Sweden during World War II
Sweden maintained its policy of neutrality during World War II. When the war began on September 1,1939, the fate of Sweden was unclear, at the outbreak of hostilities, Sweden had held a neutral stance in international relations for more than a century, since the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. The Swedish Government made a few concessions, and sometimes breached the nations neutrality in favor of both Germany and the Western Allies, German soldiers traveling on leave between Norway and Germany were allowed passage through Sweden — the so-called permittenttrafik. Iron ore was sold to Germany throughout the war, and for the Allies, Sweden shared military intelligence and helped to train soldiers made up of refugees from Denmark and Norway, to be used in the liberation of their home countries. It allowed the Allies to use Swedish airbases between 1944 and 1945, Sweden became a refuge for anti-fascist and Jewish refugees from all over the region. In 1943, following an order to all of Denmarks Jewish population to concentration camps.
Sweden became a refuge for Norwegian Jews who fled from Nazi occupied Norway, between 1523 and Swedens final war with Russia in 1809, a state of war had existed between these two countries for 67 out of those 292 years. Russia was seen as the hereditary enemy of Sweden. In the peace that followed the Finnish War in 1809, all of Finland had been ceded to Russia, as the end of the 19th century approached, and the beginning of the 20th began, like many other nations, became beset by strikes and public disorder. Appalling working conditions were no longer tolerated and the class was rising against the state. In 1908 alone, there were about 300 strikes in Sweden, by 1917, Sweden’s need for a new political system was apparent from these riots. In 1917, the rules of democracy were changed in Sweden, but even these reforms were seen as far too radical by some conservatives. Some wanted strong leadership and did not believe in democracy, in the 1920s and 1930s, confrontations between employers and employees in Sweden continued.
In 1931, this culminated with the shootings, an incident where the military opened fire on a protest march. In the same year, a secret right-wing militia, the Munckska kåren, was exposed and it had recruited about 2000 men and had access to heavy weaponry. It was disbanded the next year, compromise and a parliamentary system were thought to stand in the way of a more equal and just society. A new cabinet led by the social democrats with Per Albin Hansson as Prime Minister, a policy of cooperation and consensus was pursued, which led to a furthering of the divide between the two socialist factions, the communists and the reformist left. The distance between two, at least at the ideological level, became so great that the communists often referred to the social democrats as the social fascists
Christian X of Denmark
Christian X was the King of Denmark from 1912 to 1947 and the only king of Iceland, between 1918 and 1944. Among his siblings was King Haakon VII of Norway and his character as a ruler has been described as authoritarian and he strongly stressed the importance of royal dignity and power. His reluctance to embrace democracy resulted in the Easter Crisis of 1920, in which he dismissed the democratically elected cabinet with which he disagreed, and instated one of his own choosing. He became the subject of a persistent urban legend according to which, during Nazi occupation, Danish Jews were not forced to wear the Star of David. However, the legend stems from a 1942 British report that claimed he threatened to don the star if this was forced upon Danish Jews. I stated that I could not meet such a demand towards Danish citizens, if such a demand is made, we would best meet it by all wearing the Star of David. In addition, he helped finance the transport of Danish Jews to unoccupied Sweden, Christian was born on 26 September 1870 at Charlottenlund Palace in Gentofte Municipality north of Copenhagen, during the reign of his paternal grandfather, King Christian IX.
He was born as the oldest son and child of Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark and his wife Louise of Sweden and he was baptised in the Chapel of Christiansborg Palace on 31 October 1870 by the Bishop of Zealand, Hans Lassen Martensen. She eventually became his queen consort, the couple received Marselisborg Palace in Aarhus as a wedding present from the people of Denmark in 1898. In 1914, the King built the villa Klitgården in Skagen, on 29 January 1906, King Christian IX died, and Christians father ascended the throne as King Frederick VIII. Christian himself now became crown prince, on 14 May 1912, King Frederick VIII died after collapsing from shortness of breath while taking a walk in a park in Hamburg, Germany. He had been returning from a stay in Nice, France. Christian was in Copenhagen when he heard about his fathers demise, in April 1920, Christian instigated the Easter Crisis, perhaps the most decisive event in the evolution of the Danish monarchy in the Twentieth Century. Danish claims to the region persisted to the end of World War I, according to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the disposition of Schleswig was to be determined by two plebiscites, one in Northern Schleswig, the other in Central Schleswig.
In Northern Schleswig, seventy-five percent voted for reunification with Denmark, in this vote, the entire region was considered to be an indivisible unit, and the entire region was awarded to Denmark. In Central Schleswig, the situation was reversed with eighty percent voting for Germany, in this vote, each municipality decided its own future, and German majorities prevailed everywhere. Christian X agreed with these sentiments, and ordered Prime Minister Zahle to include Flensburg in the re-unification process, as Denmark had been operating as a parliamentary democracy since the Cabinet of Deuntzer in 1901, Zahle felt he was under no obligation to comply. He refused the order and resigned days after a heated exchange with the King
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was an American politician and activist. President Harry S. Truman called her the First Lady of the World in tribute to her human rights achievements, Roosevelt was a member of the prominent American Roosevelt and Livingston families and a niece of President Theodore Roosevelt. She had a childhood, having suffered the deaths of both parents and one of her brothers at a young age. At 15, she attended Allenwood Academy in London and was influenced by its feminist headmistress Marie Souvestre. Returning to the U. S. she married her fifth cousin once removed, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, though widely respected in her years, Roosevelt was a controversial First Lady at the time for her outspokenness, particularly her stance on racial issues. On a few occasions, she disagreed with her husbands policies. She launched a community at Arthurdale, West Virginia, for the families of unemployed miners. She advocated for expanded roles for women in the workplace, the rights of African Americans and Asian Americans.
Following her husbands death in 1945, Roosevelt remained active in politics for the remaining 17 years of her life and she pressed the United States to join and support the United Nations and became its first delegate. She served as the first chair of the UN Commission on Human Rights, she chaired the John F. Kennedy administrations Presidential Commission on the Status of Women. By the time of her death, Roosevelt was regarded as one of the most esteemed women in the world, in 1999, she was ranked ninth in the top ten of Gallups List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century. Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was born in 1884 at 56 West 37th Street in Manhattan, New York City, to socialites Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt, from an early age, she preferred to be called by her middle name, Eleanor. Through her father, she was a niece of President Theodore Roosevelt, through her mother, she was a niece of tennis champions Valentine Gill Vallie Hall III and Edward Ludlow Hall. Her mother nicknamed her Granny because she acted in such a manner as a child.
Her mother was somewhat ashamed of Eleanors plainness. Eleanor had two brothers, Elliott Jr. and Gracie Hall Roosevelt, usually called Hall. She had a brother, Elliott Roosevelt Mann, through her fathers affair with Katy Mann. Roosevelt was born into a world of wealth and privilege
Haakon VII of Norway
Haakon VII, known as Prince Carl of Denmark until 1905, was a Danish prince who became the first king of Norway after the 1905 dissolution of the union with Sweden. He reigned from November 1905 until his death in September 1957, as one of the few elected monarchs, Haakon quickly won the respect and affection of his people. He played a role in uniting the Norwegian nation in its resistance to the Nazi invasion. He became King of Norway before his father and older brother became kings of Denmark, during his reign, he saw his father, his brother and his nephew, Frederick IX, ascend the throne of Denmark, respectively in 1906,1912 and 1947. He died at the age of 85 on 21 September 1957 and he was succeeded by his only son, Olav V. Prince Carl of Denmark was the son of King Frederik VIII of Denmark. Furthermore, he was a brother of Christian X, a paternal grandson of King Christian IX of Denmark. Prince Carl was born at Charlottenlund Palace near Copenhagen and he belonged to the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg branch of the House of Oldenburg.
The House of Oldenburg had been the Danish royal family since 1448, the house was originally from northern Germany, where the Glucksburg branch held their small fief. The family had permanent links with Norway beginning from the late Middle Ages, several of his paternal ancestors had been kings of independent Norway. Christian Frederick, who was King of Norway briefly in 1814, Prince Carl was raised in the royal household in Copenhagen and educated at the Royal Danish Naval Academy. Their son, Prince Alexander, the future Crown Prince Olav, was born on 2 July 1903, Prince Carl became the leading candidate, largely because he was descended from independent Norwegian kings. The new royal family of Norway left Denmark on the Danish royal yacht Dannebrog, at Oscarsborg Fortress, they boarded the Norwegian naval ship Heimdal. After a three-day journey, they arrived in Kristiania early on the morning of 25 November 1905, two days later, Haakon took the oath as Norways first independent king in 518 years.
The coronation of Haakon and Maud took place in Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim on 22 June 1906, King Haakon gained much sympathy from the Norwegian people. Although the Constitution of Norway vests the King with considerable executive powers, Haakon confined himself to non-partisan roles without interfering in politics, a practice continued by his son and grandson. However, his long rule gave him moral authority as a symbol of the countrys unity. Haakon and Crown Prince Olav became interested in skiing and this sport is often viewed as typically Norwegian
Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet
Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet is one of the four main campuses of Oslo University Hospital in Oslo, Norway. It was an independent hospital, spelled Rikshospitalet, from 1826 to 2009 and it is a highly specialized university hospital with special assignments in research and the development of new methods of treatment. Rikshospitalet is a part of Southern and Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority, about 60% of the patients admitted to Rikshospitalet are referred from other hospitals in Norway for more specialized investigations and treatment. In Norway, Rikshospitalet plays an important part with expert knowledge of the treatment of rare, Rikshospitalet covers the whole country in various fields, including organ and bone marrow transplants, advanced neurosurgery, and treatment of children with congenital malformations. Rikshospitalet is responsible for care to the Norwegian Royal Family. It is renowned for its architecture, Rikshospitalet merged in with the Norwegian Radium Hospital to create Rikshospitalet–Radiumhospitalet.
The English form of the name was The University Hospital Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet, the notation was changed to Rikshospitalet HF and that name now covers, what used to be,12 different governmental hospitals, each with their own specialities, now under the same branding. The hospital is the last stop on the Ullevål Hageby Line of the Oslo Tramway, Rikshospitalet Station is served by lines 17 and 18. Oslo Heliport, Rikshospitalet consists of a 20. 55-meter diameter helipad 20 meters from the emergency department and it was previously located between Ullevålsveien and Pilestredet—roads in Oslo. 1 April 1944, a station of The Resistance, located in the loft of Womens Clinic, was raided on 1 April 1944. It moved to its current location in 1999
Delta Zeta is an international college sorority founded on October 24,1902, at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. Today, Delta Zeta has 160 collegiate chapters in the United States and over 200 alumnae chapters in the United States, as of 2013, there are over 244,400 college and alumnae members, making them the third largest sorority in the nation. Delta Zeta Sorority was founded at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio in 1902, Miami is dubbed the Mother of Fraternities because of the many prominent mens fraternities which were founded there. Six of the newly admitted females consulted university president Dr. Guy Potter Benton regarding the founding of the first sorority chapter. Having been a leader in the Phi Delta Theta fraternity he was familiar with the processes of a Greek organization, Benton aided in preparation of the ritual and colors. For his contributions, he was named the Grand Patron, the Delta Zeta Sorority was officially incorporated in October 24,1902. The founding members were, Alfa Lloyd Hayes, Mary Jane Collins, Anna Louise Keen, Julia Lawrence Bishop, Mabelle May Minton, the women were harassed for wanting to form a sorority.
In one account, someone stole the constitution out of the hand but Dr. Benton pursued the offender. The sorority joined the National Panhellenic Conference in 1910, Delta Zeta has absorbed four other sororities, Beta Phi Alpha in 1941, Phi Omega Pi in 1946, Delta Sigma Epsilon in 1956, and Theta Upsilon in 1962. Delta Zeta marked its Centennial Celebration in 2002, Delta Zetas official colors are rose and green. The Roman lamp is considered the official symbol, dZs flower is the pink killarney rose, while the official stone is the diamond. Delta Zetas officially recognized mascot is the turtle, Delta Zeta partners with Starkey Hearing Foundation and is committed to philanthropy. DZ implements a Heart For Hearing to raise money for the foundation, since 1954, the national philanthropy of Delta Zeta is speech and hearing. Part of the Delta Zeta creed states, To those whom my life may touch in slight measure, may I give graciously of what is mine, Delta Zeta has national partnerships with the Starkey Hearing Foundation and Gallaudet University.
Individual chapters may support local organizations in their area, in addition, Delta Zeta supports The Painted Turtle Camp as a national service project. This camp supports children with chronic and life-threatening illnesses, Delta Zeta is committed to supporting the camp financially through donations, as well as with our time through volunteering in the camps themselves. There is a philanthropic organization for active members of Delta Zeta known as the 1902 Loyalty Society. The National Council of Delta Zeta is an alumnae board tasked with the governance of the organization, at the end of 2006, the Delta Chapter of Delta Zeta at DePauw University became enmeshed in a controversy that would eventually make national headlines and result in the chapters closure
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known as FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and emerged as a figure in world events during the mid-20th century. He directed the United States government during most of the Great Depression and he is often rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U. S. Presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in 1882 to an old, prominent Dutch family from Dutchess County and he attended the elite educational institutions of Groton School, Harvard College, and Columbia Law School. At age 23 in 1905, he married Eleanor Roosevelt, and he entered politics in 1910, serving in the New York State Senate, and as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson. In 1920, Roosevelt was presidential candidate James M. Coxs running mate and he was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform governor, promoting the enactment of programs to combat the depression besetting the United States at the time.
In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated incumbent Republican president Herbert Hoover in a landslide to win the presidency, Roosevelt took office while in the United States was in the midst of the worst economic crisis in its history. Energized by his victory over polio, FDR relied on his persistent optimism and activism to renew the national spirit. He created numerous programs to support the unemployed and farmers, and to labor union growth while more closely regulating business. His support for the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 added to his popularity, the economy improved rapidly from 1933–37, but relapsed into a deep recession in 1937–38. The bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented his packing the Supreme Court, when the war began and unemployment ended, conservatives in Congress repealed the two major relief programs, the WPA and CCC. However, they kept most of the regulations on business, along with several smaller programs, major surviving programs include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Wagner Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Social Security.
His goal was to make America the Arsenal of Democracy, which would supply munitions to the Allies, in March 1941, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease aid to Britain and China. He supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort, as an active military leader, Roosevelt implemented a war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers and initiate the development of the worlds first atomic bomb. His work influenced the creation of the United Nations. Roosevelts physical health declined during the war years, and he died 11 weeks into his fourth term. One of the oldest Dutch families in New York State, the Roosevelts distinguished themselves in other than politics. One ancestor, Isaac Roosevelt, had served with the New York militia during the American Revolution, Roosevelt attended events of the New York society Sons of the American Revolution, and joined the organization while he was president
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Baudouin of Belgium
Baudouin reigned as 5th King of the Belgians, following his fathers abdication, from 1951 until his death in 1993. He was the last Belgian king to be sovereign of Congo and he was the elder son of King Leopold III and his first wife, Princess Astrid of Sweden. Because he had no children with his wife, Fabiola de Mora, the crown passed to his younger brother, Albert II, following his death. Baudouin was born in the Château du Stuyvenberg, near Laeken, Brussels, in Belgium, in 1930, the son of Prince Leopold, the Duke of Brabant and his father became King of the Belgians, as Leopold III, in 1934. Baudouins mother died in 1935 in an automobile accident, part of Leopold IIIs unpopularity was the result of a second marriage in 1941 to Mary Lilian Baels, an English-born Belgian commoner, known as Princess de Réthy. Though reinstated in a plebiscite, the controversy surrounding Leopold led to his abdication, during the war the king was deported by command of Adolf Hitler to Hirschstein. He ascended the throne and became the fifth King of the Belgians upon taking the oath on 17 July 1951.
The Congolese called the young king Mwana Kitoko, on 15 December 1960, Baudouin was married in Brussels to Doña Fabiola de Mora y Aragón. The King and Queen had no children, all of the Queens five pregnancies ended in miscarriage, during Baudouins reign the colony of Belgian Congo became independent. During the last ceremonial inspection of the Force Publique, the sabre of the king was stolen during a parade by Ambroise Boimbo. The photograph, taken by Robert Lebeck, was published in world newspapers. The next day the king attended the reception, he gave a speech that received a blistering response by Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba. Baudouin attended the State funeral of John F, in 1990, when Baudouin refused to sign into law a bill permitting abortion, the cabinet assumed the power to promulgate the law while he was treated as unable to govern for twenty-four hours. In 1976, on the 25th anniversary of Baudouins accession, the King Baudouin Foundation was formed and he was the 1, 176th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain in 1960 and the 930th Knight of the Order of the Garter.
Baudouin was a devout Roman Catholic, through the influence of Leo Cardinal Suenens, Baudouin participated in the growing Renewal Movement and regularly went on pilgrimages to the French shrine of Paray-le-Monial. In 1990, when a law submitted by Roger Lallemand and Lucienne Herman-Michielsens that liberalised Belgiums abortion laws was approved by Parliament and this was unprecedented, although Baudouin was de jure Belgiums chief executive, Royal Assent has long been a formality. However, due to his religious convictions, Baudouin asked the Government to declare him temporarily unable to reign so that he could avoid signing the measure into law, the Government under Wilfried Martens complied with his request on 4 April 1990. According to the provisions of the Belgian Constitution, in the event the King is temporarily unable to reign, all members of the Government signed the bill, and the next day the Government declared that Baudouin was capable of reigning again
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,1,351,587 in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe. Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned, the 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization.
The city is the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.
This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306, from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
President of the United States
The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.
However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.
In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislation