of his first love might have been the innocent cause of this. In 1708, after the death of her firstborn son, the physicians declared that Sophia Dorothea was not to conceive again, which prompted the remarriage of her father-in-law. However, she gave birth to several children in the following years, to a son who survived in 1712. In 1713, her father-in-law Frederick I died and was succeeded by her spouse Frederick William I, making her queen of Prussia. At the time of the accession, Prussia was at war with Sweden, Sophia Dorothea accompanied Frederick William during the campaign of 1715, though she soon returned to Berlin to give birth to her daughter. During the war, the king left directions to his ministers to consult her and take no action without her approval in the case of emergency.
In 1717, she hosted Peter the Great on his visit to Berlin at her own palace Monbijou, as per the king's request, vandalized as a result. Sophia Dorothea's first favorite was her maid of honor, von Wagnitz, dismissed after an intrigue in which Kreutz and her mother tried to make her the king's mistress, as well as being a spy of the French ambassador Rothenburg. Queen Sophia Dorothea was admired for her gracious manners and nicknamed "Olympia" for her regal bearing, but scarred by smallpox and overweight with time, she was not called a beauty, she was known as haughty and ambitious, but Frederick William disliked her interference in politics, as it was his belief that women should be kept only for breeding, kept submissive as they would otherwise dominate their husbands. The king was known for his parsimony and dislike of idleness to such a degree that he woul