Royal Highness is a style used to address or refer to some members of royal families princes or princesses. Monarchs and their consorts are styled Majesty; when used as a direct form of address, spoken or written, it takes the form "Your Royal Highness". When used as a third-person reference, it is gender-specific and, in plural, Their Royal Highnesses. By the 17th century, all local rulers in Italy adopted the style Highness, once used by kings and emperors only. According to Denis Diderot's Encyclopédie, the style of Royal Highness was created on the insistence of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, Cardinal-Infante of Spain, a younger son of King Philip III of Spain; the Archduke was travelling through Italy on his way to the Low Countries and, upon meeting Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy, refused to address him as Highness unless the Duke addressed him as Royal Highness. Thus, the first use of the style Royal Highness was recorded in 1633. Gaston, Duke of Orléans, younger son of King Henry IV of France, encountered the style in Brussels and assumed it himself.
His children used the style, considering it their prerogative as grandchildren of France. By the 18th century, Royal Highness had become the prevalent style for members of a continental reigning dynasty whose head bore the hereditary title of king or queen; the titles of family members of non-hereditary rulers were less clear, varying until rendered moot in the 19th century. After dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, several of Germany's prince-electors and other now sovereign rulers assumed the title of grand duke and with it, for themselves, their eldest sons and consorts, the style of Royal Highness; the vast majority of African royalty that make use of titles such as prince and sheikh, eschew the attendant styles that one would ordinarily be accustomed to seeing or hearing in accompaniment. In the cases of the aforesaid titles, they only exist as courtesies and may or may not have been recognised by a reigning fons honorum. However, some traditional leaders and their family members use royal styles when acting in their official roles as representatives of sovereign or constituent states, distinguishing their status from others who may use or claim traditional titles.
For example, the Nigerian traditional rulers of the Yoruba are styled using the HRH The X of Y method though they are confusingly known as kings in English and not the princes that the HRH style suggests. The chiefly appellation Kabiyesi is used as the equivalent of the HRH and other such styles by this class of royalty when rendering their full titles in the Yoruba language. Furthermore, the wives of the king of the Zulu peoples, although all entitled to the title of queen, do not share their husband's style of Majesty but instead are each addressed as Royal Highness, with the possible exception of the great wife; the title of Archduke or Archduchess of Austria was known to be complemented with the style of Royal Highness to all non-reigning of the members of the House of Habsburg and the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. Though the Habsburgs held the Imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire, it was nominally an elective office that could not be hereditarily transmitted, so the non-reigning family members took their style from them being members of the hereditary Royal family of Hungary and Bohemia, etc.
This changed when Francis I of Austria dissolved the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, as the Archduchy of Austria was elevated to an Empire in 1804, the members of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine abandoned the style of Royal Highness in favour of the style of Imperial and Royal Highness to reflect the creation of the Empire of Austria. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the Former Empress Marie Louise of France was restored to her Imperial and Royal Style and granted the title of Duchess of Parma and Guastalla, as well as being restored to her premarital title of Archduchess and Imperial Princess of Austria, Royal Princess of Hungary and Bohemia; the title of "Prince/Princess of the Netherlands" with the accompanying style of H. R. H. is or may be granted by law to the following classes of persons: A former monarch upon abdication. The heir apparent to the throne; the husband of the monarch. The spouse of the heir apparent; the legitimate children of the monarch and the wife of any legitimate son of the monarch.
The legitimate children of the heir apparent. A separate title of "Prince/Princess of Orange-Nassau" may be granted by law to members of the Dutch royal house or, as a personal and non-hereditary title to former members of the royal house within three months of loss of membership. A Prince/Princess of Orange-Nassau, not a Prince/Princess of the Netherlands is addressed as "His/Her Highness" without the predicate "royal"; that is the case for example of the children of Princess Margriet, younger daughter of the late Queen Juliana. Members of the royal house or former members of the royal house within 3 months of loss of their membership may be inducted by royal decree into the Dutch nobility with a rank lower than prince/princess and the accompanying style of "His/Her Highborn Lord/Lady"; that is the case for example of the children of the younger brother of King Willem-Alexander, Prince Constantijn, who were given the titles of "Count/Countess of Orange-Nassau" and the
Prince Laurent of Belgium
Prince Laurent of Belgium is the second son and youngest child of King Albert II and Queen Paola, younger brother of King Philippe. Laurent's involvement with animal welfare and the environment, together with a relative lack of interest in protocol, has caused him to be dubbed by elements of the popular Belgian press as écolo-gaffeur, he is 12th in the Belgian line of succession. He had been as high as third in line, but the constitution was amended in 1991 to extend an equal right of succession to women who descend from the dynasty's founder King Leopold I put him behind Princess Astrid and her descendants. Born in the Château de Belvédère near Laeken, Belgium, he was educated at the Royal Cadet High School and at the Royal Military Academy. Prince Laurent and Claire Louise Coombs, born in Bath, but living in Belgium since childhood, were married in Brussels on 12 April 2003. Miss Coombs was given the title of Princess of Belgium upon her marriage; the couple have three children: Princess Louise Prince Nicolas Prince Aymeric Prince Laurent is a godfather to Princess Maria Carolina of Bourbon-Two Siclies, the daughter of Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro, a current pretender to the former throne of Two Sicilies and his wife, Princess Camilla, Duchess of Castro.
In December 2006, Prince Laurent's name surfaced in a corruption scandal in which funds of the Belgian Navy were spent on his residence in Tervuren. Although the investigating magistrates denied that Laurent was implicated, some of the accused have implicated the prince in the press. On 5 January 2007, it became known that King Albert II had signed a royal decree, making it possible for Laurent to be called up as a witness in the corruption trial, to start 8 January. One of the defendants used this to subpoena the prince. During the evening of 8 January, Prince Laurent was interrogated by federal police, appearing in court the following day where he testified at the trial that he had no reason to believe the funding of his renovations could be illegal. Media reports in March 2007 suggested that Laurent was no longer welcome at the Royal Palace due to his role in the corruption scandal. Against this, defenders claim that there is some tradition in the Belgian press and among politicians to focus on shortcomings among members of the Belgian Royal Family.
For example, King Philippe has been pursued for what may be no more than lack of dexterity among some of his advisers. In March 2011, the prince visited the former Belgian colony of the Congo without receiving the required permission; as a result, on 9 April he accepted conditions laid down by Belgian Prime Minister Yves Leterme regarding his future activities. In March 2014, Prince Laurent was hospitalised with depression, he was voluntarily placed in a medically-induced coma on March 25, although he was awakened on 27 March. On 4 April, Queen Paola stated in a letter that Laurent's condition was improving, that she felt he was'the most vulnerable' of her three children, his Royal Highness Prince Laurent of Belgium Prince Laurent does not hold a personal title as younger princes were accustomed to receive in the past. Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold I Germany: Grand Cross 1st Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Hungary: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary Two Sicilian Royal Family: Knight Grand Cross of Justice of the Two Sicilian Royal Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George Sovereign Military Order of Malta: Knight Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, 3rd First Class Luxembourg: Grand Cross of the Order of Adolphe of Nassau Netherlands: Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown Norway: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit Portugal: Grand Cross of the Order of Infante Henry Spain: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Civil Merit Sweden: Commander Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Polar Star Source: www.monarchie.be, Prince Laurent Official biography from the Belgian Royal Family website
Monarchy of Belgium
The monarchy of Belgium is a constitutional and popular monarchy whose incumbent is titled the King or Queen of the Belgians and serves as the country's head of state. There have been seven Belgian monarchs since independence in 1830; the incumbent, ascended the throne on 21 July 2013, following the abdication of his father. When Belgium became independent in 1830 the National Congress chose a constitutional monarchy as the form of government; the Congress voted on the question on 22 November 1830, supporting monarchy by 174 votes to 13. In February 1831, the Congress nominated Louis, Duke of Nemours, the son of the French king Louis-Philippe, but international considerations deterred Louis-Philippe from accepting the honour for his son. Following this refusal, the National Congress appointed Erasme-Louis, Baron Surlet de Chokier to be the Regent of Belgium on 25 February 1831. Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was designated as King of the Belgians by the National Congress and swore allegiance to the Belgian constitution in front of Saint Jacob's Church at Coudenberg Palace in Brussels on 21 July.
This day has since become a national holiday for its citizens. As a hereditary constitutional monarchy system, the role and operation of Belgium's monarchy is governed by the Constitution; the royal office of King is designated for a descendant of the first King of the Belgians, Leopold I. Since he is bound by the Constitution the King is intended to act as an arbiter and guardian of Belgian national unity and independence. Belgium's monarchs are inaugurated in a purely civil swearing-in ceremony; the Kingdom of Belgium was never an absolute monarchy. In 1961, the historian Ramon Arango, wrote that the Belgian monarchy is not "truly constitutional". King Leopold I was head of Foreign Affairs "as an ancien régime monarch", the foreign ministers having the authority to act only as ministers of the king. Leopold I became one of the most important shareholders of the Société Générale de Belgique. Leopold's son, King Leopold II is chiefly remembered for the founding and capitalization of the Congo Free State which caused public resentment when the atrocities perpetrated by the Belgians were made public.
Millions of Congolese were killed as a result of Leopold's policies in the Congo. Neither the Belgian monarchy nor the Belgian state have apologized for these atrocities. On several occasions Leopold II publicly expressed disagreement with the ruling government and was accused by Yvon Gouet of noncompliance with the country's parliamentary system. In a similar manner, Albert I of Belgium would state that he was in command of the Belgian army contrary to his Prime Minister Charles de Broqueville against the Belgian Constitution. Louis Wodon, thought the King's oath to the Constitution implied a royal position "over and above the Constitution", he compared the King to a father, the head of a family, "Regarding the moral mission of the king," said Arango, "it is permissible to point to a certain analogy between his role and that of a father, or more of parents in a family. The family is, of course, a legal institution, but what would a family be where everything was limited among those who compose it to legal relationships?
In a family when one considers only legal relationships one comes close to a breakdown in the moral ties founded on reciprocal affection without which a family would be like any other fragile association" According to Arango, Leopold III of Belgium shared these views about the Belgian monarchy. In 1991, towards the end of the reign of Baudouin, Senator Yves de Wasseige, a former member of the Belgian Constitutional Court, cited four points of democracy which the Belgian Constitution lacks: the King chooses the ministers, the King is able to influence the ministers when he speaks with them about bills and nominations, the King promulgates bills, the King must agree to any change of the Constitution The Belgian monarchy was from the beginning a constitutional monarchy, patterned after that of the United Kingdom. Raymond Fusilier wrote the Belgian regime of 1830 was inspired by the French Constitution of the Kingdom of France, the United States Declaration of Independence of 1776 and the old political traditions of both Walloon and Flemish provinces.
"It should be observed that all monarchies have suffered periods of change as a result of which the power of the sovereign was reduced, but for the most part those periods occurred before the development of the system of constitutional monarchy and were steps leading to its establishment." The characteristic evidence of this is in Great Britain where there was an evolution from the time when kings ruled through the agency of ministers to that time when ministers began to govern through the instrumentality of the Crown. Unlike the British constitutional system, in Belgium "the monarchy underwent a belated evolution" which came "after the establishment of the constitutional monarchical system" because, in 1830–1831, an independent state, parliamentary system and monarchy were established simultaneously. Hans Daalder, professor of political science at the Rijksuniversiteit Leiden wrote: "Did such simultaneous developments not result in a possible failure to lay down the limits of the royal prerogatives with some precision—which implied that the view of the King as the Keeper of the Nation, with rights and duties of its own, retained legitimacy?"For Raymond Fusil
Princess Eléonore of Belgium
Princess Eléonore of Belgium is the second daughter and youngest of four children of King Philippe and Queen Mathilde of Belgium. She is fourth in line to the throne of Belgium after her older siblings, her older siblings are Princess Elisabeth, Duchess of Brabant, Prince Gabriel, Prince Emmanuel. She is youngest grandchild of King Albert II and Queen Paola; the princess was born in 16 April 2008 at 4:50 at the Erasmus Hospital the teaching hospital of Université libre de Bruxelles in Anderlecht. She was baptised on 14 June 2008 in the chapel of Ciergnon Castle in the Belgian Ardennes, by Cardinal Godfried Danneels, the Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels, her godparents are Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, Princess Claire of Belgium, Count Sébastien von Westphalen zu Fürstenberg. Princess Eléonore plays the violin, she likes to practice cycling, swimming and sailing. The Belgian Monarchy official website Birth of Princess Eléonore
Leopold I of Belgium
Leopold I was a German prince who became the first King of the Belgians following the country's independence in 1830. He reigned between July 1831 and December 1865. Born into the ruling family of the small German duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Leopold took a commission in the Imperial Russian Army and fought against Napoleon after French troops overran Saxe-Coburg during the Napoleonic Wars. After Napoleon's defeat, Leopold moved to the United Kingdom where he married Princess Charlotte of Wales, second in line to the British throne and the only legitimate child of the Prince Regent. Charlotte died after only a year of marriage, but Leopold continued to enjoy considerable status in Britain. After the Greek War of Independence, Leopold was offered the crown of Greece but turned it down, believing it to be too precarious. Instead, Leopold accepted the kingship of the newly established Kingdom of Belgium in 1831; the Belgian government offered the position to Leopold because of his diplomatic connections with royal houses across Europe, because as the British-backed candidate, he was not affiliated with other powers, such as France, which were believed to have territorial ambitions in Belgium which might threaten the European balance of power created by the 1815 Congress of Vienna.
Leopold took his oath as King of the Belgians on 21 July 1831, an event commemorated annually as Belgian National Day. His reign was marked by attempts by the Dutch to recapture Belgium and by internal political division between liberals and Catholics; as a Protestant, Leopold was considered liberal and encouraged economic modernisation, playing an important role in encouraging the creation of Belgium's first railway in 1835 and subsequent industrialisation. As a result of the ambiguities in the Belgian Constitution, Leopold was able to expand the monarch's powers during his reign, he played an important role in stopping the spread of the Revolutions of 1848 into Belgium. He died in 1865 and was succeeded by his son, Leopold II. Leopold was born in Coburg in the tiny German duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld in modern-day Bavaria on 16 December 1790, he was the youngest son of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Countess Augusta Reuss-Ebersdorf. In 1826, Saxe-Coburg acquired the city of Gotha from the neighboring Duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and gave up Saalfeld to Saxe-Meiningen, becoming Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Ln 1795, at just five years old, Leopold was given an honorary commission of the rank of colonel in the Izmaylovsky Regiment, part of the Imperial Guard, in the Imperial Russian Army. Seven years he received a promotion to the rank of Major General; when French troops occupied the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars, Leopold went to Paris where he became part of the Imperial Court of Napoleon. Napoleon offered him the position of adjutant. Instead, he went to Russia to take up a military career in the Imperial Russian cavalry, at war with France at the time, he campaigned against Napoleon and distinguished himself at the Battle of Kulm at the head of his cuirassier division. By 1815, the time of the final defeat of Napoleon, he had reached the rank of lieutenant general at only 25 years of age. Leopold received British citizenship in 1815. On 2 May 1816, Leopold married Princess Charlotte of Wales at Carlton House in London. Charlotte was the only legitimate child of the Prince Regent George and therefore second in line to the British throne.
Charlotte had been engaged to the Prince of Orange, but finding him distasteful, broke it off in favour of Leopold. The Prince Regent was displeased, but found Leopold to be charming and possessing every quality to make his daughter happy, thus approving of their marriage; the same year he received an honorary commission to the rank of Field Marshal and Knight of the Order of the Garter. On 5 November 1817, after having suffered a miscarriage, Princess Charlotte gave birth to a stillborn son, she herself died the next day following complications. Leopold was said to have been heartbroken by her death. Had Charlotte survived, she would have become queen of the United Kingdom on the death of her father and Leopold would have assumed the role of prince consort taken by his nephew Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Despite Charlotte's death, the Prince Regent granted Prince Leopold the British style of Royal Highness by Order in Council on 6 April 1818. From 1828 to 1829, Leopold had an affair with the actress Caroline Bauer, who bore a striking resemblance to Charlotte.
Caroline was a cousin of his advisor Baron Christian Friedrich von Stockmar. She came to England with her mother and took up residence at Longwood House, a few miles from Claremont House. But, by mid-1829, the liaison was over, the actress and her mother returned to Berlin. Many years in memoirs published after her death, she declared that she and Leopold had engaged in a morganatic marriage and that he had bestowed upon her the title of Countess Montgomery, he would have broken this marriage. The son of Baron Stockmar denied that these events happened, indeed no records have been found of a civil or religious marriage with the actress. Following a Greek rebellion against the Ottoman Empire, Leopold was offered the throne of an independent Greece as part of the London Protocol of February 1830. Though showing interest in the position, Leopold turned down the offer on 17 May 1830; the role would subsequently be accepted by Otto of Wittelsbach in May 1832 who ruled until he was deposed in October 1862.
At the end of August 1830, rebels
Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este
Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este is a grandson of King Albert II of Belgium, thus a member of the Belgian Royal Family. He is heir to the headship of the House of Austria-Este, a cadet branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, is sixth in line to the throne of Belgium. Amedeo was born on 21 February 1986 at the Saint-Luc University Hospital in Woluwe-Saint-Lambert, Belgium, as the first child and elder son of Lorenz, Archduke of Austria-Este, Princess Astrid of Belgium, he bears the same given name as Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta. His godparents are grandmother Queen Paola of Belgium. Amedeo himself is godfather to Princess Elisabeth, Duchess of Brabant. Amedeo has one younger brother and three younger sisters: Maria Laura, Luisa Maria and Laetitia Maria, he was married by the Archbishop of Mechelen, Cardinal Danneels. Amedeo undertook primary school and the greater part of his secondary education at the Jesuit school Sint-Jan Berchmanscollege in Brussels, popular with Belgian aristocracy and royalty.
He finished his secondary education at Sevenoaks School in Kent, between 2001 and 2004. He spent a year in Belgium's Royal Military Academy. In September 2005, he began studies at the London School of Economics, where he graduated in 2008 with a "Bachelor of Science, Management", took a sabbatical before entering professional life. From July 2009 to June 2012, Amedeo worked for Deloitte in New York City, first as a business analyst from July 2009 to June 2011 as a management consultant in strategy and operations from July 2011 to June 2012, he worked as a research analyst intern at Accumulus Capital Management, LLC from August through December 2012. During 2013 and 2014, Amedeo resumed his studies, obtaining a Master of Business Administration at the Columbia Business School of Columbia University, he subsequently returned to Belgium, where he worked for McKinsey & Company in Brussels from September 2014 to September 2016. In January 2017, he began working at the Gutzwiller private bank in Basel, where his father is a partner.
On 15 February 2014, the Belgian Royal Court announced the engagement of Prince Amedeo to an Italian journalist, Nobile Elisabetta "Lili" Maria Rosboch von Wolkenstein. Amedeo and Elisabetta both descend from Don Giuseppe Tiberio Ruffo di Calabria-Santapau, 2nd Prince of Palazzolo, Count of Sinopoli, while through German princely dynasties their most recent common ancestor is Franz Albrecht I, Prince of Oettingen-Spielberg; the couple's wedding was celebrated on 5 July 2014 in Rome's Basilica Santa Maria in Trastevere, in the presence of the Royal Family of Belgium, as well as members of the cadet branches of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, including the bridegroom's grandmother, Margherita of Savoy, Dowager Archduchess of Austria-Este, members of other dynasties, including Princess Margaretha of Luxembourg and her husband Prince Nikolaus of Liechtenstein, Princess Beatrice of York and Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon. The couple were planning to relocate in Belgium after the wedding. In April 2016, it was announced that the couple were expecting their first child, due to be born in May of that year.
Their daughter, Anna Astrid, was born on 17 May 2016 at Saint-Pierre University Hospital in Brussels. In 1991, Amedeo obtained, along with his mother and younger siblings, succession rights to the Belgian throne. In 1993, his maternal grandfather acceded to the throne as King Albert II and he became third in Belgium's line of succession, following his uncle Philippe, Duke of Brabant, his mother. Upon Philippe's marriage in 1999, the prospect of Amedeo inheriting the throne diminished, the birth of a daughter and dynastic heir to Philippe in 2001 dropped his place in the order of succession down to fourth and to seventh, following the birth of Philippe's other children; the abdication on 21 July 2013 of his grandfather King Albert II promoted him to sixth in line to the throne. Although an announcement of Amedeo's engagement was published on the Royal Family's website, no dynastic authorisation for his marriage was published prior to his wedding, as foreseen in Article 85 of the Belgian Constitution.
Speculation in the media included a commentator on the military parade for La Une who, on 21 July 2014, alleged that no royal authorisation was announced because the prince intentionally chose not to request permission to marry, therefore Amedeo was no longer deemed in the line of succession. In November 2015, a royal decree expressing King Philippe's retroactive permission for the marriage was gazetted in the Moniteur Belge. 21 February 1986 – 2 December 1991: His Imperial and Royal Highness Archduke Amedeo of Austria-Este 2 December 1991 – present: His Imperial and Royal Highness Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, Prince of ModenaAll the children of Princess Astrid and Archduke Lorenz bear the title of "Prince of Belgium" by Belgian Royal Decree of 2 December 1991, distinct from their traditional Austro-Hungarian titles, i.e. "Archduke/Archduchess of Austria-Este, Prince Royal of Hungary". Internationally, his abbreviated style is HI&RH Prince Amedeo of Archduke of Austria-Este.
2004-2005 Royal Military Academy 2005 Para-commando Training: Parachutist Badge September 2005 – September 2007: Belgian Land Component, Warrant-Officer as Candidate-officer, after his formation at Royal Mil
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, organ, or organism. More it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals; the field encompasses drug composition and properties and drug design and cellular mechanisms, organ/systems mechanisms, signal transduction/cellular communication, molecular diagnostics, toxicology, chemical biology and medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities. The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics studies the effects of a drug on biological systems, Pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on a drug. In broad terms, pharmacodynamics discusses the chemicals with biological receptors, pharmacokinetics discusses the absorption, distribution and excretion of chemicals from the biological systems.
Pharmacology is not synonymous with pharmacy and the two terms are confused. Pharmacology, a biomedical science, deals with the research and characterization of chemicals which show biological effects and the elucidation of cellular and organismal function in relation to these chemicals. In contrast, pharmacy, a health services profession, is concerned with application of the principles learned from pharmacology in its clinical settings. In either field, the primary contrast between the two are their distinctions between direct-patient care, for pharmacy practice, the science-oriented research field, driven by pharmacology; the origins of clinical pharmacology date back to the Middle Ages in Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, Peter of Spain's Commentary on Isaac, John of St Amand's Commentary on the Antedotary of Nicholas. Clinical pharmacology owes much of its foundation to the work of William Withering. Pharmacology as a scientific discipline did not further advance until the mid-19th century amid the great biomedical resurgence of that period.
Before the second half of the nineteenth century, the remarkable potency and specificity of the actions of drugs such as morphine and digitalis were explained vaguely and with reference to extraordinary chemical powers and affinities to certain organs or tissues. The first pharmacology department was set up by Rudolf Buchheim in 1847, in recognition of the need to understand how therapeutic drugs and poisons produced their effects. Early pharmacologists focused on natural substances plant extracts. Pharmacology developed in the 19th century as a biomedical science that applied the principles of scientific experimentation to therapeutic contexts. Today pharmacologists use genetics, molecular biology and other advanced tools to transform information about molecular mechanisms and targets into therapies directed against disease, defects or pathogens, create methods for preventative care and personalized medicine; the word "pharmacology" is derived from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "drug, spell" and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of".
The discipline of pharmacology can be divided into many sub disciplines each with a specific focus. Clinical pharmacology is the basic science of pharmacology with an added focus on the application of pharmacological principles and methods in the medical clinic and towards patient care and outcomes. Neuropharmacology is the study of the effects of medication on central and peripheral nervous system functioning. Psychopharmacology known as behavioral pharmacology, is the study of the effects of medication on the psyche, observing changed behaviors of the body and mind, how molecular events are manifest in a measurable behavioral form. Psychopharmacology is an interdisciplinary field which studies behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs, it incorporates approaches and techniques from neuropharmacology, animal behavior and behavioral neuroscience, is interested in the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of action of psychoactive drugs. Another goal of behavioral pharmacology is to develop animal behavioral models to screen chemical compounds with therapeutic potentials.
People in this field use small animals to study psychotherapeutic drugs such as antipsychotics and anxiolytics, drugs of abuse such as nicotine and methamphetamine. Ethopharmacology is a term, in use since the 1960s and derives from the Greek word ἦθος ethos meaning character and "pharmacology" the study of drug actions and mechanism. Cardiovascular pharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on the entire cardiovascular system, including the heart and blood vessels. Pharmacogenetics is clinical testing of genetic variation that gives rise to differing response to drugs. Pharmacogenomics is the application of genomic technologies to drug discovery and further characterization of older drugs. Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of the effects of drugs in large numbers of people. Safety pharmacology specialises in detecting and investigating potential undesirable pharmacodynamic effects of new chemical entities on physiological functions in relation to exposure in the therapeutic range and above.
Systems pharmacology is