Caserta is the capital of the province of Caserta in the Campania region of Italy. It is an important agricultural and industrial comune and city. Caserta is located on the edge of the Campanian plain at the foot of the Campanian Subapennine mountain range; the city is best known for the Palace of Caserta. Modern Caserta was established around the defensive tower built in Lombard times by Pando, Prince of Capua. Pando destroyed the original city around 863; the tower is now part of the Palazzo della Prefettura, once the seat of the counts of Caserta, as well as a royal residence. The original population moved from Casertavecchia to the current site in the 16th century. Casertavecchia was built on the Roman town of Casa Irta, meaning "home village located above" and contracted as "Caserta"; the city and vicinity were the property of the Acquaviva family who, being pressed by huge debts, sold all the land to the royal family. The royal family selected Caserta for the construction of their new palace which, being inland, was seen as more defensible than the previous palace fronting the Bay of Naples.
At the end of World War II, the royal palace served as the seat of the Supreme Allied Commander. The first Allied war trial took place here in 1945. Pope Francis visited Caserta on Monday, 28 June 2014, together with a friend named Giovanni Traettino who pastors an evangelical, charismatic/Pentecostal Protestant church; the Pope apologized for the complicity of some Catholics in the persecution of Protestant Pentecostals during the fascist regime in Italy. Caserta is located 40 kilometres north of Naples, its municipality borders with Capua, Casapulla, Castel Morrone, Limatola, Marcianise, San Felice a Cancello, San Marco Evangelista, San Nicola la Strada, San Prisco, Sant'Agata de' Goti, Santa Maria Capua Vetere and Valle di Maddaloni. Casertavecchia is the ancient centre of former bishopric seat. San Leucio resort, seat of famous Royal silk workshops included in the World Heritage List. Vaccheria, which housed the stable of the Royal cattle. Falciano is a former bishop seat. Piedimonte di Casolla has an ancient Benedictine abbey, built over a Roman temple dedicated to Diana.
Other "Frazioni": Aldifreda, Casola, Centurano, Garzano, Pozzovetere, Sala di Caserta, San Benedetto, San Clemente, Santa Barbara, Tredici, Tuoro. Caserta's main attraction is its Royal Palace; the royal palace was designed in the 18th century by the Italian architect Luigi Vanvitelli, recalling Versailles, as a residence for the Bourbon kings of Naples and Sicily. As one of the most visited monuments in Italy, the palace has more than 1200 rooms, decorated in various styles, it has been the set for several famous movies such as Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones, Angels & Demons and Mission: Impossible III. The park is 2 miles long and contains many waterfalls and gardens, as well as a famous English garden. Palazzo Vecchio, a construction of the 14th century renovated by Luigi Vanvitelli as provisional residence for the royal court; the Cathedral. The Aqueduct of Vanvitelli. Piazza Matteotti Grave is one of oldest piazzas the city, it is called by Casertani "Piazza Mercato" because there is the daily market in a structure inaugurated in 2008.
Piazza Vanvitelli is the main piazza in the city. The piazza once included Palazzo Castropignano but this was subsequently replaced by a modern palace in the early 1960s; the seat of the municipality of Caserta, Palazzo Acquaviva lies within this piazza as well as the offices of Questura and Prefettura of the Province of Caserta and various banks, shops and bars. At the center of it there is a statue of Luigi Vanvitelli, the architect who designed the Royal Palace of Caserta; the city has some experience in hosting major international sports events such as the EuroBasket 1969. It is home to Italy's 1991 basketball champion. Caserta railway station is a hub for regional and national traffic, represents an important interchange linking Rome and Naples to Bari; the nearest airport is Naples-Capodichino, located about 30 kilometres south. Caserta is the starting point of the A30 motorway to Salerno and is served by two exits of A1 motorway: Caserta Nord and Caserta Sud. Caserta is twinned with: Pitești, Romania Aley, Lebanon Italian writer Maria Valtorta Air power theorist Giulio Douhet.
English cricketer Hedley Verity is buried there, having died in a Caserta hospital on 31 July 1943 of wounds sustained in the World War II Allied invasion of Sicily. Fictional character Jennifer Melfi of The Sopranos said her family was from Caserta Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli Casertana F. C. Città di Caserta Official website
Charles III of Spain
Charles III was King of Spain, after ruling Naples as Charles VII and Sicily as Charles V. He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. A proponent of enlightened absolutism, he succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, upon the death of his half-brother Ferdinand VI, who left no heirs. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, following the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese. In 1738 he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony, daughter of Augustus III of Poland and an educated, cultured woman who gave birth to 13 children, eight of whom reached adulthood. Charles and Maria Amalia resided in Naples for 19 years; as King of Spain, Charles III made far-reaching reforms such as promoting science and university research, facilitating trade and commerce, modernising agriculture. He tried to reduce the influence of the Church and avoided costly wars, his previous experience as King of Naples and Sicily proved valuable.
He did not achieve complete control over Spain's finances, was sometimes obliged to borrow to meet expenses, but most of his reforms proved to be successful and his legacy lives on to this day. Historian Stanley Payne wrote that Charles III "was the most successful European ruler of his generation, he had provided firm, intelligent leadership. He had chosen capable ministers.... Personal life had won the respect of the people." In 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht concluded the War of the Spanish Succession and reduced the political and military power of Spain, which the House of Bourbon had ruled since 1700. Under the terms of the treaty, the Spanish Empire retained its American territories, but ceded to Habsburg Austria the Southern Netherlands, the kingdoms of Naples and Sardinia, the Duchy of Milan, the State of Presidi. Moreover, the House of Savoy gained the Kingdom of Sicily, the Kingdom of Great Britain gained the island of Menorca and the fortress at Gibraltar. In 1700, Charles' father a French prince, became King of Spain as Philip V.
For the remainder of his reign, he continually attempted to regain the ceded territories. In 1714, after the death of the king's first wife, the Princess Maria Luisa Gabriella of Savoy, the Piacenzan Cardinal Giulio Alberoni arranged the marriage between Philip and the ambitious Elisabeth Farnese and stepdaughter of Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma. Elisabeth and Philip married on 24 December 1714. On 20 January 1716, Elisabeth gave birth to the Infante Charles of Spain at the Real Alcázar of Madrid, he was fourth in line to the Spanish throne, after three elder half-brothers: the Infante Luis, Prince of Asturias, the Infante Felipe, Ferdinand. Because the Duke Francesco of Parma and his heir were childless, Elisabeth sought the duchies of Parma and Piacenza for Charles, she sought for him the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, because Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany was childless. He was a distant cousin of hers, related via her great-grandmother Margherita de' Medici, giving Charles a claim to the title through that lineage.
The birth of Charles encouraged the Prime Minister Alberoni to start laying out grand plans for Europe. In 1717 he ordered the Spanish invasion of Sardinia. In 1718, Alberoni ordered the invasion of Sicily, ruled by the House of Savoy. In the same year Charles' first sister, Infanta Mariana Victoria was born on 31 March. In reaction to the Quadruple Alliance of 1718, the Duke of Savoy joined the Alliance and went to war with Spain; this war led to the dismissal of Alberoni by Philip in 1719. The Treaty of The Hague of 1720 included the recognition of Charles as heir to the Italian Duchies of Parma and Piacenza. Charles' half-brother, Infante Philip Peter, died on 29 December 1719, putting Charles third in line to the throne after Louis and Ferdinand, he would retain his position behind these two until they died and he succeeded to the Spanish throne. His second full brother, Infante Philip of Spain, was born on 15 March 1720. Beginning in 1721, King Philip had been negotiating with the Duke of Orléans, the French regent, to arrange three Franco-Spanish marriages that could ease tense relations.
The young Louis XV of France would marry the three-year-old Infanta Mariana Victoria and thus she would become Queen of France. Charles himself would be engaged to Philippine Elisabeth, the fifth surviving daughter of the Duke of Orléans. In 1726 Charles met Philippine Élisabeth for the first time, they embraced affectionately and kissed one another, it appears to me that he does not displease her. Thus, since this evening they do not like to leave one another, she says a hundred pretty things. She has the mind of an angel, my son is only too happy to possess her... She has charged me to tell you that she loves you with all her heart, that she is quite content with her husband." And to the duchesse d'Orléans she writes: "I find her the most beautiful and most lovable child in the world. It is the most pleasing thing imaginable to se
Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions, in Southern Italy along with surrounding minor islands referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina, its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, one of the most active in the world 3,329 m high. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate; the earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. By around 750 BC, Sicily had three Phoenician and a dozen Greek colonies and, for the next 600 years, it was the site of the Sicilian Wars and the Punic Wars. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, Sicily was ruled during the Early Middle Ages by the Vandals, the Ostrogoths, the Byzantine Empire, the Emirate of Sicily; the Norman conquest of southern Italy led to the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily, subsequently ruled by the Hohenstaufen, the Capetian House of Anjou and the House of Habsburg.
It was unified under the House of Bourbon with the Kingdom of Naples as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Italian unification, a plebiscite. Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region on 15th May 1946, 18 days before the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Albeit, much of the autonomy still remains unapplied financial autonomy, because the autonomy-activating laws have been deferred to be approved by the parithetic committee, since 1946. Sicily has a rich and unique culture with regard to the arts, literature and architecture, it is home to important archaeological and ancient sites, such as the Necropolis of Pantalica, the Valley of the Temples and Selinunte. Sicily has a triangular shape, earning it the name Trinacria. To the east, it is separated from the Italian mainland by the Strait of Messina, about 3 km wide in the north, about 16 km wide in the southern part.
The northern and southern coasts are each about 280 km long measured as a straight line, while the eastern coast measures around 180 km. The total area of the island is 25,711 km2, while the Autonomous Region of Sicily has an area of 27,708 km2; the terrain of inland Sicily is hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the mountain ranges of Madonie, 2,000 m, Nebrodi, 1,800 m, Peloritani, 1,300 m, are an extension of the mainland Apennines; the cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern coast. In the southeast lie the lower Hyblaean Mountains, 1,000 m; the mines of the Enna and Caltanissetta districts were part of a leading sulphur-producing area throughout the 19th century, but have declined since the 1950s. Sicily and its surrounding small islands have some active volcanoes. Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe and still casts black ash over the island with its ever-present eruptions, it stands 3,329 metres high, though this varies with summit eruptions.
It is the highest mountain in Italy south of the Alps. Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 with a basal circumference of 140 km; this makes it by far the largest of the three active volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. In Greek mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under the mountain by Zeus, the god of the sky. Mount Etna is regarded as a cultural symbol and icon of Sicily; the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea, to the northeast of mainland Sicily form a volcanic complex, include Stromboli. The three volcanoes of Vulcano and Lipari are currently active, although the latter is dormant. Off the southern coast of Sicily, the underwater volcano of Ferdinandea, part of the larger Empedocles volcano, last erupted in 1831, it is located between the island of Pantelleria. The autonomous region includes several neighbouring islands: the Aegadian Islands, the Aeolian Islands and Lampedusa; the island is drained by several rivers, most of which flow through the central area and enter the sea at the south of the island.
The Salso flows through parts of Enna and Caltanissetta before entering the Mediterranean Sea at the port of Licata. To the east, the Alcantara flows through the province of Messina and enters the sea at Giardini Naxos, the Simeto, which flows into the Ionian Sea south of Catania. Other important rivers on the island are the Platani in the southwest. Sicily has a typical Mediterranean climate with mild and wet winters and hot, dry summers with changeable intermediate seasons. On the coasts the south-western, the climate is affected by the African currents and summers can be scorching. Sicily is seen as an island of warm winters but above all along the Tyrrhenian coast and in the inland areas, winters can be cold, with typical continental climate. Snow falls in abundance above 900–1000 metres, but stronger cold waves can carry it in the hills and in coastal cities on the northern coast of the island; the interi
Ferdinand VII of Spain
Ferdinand VII was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his detractors as the Felon King. After being overthrown by Napoleon in 1808 he linked his monarchy to counter-revolution and reactionary policies that produced a deep rift in Spain between his forces on the right and liberals on the left. Back in power in 1814, he reestablished the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. A revolt in 1820 led by Rafael de Riego forced him to restore the constitution thus beginning the Liberal Triennium: a three year period of liberal rule. In 1823 the Congress of Verona authorized a successful French intervention restoring him to absolute power for the second time, he jailed many of its editors and writers. Under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, the country entered into civil war on his death, his reputation among historians is low. Historian Stanley Payne writes: He proved in many ways the basest king in Spanish history.
Cowardly, grasping and vengeful, seemed incapable of any perception of the commonwealth. He thought only in terms of his power and security and was unmoved by the enormous sacrifices of Spanish people to retain their independence and preserve his throne. Ferdinand was the eldest surviving son of Maria Luisa of Parma. Ferdinand was born in the palace of El Escorial near Madrid. In his youth Ferdinand occupied the position of an heir apparent, excluded from all share in government by his parents and their favourite advisor and Prime Minister, Manuel Godoy. National discontent with the government produced a rebellion in 1805. In October 1807, Ferdinand was arrested for his complicity in the El Escorial Conspiracy in which the rebels aimed at securing foreign support from the French Emperor Napoleon; when the conspiracy was discovered, Ferdinand submitted to his parents. Following a popular riot at Aranjuez Charles IV abdicated in March 1808. Ferdinand turned to Napoleon for support, he abdicated on 6 May 1808 and thereafter Napoleon kept Ferdinand under guard in France for six years at the Château de Valençay.
Historian Charles Oman records that the choice of Valençay was a practical joke by Napoleon on his former foreign minister Talleyrand, the owner of the château, for his lack of interest in Spanish affairs. While the upper echelons of the Spanish government accepted his abdication and Napoleon's choice of his brother Joseph Bonaparte as king of Spain, the Spanish people did not. Uprisings broke out throughout the country. Provincial juntas were established to control regions in opposition to the new French king. After the Battle of Bailén proved that the Spanish could resist the French, the Council of Castile reversed itself and declared null and void the abdications of Bayonne on 11 August 1808. On 24 August, Ferdinand VII was proclaimed king of Spain again, negotiations between the Council and the provincial juntas for the establishment of a Supreme Central Junta were completed. Subsequently, on 14 January 1809, the British government acknowledged Ferdinand VII as king of Spain. Five years after experiencing serious setbacks on many fronts, Napoleon agreed to acknowledge Ferdinand VII as king of Spain on 11 December 1813 and signed the Treaty of Valençay, so that the king could return to Spain.
The Spanish people, blaming the policies of the Francophiles for causing the Napoleonic occupation and the Peninsular War by allying Spain too to France, at first welcomed Fernando. Ferdinand soon found that in the intervening years a new world had been born of foreign invasion and domestic revolution. In his name Spain fought for its independence and in his name as well juntas had governed Spanish America. Spain was no longer the absolute monarchy. Instead he was now asked to rule under the liberal Constitution of 1812. Before being allowed to enter Spanish soil, Ferdinand had to guarantee the liberals that he would govern on the basis of the Constitution, only gave lukewarm indications he would do so. On 24 March the French handed him over to the Spanish Army in Girona, thus began his procession towards Madrid. During this process and in the following months, he was encouraged by conservatives and the Church hierarchy to reject the Constitution. On 4 May he ordered its abolition and on 10 May had the liberal leaders responsible for the Constitution arrested.
Ferdinand justified his actions by claiming that the Constitution had been made by a Cortes illegally assembled in his absence, without his consent and without the traditional form. Ferdinand promised to convene a traditional Cortes, but never did so, thereby reasserting the Bourbon doctrine that sovereign authority resided in his person only. Meanwhile, the wars of independence had broken out in the Americas, although many of the republican rebels were divided and royalist sentiment was strong in many areas, the Manila galleons and the Spanish treasure fleets - tax revenues from the Spanish Empire - were interrupted. Spain was all but bankrupt. Ferdinand's restored autocracy was guided by a small camarilla of his favorites, although his government seemed unstable. Whimsical and ferocious by turns, he changed his ministers every few months. "The king," wrote Friedrich von Gentz in 1814, "himself enters the houses of his prime ministers, arrests them, hands them over to their cruel enemies.
Aranjuez called the Royal Estate of Aranjuez, is a city and municipality, capital of the Las Vegas district, in the southern part of the Community of Madrid, Spain. It is located at the confluence of the Tagus and Jarama rivers, 42 kilometres south of Madrid, 44 kilometres from Toledo; as of 2009, it had a population of 54,055. It is the 17th-largest city in the Community of Madrid and the autonomous community's largest and most populous urban center outside Greater Madrid Area, it has been one of the Royal Estates of the Crown of Spain since the times of Philip II in 1560. Until 1752, only the royalty and nobility were allowed to dwell in the town; the Cultural Landscape of Aranjuez was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2001. There are several theories about the origin of the name; the most accepted one states that it comes from the Basque language, deriving from arantza. Another theory, attributed to Padre Martín Sarmiento, a Benedictine scholar who lived about a century after the founder of Aranjuez, Philip II of Spain, claims the origin to be from Latin Ara Jovis or Ara Iovia, which means the altar of the Roman god Jupiter known as Zeus.
However the pre-Roman derivation is preferred. In 1178, the area was acquired by the Order of Santiago. Ferdinand and Isabella, the "Catholic monarchs", converted Aranjuez into a royal site, it was the Spring residence of the kings of Spain from the late 19th century. During the reign of Philip II of Spain, in the second half of the 16th century, the royal palace was constructed and the name of the enlarged settlement was changed from Alpajes to Aranjuez; the site was designed by Juan Bautista de Toledo and completed by Juan de Herrera. The town, or Villa was extensively redesigned in the 18th century by Santiago Bonavía. Many significant events occurred here during the Enlightenment in Spain: 1752: During the reign of Ferdinand VI the town of Aranjuez reserved for the royal family, nobles of the royal court and palace servants started to be opened as a town with overnight accommodation for visitors, obliged to lodge in nearby settlements such as Ocaña. In that year the First Treaty of Aranjuez recognized Austrian and Spanish interests in Italy 1753: The weir in the Tagus River, alongside to the Royal Palace of Aranjuez was constructed to power a water wheel for milling wheat flour.
Since the mill was visible from the palace, it was architecturally attractive and sometimes used as the residence of the town governor. In the 20th century it was renovated to generate power, was dismantled after a fire about 1950; as of 2014 only the mill races remained. 1758: Queen Barbara de Braganza, wife of Ferdinand VI, died in Aranjuez 1761: King Carlos III builds the so-called Long Bridge over the river Jarama. This stone construction remains intact and now supports the M-305 service road about 5 km north of the town. 1765: Carlos III, a keen physiocrat orders the construction of Real Cortijo de San Isidro, a model farm, abandoned by his successor and commercialized. The chapel and winery remain intact, both of which are national monuments open to the public 1765 Carlos III orders the construction of the Franciscan Convent of San Pascual occupied by the Conceptionists. During the time of Francoist Spain it served as a women's prison, is a state assisted private church-run primary school.
Opposite it he built Hospital San Carlos 1766 Isabella Farnese, wife of Philip V of Spain and mother of Carlos III, who contributed to the town's development, died in Aranjuez 1767: The French architect Jaime Marquet began construction of the theatre Coliseo Carlos III restored and reopened as Theatro Carlos III in 2014 1777: In the 3rd Treaty of Aranjuez France and Spain define their colonies in Santo Domingo 1779: Spain becomes involved in the War of Independence of the United States by virtue of the 3rd Treaty of Aranjuez 1780 The 4th Treaty of Aranjuez, cedes Spanish territories in Africa to Morocco 1801 in the 5th Treaty of Aranjuez, publicly confirms the secret Third Treaty of San Ildefonso in which Spain returned the colonial territory of Louisiana to France. 1808 The Mutiny of Aranjuez. An uprising on 17 March 1808, when the royal family and the government were staying at Aranjuez while on their way south, anticipating a French invasion from the north. Soldiers and members of the general public assaulted Godoy's quarters and captured him.
The mutineers made King Charles dismiss Godoy, two days the court forced the King himself to abdicate in favor of his son and rival, who became Ferdinand VII. 1833 Queen Isabella II of Spain acceded to the throne and Aranjuez was reached by a railway line to Madrid in 1851.. This was the second railway line in Spain, after that of Barcelona-Mataró. In 1939, Joaquín Rodrigo composed the Concierto de Aranjuez, which would make Aranjuez famous all over the world; the city was declared Conjunto Histórico-Artístico in 1983. In 2001 UNESCO listed the Aranjuez Cultural landscape as a World Heritage Site; this was the first extension beyond the Royal Palace, along the south bank of the river Tagus. The royal Church of San Antonio, built by Philip IV of Spain for both public and ceremonial royal use, stands at the southern end of Plaza San Antonio popularly known as Mariblanca, (possibly because it is a'sea' of white sand or mar de arena blanca or else an allusion to the femal
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Maria Josepha of Austria
Maria Josepha of Austria was the last Queen of Poland by marriage to Augustus III. From 1711 to 1717, she was heir presumptive to the Habsburg Empire, her sister Maria Amalia of Austria became Electress of Bavaria. Maria Josepha was born in Vienna, an Archduchess of Austria, the eldest child of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor and Princess Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg, she was named for her father. During the reign of her grandfather, Maria Josepha's father and uncle signed the Mutual Pact of Succession of 1703, issued by her grandfather, Emperor Leopold I, made Maria Josepha the heiress presumptive to her uncle, Emperor Charles VI. A marriage between Maria Josepha and Frederick Augustus II, Elector of Saxony had been suggested by Frederick's father, August II the Strong, since 1704; the fact that Maria Josepha was not allowed to marry a non-Catholic, prevented the marriage. When Augustus converted to Catholicism in 1712, the negotiations became serious. Emperor Charles VI forbade Maria Josepha and her sister from marrying until they renounced their positions in the line of succession, securing the succession for Charles' future daughter Maria Theresa.
Maria Josepha renounced her claim on August 10, 1719. Ten days Maria Josepha and Frederick Augustus married. Through this marriage between the Houses of Wettin and Habsburg, Frederick Augustus II's father hoped to place Saxony in a better position should there arise a war of succession to the Austrian territories; the couple's eldest surviving son, Frederick Christian succeeded his father as Elector of Saxony. In Saxony, the couple lived at Dresden Castle; the marriage has been described as a happy one, Augustus was never unfaithful. In 1733, Frederick Augustus was elected King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as August III the Saxon. Maria Josepha was crowned 20 January 1734. Queen Maria Josepha was described as ambitious and religious, she gave her strong support to the Polish Jesuits. As queen of Poland and electress of Saxony, she divided her time between the two nations. Though Saxony was her main residence, she enjoyed her stays in Poland because it was a Catholic nation where she could exercise her faith openly.
Between November 1734 to February 1736, she and Frederick Augustus made their longest visit to Poland, prolonged because of the War of the Polish Succession. They continued to make frequent trips, lasting from between five and eight months each, plus several shorter trips lasting a couple of months less, she learned to speak Polish and was present during the assemblies of the Polish parliament. During her absences from home, she corresponded with her children in French, having a somewhat closer relationship to them than usual for her class, she encouraged them to write to her in an informal way. She shared an interest in music and hunting with her spouse, they spent their autumns at the Palace of Hubertusburg for the hunting season, she was devoted to Catholicism and venerated Saint Francis Xavier and was involved in the building of the Catholic Hofkirche in Dresden. Her personal confessor, the Jesuit Fr. Anton Hermann, criticized her for being too religious from what was proper for someone not a Catholic religious order member.
She attended mass twice and four times a day and kept more devotions than was normal for a nun or a monk. Fr. Anton Hermann lectured her that she was more fervent than could be regarded as modest for a lay person. Maria Josepha did not persecute non-Catholics, once stressed to the heir to the throne that he should not persecute them but allow them all freedom while being guided by the Catholic faith, she gave alms to both Catholic and Protestant poor. Despite her personal strict moral code, she was not a prude and got along well with her spouse's illegitimate half siblings. Queen Maria Josepha was politically active and, though not formally proclaimed regent during the absence of her spouse, she informally acted as his representative, it was known and acknowledged by the court that she participated in the affairs of state, the ministers and ambassadors duly reported to her. She managed a large diplomatic correspondence, she was rivalled in her influence over her spouse by Heinrich von Brühl. Maria Josepha was not on good terms with her eldest son Frederick Christian.
She wished for her younger son Francis Xavier to be elected king of Poland rather than having Frederick Christian succeed his father on both thrones, she prevented Frederick Christian and his spouse from visiting Poland, thus preventing them from making connections there. She undermined any attempts of Frederick Christian to found a power base of his own before the death of his father, among other things prevented a meeting between him and his spouse with Empress Maria Theresa of Bohemia in 1754. During the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740, she claimed the throne on behalf of her spouse, she relinquished her claim in favor of her sister, Maria Amalia's spouse, in 1742, made an alliance with Austria. During the seven years war, Maria Josepha stayed behind in Dresden with her son, Frederick Christian and his spouse Maria Antonia, after her husband left on 20 October 1756, she remained in Dresden. She, as well as Frederick Christian and his spouse Maria Antonia, were all placed under house arrest at the palace of Dresden