Prince Bernhard of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven
Prince Bernhard Lucas Emmanuel of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven is the second son of Princess Margriet of the Netherlands and Pieter van Vollenhoven. His godparents are Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, Baron J. van Boetzelaer, evelein, J. Fleischman, and The Royal Air Force. Before the succession of his cousin Willem-Alexander as King, he was a member of the Dutch Royal House, with Willem-Alexanders succession however, he is no longer a member of the Dutch Royal House, and is no longer in line to direct succession to the Dutch throne. Prince Bernhards family lived in Apeldoorn throughout his childhood, moving to Het Loo House in 1975 and he received both his primary and secondary education in Apeldoorn. Prince Bernhard has three brothers, Prince Maurits, Prince Pieter-Christiaan, and Prince Floris and he studied economics in 1988 at Georgetown University in Washington, D. C. Subsequently, in 1989 he went to the Groningen University in the Netherlands where he studied marketing, in 1995 he received the degree of doctorandus at this university.
Although he is a member of the royal family, he rarely takes part in official duties. Prince Bernard is a self-employed entrepreneur, while studying in Groningen, Prince Bernhard met Annette Sekrève. The couple announced their engagement on 11 March 2000, the civil ceremony was performed on 6 July 2000 by the Mayor of Utrecht, Ms A. H. Brouwer-Korf, in the Spiegelzaal of the Paushuize, Utrecht. The marriage was blessed two days later, on 8 July 2000, by Dr. Anne van der Meiden in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Prince Bernhard and Princess Annette have three children. Isabella Lily Juliana van Vollenhoven, born in Amsterdam on 14 May 2002 and her godparents are Prince Maurits, Jose Sekrève and Menno de Jong. Samuel Bernhard Louis van Vollenhoven, born in Amsterdam on 25 May 2004 and his godparents are Princess Margriet, Prince Pieter-Christiaan Marjolein Sekrève and Diederik de Rooy. Benjamin Pieter Floris van Vollenhoven, born in Amsterdam on 12 March 2008 and his godparents are Prince Floris, Claudine Verhulst-van der Ven, Isabel Schouten-van Eys and Claire Folkerts-Drabbe.
Prince Bernhard and his live in Amsterdam. They would cease to be members of the Royal House, at the end of August 2013, it was made public that Bernhard was diagnosed with Non-Hodgkin lymphoma by doctors in Amsterdam. He suffers from Crohns disease, website Royal House – Family Van Vollenhoven
Prince Maurits of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven
Prince Maurits Willem Pieter Hendrik of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven is the eldest son of Princess Margriet of the Netherlands and Pieter van Vollenhoven. Before the succession of his cousin Willem-Alexander as King, he was a member of the Dutch Royal House, with Willem-Alexanders succession however, he is no longer a member of the Dutch Royal House, and is no longer in line to direct succession to the Dutch throne. Maurits was born in 17 April 1968 and his godparents are Princess Christina of the Netherlands, Prince Alois-Konstantin of Lowenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg, Jhr. G. Krayenhof, and The Dutch Merchant Fleet, Van Vollenhoven has three brothers, Pieter-Christiaan, Floris. In 1987, van Vollenhoven performed military service with the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps and he graduated at University of Groningen in 1995, where he obtained a MSc degree in Economics. After his study he worked for the Schiphol Airport Authority, where he occupied several positions, from September 2001 to May 2006, the prince worked for Philips in Amersfoort, where he was in charge of part of the Philishave portfolio.
In May 2006, van Vollenhoven started his own business, The Source, since 1 May 2013, Maurits is Aide-de-camp to King Willem-Alexander and promoted to the rank of Commander in the Royal Netherlands Navy. In 1989, van Vollenhoven met Marilène van den Broek b.4 February 1970) and their civil marriage ceremony was in Apeldoorn on 29 May 1998, followed by a religious ceremony on 30 May. Princess Marilène has given birth to three children, Anastasia Margriet Joséphine van Lippe-Biesterfeld van Vollenhoven, born in Amsterdam on 15 April 2001 and her godparents are Prince Bernhard and Caroline van Weede-van den Broek. Lucas Maurits Pieter Henri van Lippe-Biesterfeld van Vollenhoven, born in Amsterdam on 26 October 2002 and his godparents are Prince Pieter-Christiaan, Jeroen Pit and Emilie Pit. Felicia Juliana Bénedicte Barbara van Lippe-Biesterfeld van Vollenhoven, born in Amsterdam on 31 May 2005 and her godparents are Prince Floris, Prince Constantijn and Barbara Ruding. By Royal Decree of 26 May 1998, the children of van Vollenhoven bear the surname van Lippe-Biesterfeld van Vollenhoven, the Act specifies that only those within three degrees of kinship to the monarch can be in the line of succession.
Royal House of the Netherlands Website Royal House – Family Van Vollenhoven
Ontario, one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada, is located in east-central Canada. It is Canadas most populous province by a margin, accounting for nearly 40 percent of all Canadians. Ontario is fourth-largest in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and it is home to the nations capital city and the nations most populous city, Toronto. There is only about 1 km of land made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes divided into two regions, Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario. The great majority of Ontarios population and arable land is located in the south, in contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and is heavily forested. The province is named after Lake Ontario, a thought to be derived from Ontarí, io, a Huron word meaning great lake, or possibly skanadario. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes, the province consists of three main geographical regions, The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario.
Although this area mostly does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes, Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions, Northwestern Ontario and Northeastern Ontario. The virtually unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the north and northeast, mainly swampy. Southern Ontario which is further sub-divided into four regions, Central Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Golden Horseshoe, the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level located in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands, the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. A well-known geographic feature is Niagara Falls, part of the Niagara Escarpment, the Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario.
Northern Ontario occupies roughly 87 percent of the area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario that is the southernmost extent of Canadas mainland, Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend slightly farther. All are south of 42°N – slightly farther south than the border of California. The climate of Ontario varies by season and location, the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend mainly on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontarios climate is classified as humid continental, Ontario has three main climatic regions
President of the United States
The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.
However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.
In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislation
Wilhelmina of the Netherlands
Wilhelmina was Queen of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1890 until her abdication in 1948. Wilhelmina was the child of King William III and his second wife Emma of Waldeck. She became heir presumptive to the Dutch throne, after her brother and great uncle had died. She became queen when her died, when she was 10 years old. As she was still a minor, her mother served as regent until Wilhelmina became 18 years old, in 1901, she married Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin with whom she had a daughter Juliana. She reigned for nearly 58 years, longer any other Dutch monarch. Her reign saw World War I and World War II, the crisis of 1933. Outside the Netherlands she is remembered for her role in World War II. Princess Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, was born on 31 August 1880 in The Hague and she was the only child of King William III and his second wife, Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont. Her childhood was characterised by a relationship with her parents, especially with her father.
King William III had three sons with his first wife, Sophie of Württemberg, when Prince Frederick died a year in 1881, she became second in line. When Wilhelmina was four, Alexander died and the girl became heir presumptive. King William III died on 23 November 1890, although 10-year-old Wilhelmina became queen of the Netherlands instantly, her mother, was named regent. In 1895, Queen Wilhelmina visited Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, still has her hair hanging loose. She is slender and graceful, and makes an impression as a very intelligent and she speaks good English and knows how to behave with charming manners. Wilhelmina was enthroned on 6 September 1898, on 7 February 1901 in The Hague, she married Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Nine months later, on 9 November, Wilhelmina suffered a miscarriage and her next pregnancy ended in another miscarriage on 23 July 1906. The birth of Juliana, on 30 April 1909, was met with great relief after eight years of childless marriage, Wilhelmina suffered two further miscarriages on 23 January and 20 October 1912
The Ottawa Hospital
The Ottawa Hospital is a non-profit, public university teaching hospital in Ottawa, Canada. The hospital is made up of the former Grace Hospital, Riverside Hospital, Ottawa General Hospital and it is a 1, 117-bed academic health sciences centre affiliated with the University of Ottawa, and the University of Ottawa Heart Institute is located at the hospitals Civic Campus. The Ottawa Hospital is one of two centres in Eastern Ontario and southern Quebec. The other is Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario accommodating juvenile and adolescent patients, in 1921, the construction of the Civic hospital was estimated to cost $1,500,000. The hospital was championed largely by Harold Fisher following the 1918 flu pandemic, while the facility is today located in an urban location, Fisher faced ridicule at the time for advocating for a location in the then-countryside and the project was branded by some as Fishers Folly. It opened on December 17,1924 with 550 beds, during World War II, when Canada provided refuge to the Dutch royal family, then-Princess Juliana gave birth to her daughter Princess Margriet in Ottawa at the Ottawa Civic Hospital.
The hospitals maternity ward was declared to be officially part of international territory so that Margriet would inherit only Dutch citizenship from her mother. In 1976, the University of Ottawa Heart Institute opened its doors on the then-Civic Hospital campus, the Civic campus serves as a 456-bed teaching hospital. The General Campus is today composed of the General Hospital, the Ottawa Rehabilitation Centre, the main building of the present General campus was built in 1980. The Ottawa Hospital, Riverside Campus, which was opened in 1967, is a day facility for outpatient care and it has its own OC Transpo transitway station. During the 1990s, the government of Mike Harris amalgamated several existing hospitals. The Grace was closed, while the Riverside became the Riverside Campus, on April 1,1998, The Ottawa Hospital was officially created. It is one of the largest hospital-based research institutes in North America, formed on April 1,2001, by the merger of the Loeb Health Research Institute and the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, the OHRI is a multi-campus facility.
Famous people born at the Ottawa Hospital include, Dan Aykroyd Canadian-American actor, Princess Margriet of the Netherlands Dutch Princess of the Dutch throne. Justin Trudeau, the 23rd Prime Minister of Canada
House of Orange-Nassau
Several members of the house served during this war and after as governor or stadtholder during the Dutch Republic. However, in 1815, after a period as a republic. The dynasty was established as a result of the marriage of Henry III of Nassau-Breda from Germany and their son René inherited in 1530 the independent and sovereign Principality of Orange from his mothers brother, Philibert of Châlon. As the first Nassau to be the Prince of Orange, René could have used Orange-Nassau as his new family name, his uncle, in his will, had stipulated that René should continue the use of the name Châlon-Orange. History knows him therefore as René of Châlon, after the death of René in 1544 his cousin William of Nassau-Dillenburg inherited all his lands. This William I of Orange, in English better known as William the Silent, the Castle of Nassau was founded around 1100 by Count Dudo-Henry of Laurenburg, the founder of the House of Nassau. In 1120, Dudo-Henrys sons and successors, Counts Robert I and Arnold I of Laurenburg and they renovated and extended the castle complex in 1124.
The first man to be called the count of Nassau was Robert I of Nassau, the Nassau family married into the family of the neighboring Counts of Arnstein. His sons Walram and Otto split the Nassau possessions, the descendants of Walram became known as the Walram Line, which became Dukes of Nassau, and in 1890, the Grand Dukes of Luxembourg. This line included Adolph of Nassau, who was elected King of the Romans in 1292, the descendants of Otto became known as the Ottonian Line, which inherited parts of Nassau County, and properties in France and the Netherlands. The House of Orange-Nassau stems from the younger Ottonian Line, the first of this line to establish himself in the Netherlands was John I, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, who married Margareta of the Marck. The real founder of the Nassau fortunes in the Netherlands was Johns son and he became counsellor to the Burgundian Dukes of Brabant, first to Anton of Burgundy, and to his son Jan IV of Brabant. He would serve Philip the Good, in 1403 he married the Dutch noblewoman Johanna van Polanen, and so inherited lands in the Netherlands, with the Barony of Breda as the core of the Dutch possessions and the family fortune. A nobles power was based on his ownership of vast tracts of land.
It helped that much of the lands that the House of Orange and Nassau controlled sat under one of the commercial and mercantile centers of the world (see below under Lands and Titles. The importance of the Nassaus grew throughout the 15th and 16th centuries as they became councilors, Engelbert II of Nassau served Charles the Bold and Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, who had married Charless daughter Mary of Burgundy. In 1496 he was appointed stadtholder of Flanders and by 1498 he had been named President of the Grand Conseil, in 1501, Maximilian named him Lieutenant-General of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. From that point forward, Engelbert was the representative of the Habsburg Empire to the region
Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld
Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld was the consort of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands and father of her four children, including the former Queen of the Netherlands, Princess Beatrix. During World War II the German-born prince was part of the London-based Allied war planning councils and he was a Dutch General and Supreme Commander of the Dutch Armed forces, involved in negotiating the terms of surrender of the German Army in the Netherlands. For proven bravery and loyalty during his efforts he was appointed a Commander of the Military William Order. After the War he was made Honorary Air Marshal of the RAF by Queen Elizabeth II, in 1969, Bernhard was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. Bernhard helped found the World Wildlife Fund, becoming its first President in 1961, in 1954, he was a co-founder of the international Bilderberg Group, which has met annually since to discuss corporate globalization and other issues concerning Europe and North America.
He was forced to step down from both groups after being involved in the Lockheed Bribery Scandal. Because his parents marriage did not properly conform with the laws of the House of Lippe, it was deemed morganatic. He and his brother could only succeed to the Lippian throne if the entire reigning House became extinct, in 1916, the Reigning Prince of Lippe, Leopold IV, raised Bernhard and his mother to Prince / Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld thereby retroactively according his parents marriage regal status. The suffix Biesterfeld was revived to mark the beginning of a new line of the House of Lippe. After World War I, Bernhards family lost their German Principality and he received his early education at home. When he was twelve, he was sent to board at the Gymnasium in Züllichau and several years to board at a Gymnasium in Berlin, Bernhard suffered from poor health as a boy. Doctors predicted that he would not live very long and this prediction might have been the key to Bernhards reckless driving and the risks that he took in the Second World War and thereafter.
The prince wrecked several cars and planes in his lifetime, Bernhard studied Law at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland and in Berlin, where he acquired a taste for fast cars, horse riding, and big-game hunting safaris. He was nearly killed in an accident and an airplane crash. While at university, Bernhard joined the Nazi Party and he enrolled in the Sturmabteilung, which he left in 1934 when he graduated. The Prince denied that he had belonged to SA, to the Reiter-SS, and to the NSKK, while he was not a fierce champion of democracy, the Prince was never known to hold any radical political views or express any racist sentiments. The Prince eventually went to work for the German chemical giant IG Farben, the worlds fourth-largest company and he lodged with the exiled Russian nobleman Count Pavel Kotzbue and his wife the American-born Allene Tew. After training, Bernhard became secretary to the board of directors at the Paris office in 1935, Bernhard met then-Princess Juliana at the 1936 Winter Olympics at Garmisch-Partenkirchen
A merchant navy or merchant marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a specific country. The following is a partial list of the merchant navies or merchant marines of various countries, in many countries the fleets proper name is simply the capitalized version of the common noun. The British Merchant Navy comprises the British merchant ships that transport cargo and people during time of peace and war. For much of its history, the merchant navy was the largest merchant fleet in the world, in 1939, the merchant navy was the largest in the world with 33% of total tonnage. By 2012, the merchant navy—still remaining one of the largest in the world—held only 3% of total tonnage, as of the year ending 2012, British Merchant Marine interests consists of 1,504 ships of 100 GRT or over. This includes ships either UK directly owned, parent owned or managed by a British company and this amounts to,59,413,000 GRT or alternatively 75,265,000 DWT. This is according to the maritime shipping statistics provided by the British government.
British Shipping is represented nationally and globally by the UK Chamber of Shipping, like several other Commonwealth nations, created its own merchant navy in a large-scale effort in World War II. Established in 1939, the Canadian Merchant Navy played a role in the Battle of the Atlantic bolstering the Allies merchant fleet due to high losses in the British Merchant Navy. Eventually thousands of Canadians served in the merchant navy aboard hundreds of Canadian merchant ships, notably the Park Ship, a school at St. Margarets Bay, Nova Scotia, trained Canadian merchant mariners. Manning pools, merchant navy barracks, were built in Canadian ports, the Greek maritime fleet is today engaged in commerce and transportation of goods and services universally. It consists of the merchant vessels owned by Greek civilians, flying either the Greek flag or a flag of convenience. Greece is a nation by tradition, as shipping is arguably the oldest form of occupation of the Greeks. Greece is ranked in the top for all kinds of ships, including first for tankers, the birth of the modern Indian Merchant Navy occurred before independence from the United Kingdom, when in 1919 SS Loyalty sailed from India to Britain.
Today, India ranks 15th in the world in terms of total DWT, India currently supplies around 12. 8% of officers and around 14. 5% of ratings to the world seafaring community. This is one of the highest of any country, in December 1939,3000 seafarers were employed and 186 merchant vessels were on the New Zealand Registry. Some foreign vessels were impressed, including the barque, Pamir. New Zealand, like several other Commonwealth nations, created a merchant navy, although some ships were involved in the Atlantic and North Pacific trade, mostly this involved domestic and South Pacific cargos
It is one of a number of family Asteraceae plants to be called a daisy, and has the additional vernacular names common daisy, dog daisy and moon daisy. L. vulgare is a typical grassland perennial wildflower, growing in a variety of plant communities including meadows and fields, under scrub and open-canopy forests, Leucanthemum is from the Ancient Greek λευκός and ἄνθος. Symbolic meaning of Oxeye daisy, Patience Leucanthemum vulgare is a perennial herb one to three feet high by 1 foot wide, the stem is mostly unbranched and sprouts laterally from a creeping rhizomatous rootstock. The leaves are green on both sides. The basal and middle leaves are petiolate, obovate to spoon-shaped, the upper leaves are shorter and borne along the stem. L. vulgare blooms from spring to autumn. The small flower head, not larger than 5 centimetres, consists of about 20 white ray florets surround a yellow disc. The plant produces an abundant number of seeds, without pappus. It spreads vegetatively by rhizomes, the unopened flower buds can be marinated and used in a similar way to capers.
Grieves Modern Herbal states that The taste of the herb is bitter and tingling. Leucanthemum vulgare is widely cultivated and available as a flowering ornamental plant for gardens. It thrives in a range of conditions and can grow in sun to partial shade. There are cultivars, such as May Queen which begins blooming in early spring, Leucanthemum vulgare became an introduced species via gardens into natural areas in parts of Canada, the United States and New Zealand, where it is now a common weed. In some habitats it is an invasive species forming dense colonies displacing native plants and modifying existing communities, ox-eye daisy is a host for several viral diseases affecting crops. Allergies to daisies do occur, usually causing contact dermatitis, bellis perennis – common daisy Buphthalmum salicifolium – yellow ox-eye daisy Argyranthemum frutescens – marguerite daisy Neltje Blanchan. USDA Plants Profile, Leucanthemum vulgare Leucanthemum vulgare – U. C, cal. Photo gallery Cirrus, Leucanthemum vulgare photographs and information
Pieter van Vollenhoven
Pieter van Vollenhoven, Jr. is the husband of Princess Margriet of the Netherlands and a member, by marriage, of the Dutch Royal House. Born in Schiedam, he is the son of Pieter van Vollenhoven, Sr. The van Vollenhoven and the Stuylingh de Lange belong to the Dutch patriciate, Van Vollenhoven attended secondary school in Rotterdam, and he subsequently studied law at the University of Leiden. He graduated in 1965, after which he worked as an officer for the Netherlands Council of State. In 1966, he performed his military service with the Royal Netherlands Air Force, Pieter van Vollenhoven is currently most well known in The Netherlands for having been the chairman of the Dutch Safety Board from which he retired in February 2011. He was originally appointed chairman of the Road Transportation Safety Board, due to his expertise in the area, the University of Twente made Van Vollenhoven a Professor on 1 October 2005. He holds the policy research chair, which is a subspecialty of the management group.
He held his oration on 28 April 2006 and called for the creation of a Minister of Safety at that time, in 1989, Van Vollenhoven took the initiative in setting up the Dutch Victim Support Fund, of which he is the chairman. He is chairman of the Nationaal Groenfonds, the National Restorationfund and the Society and Police Association and he is a member of the European Transport Safety Council. As Chairman of the Safety Board, Van Vollenhoven oversaw the investigation of the Schipholbrand and he presented a final report on 21 September 2006 with such devastating findings that ministers Piet Hein Donner and Sybilla Dekker resigned over it. A third responsible minister, Rita Verdonk refused to resign despite her responsibility in the matter, following the Turkish Airlines Flight 1951 crash, Van Vollenhoven led the investigation by the Safety Board. This investigation brought him conflict with the Office of the Attorney General. When he turned 70, Barry Sweedler said to him, The world is a place because of your work.
Van Vollenhoven is an avid pianist, in 1986 he formed a trio - De Gevleugelde Vrienden - with two of the countrys leading pianists and gave some twenty concerts a year both at home and abroad in aid of the Victim Support Fund. De Gevleugelde Vrienden were awarded four gold discs, since the death of one of the members of the trio, Pim Jacobs, Van Vollenhoven has continued to give concerts with pianists Louis van Dijk and Koos Mark. Van Vollenhoven is still a pilot and he dives. He almost lost the tip of his index finger during a dive in 2005. Doctors were able to reattach the tip, the Victim Support Fund raised money in 2008 and 2009 by selling calendars with his photographs
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was governed by a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Under Hitlers rule, Germany was transformed into a fascist state in which the Nazi Party took totalitarian control over all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943, the period is known under the names the Third Reich and the National Socialist Period. The Nazi regime came to an end after the Allied Powers defeated Germany in May 1945, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. The Nazi Party began to eliminate all opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the powers and offices of the Chancellery, a national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitlers person, and his word became above all laws, the government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitlers favour.
In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending, extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen. The return to economic stability boosted the regimes popularity, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime. The Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the purest branch of the Aryan race, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were murdered in the Holocaust. Opposition to Hitlers rule was ruthlessly suppressed, members of the liberal and communist opposition were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. The Christian churches were oppressed, with many leaders imprisoned, education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased the Third Reich on the international stage.
Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands and it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Hitler made a pact with Joseph Stalin and invaded Poland in September 1939. In alliance with Italy and smaller Axis powers, Germany conquered most of Europe by 1940, reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas, and a German administration was established in what was left of Poland. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the tide gradually turned against the Nazis, who suffered major military defeats in 1943