Albert, Prince Consort
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the husband of Queen Victoria. He was born in the Saxon duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, to a family connected to many of Europe's ruling monarchs. At the age of 20, he married Queen Victoria, he felt constrained by his role of prince consort, which did not afford him power or responsibilities. He developed a reputation for supporting public causes, such as educational reform and the abolition of slavery worldwide, was entrusted with running the Queen's household and estates, he was involved with the organisation of the Great Exhibition of 1851, a resounding success. Victoria came to depend more on his support and guidance, he aided the development of Britain's constitutional monarchy by persuading his wife to be less partisan in her dealings with Parliament—although he disagreed with the interventionist foreign policy pursued during Lord Palmerston's tenure as Foreign Secretary. Albert died at the young age of 42. Victoria was so devastated at the loss of her husband that she entered into a deep state of mourning and wore black for the rest of her life.
On her death in 1901, their eldest son succeeded as Edward VII, the first British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, named after the ducal house to which Albert belonged. Albert was born at Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, the second son of Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, his first wife, Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Albert's future wife, was born earlier in the same year with the assistance of the same midwife, Charlotte von Siebold. Albert was baptised into the Lutheran Evangelical Church on 19 September 1819 in the Marble Hall at Schloss Rosenau with water taken from the local river, the Itz, his godparents were the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. In 1825, Albert's great-uncle, Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, died, his death led to a realignment of Saxon duchies the following year and Albert's father became the first reigning duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Albert and his elder brother, spent their youth in a close companionship marred by their parents' turbulent marriage and eventual separation and divorce.
After their mother was exiled from court in 1824, she married her lover, Alexander von Hanstein, Count of Polzig and Beiersdorf. She never saw her children again, died of cancer at the age of 30 in 1831; the following year, their father married his sons' cousin Princess Marie of Württemberg. The brothers were educated at home by Christoph Florschütz and studied in Brussels, where Adolphe Quetelet was one of their tutors. Like many other German princes, Albert attended the University of Bonn, where he studied law, political economy and the history of art, he played music and excelled at sport fencing and riding. His tutors at Bonn included the poet Schlegel; the idea of marriage between Albert and his cousin, was first documented in an 1821 letter from his paternal grandmother, the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, who said that he was "the pendant to the pretty cousin". By 1836, this idea had arisen in the mind of their ambitious uncle Leopold, King of the Belgians since 1831. At this time, Victoria was the heir presumptive to the British throne.
Her father, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III, had died when she was a baby, her elderly uncle, King William IV, had no legitimate children. Her mother, the Duchess of Kent, was the sister of both Albert's father—the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha—and King Leopold. Leopold arranged for his sister, Victoria's mother, to invite the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and his two sons to visit her in May 1836, with the purpose of meeting Victoria. William IV, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander, second son of the Prince of Orange. Victoria was well aware of the various matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes, she wrote, " is handsome. Alexander, on the other hand, she described as "very plain". Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold to thank him "for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of dear Albert... He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me happy."
Although the parties did not undertake a formal engagement, both the family and their retainers assumed that the match would take place. Victoria came to the throne aged eighteen on 20 June 1837, her letters of the time show interest in Albert's education for the role he would have to play, although she resisted attempts to rush her into marriage. In the winter of 1838–39, the prince visited Italy, accompanied by the Coburg family's confidential adviser, Baron Stockmar. Albert returned to the United Kingdom with Ernest in October 1839 to visit the Queen, with the objective of settling the marriage. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839. Victoria's intention to marry was declared formally to the Privy Council on 23 November, the couple married on
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of the Government of India. The foundation stone of the city was laid by Emperor George V during the Delhi Durbar of 1911, it was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General of India Lord Irwin. Although colloquially Delhi and New Delhi are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi forming a small part of Delhi; the National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire NCT along with adjoining districts in neighboring states. Calcutta was the capital of India during the British Raj, until December 1911. Calcutta had become the centre of the nationalist movements since the late nineteenth century, which led to the Partition of Bengal by Viceroy of British India, Lord Curzon; this created massive political and religious upsurge including political assassinations of British officials in Calcutta.
The anti-colonial sentiments amongst the public led to complete boycott of British goods, which forced the colonial government to reunite Bengal and shift the capital to New Delhi. Old Delhi had served as the political and financial centre of several empires of ancient India and the Delhi Sultanate, most notably of the Mughal Empire from 1649 to 1857. During the early 1900s, a proposal was made to the British administration to shift the capital of the British Indian Empire, as India was named, from Calcutta on the east coast, to Delhi; the Government of British India felt that it would be logistically easier to administer India from Delhi, in the centre of northern India. The land for building the new city of Delhi was acquired under the Land Acquisition Act 1894. During the Delhi Durbar on 12 December 1911, George V Emperor of India, along with Queen Mary, his consort, made the announcement that the capital of the Raj was to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, while laying the foundation stone for the Viceroy's residence in the Coronation Park, Kingsway Camp.
The foundation stone of New Delhi was laid by King George V and Queen Mary at the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911 at Kingsway Camp on 15 December 1911, during their imperial visit. Large parts of New Delhi were planned by Edwin Lutyens, who first visited Delhi in 1912, Herbert Baker, both leading 20th-century British architects; the contract was given to Sobha Singh. The original plan called for its construction in Tughlaqabad, inside the Tughlaqabad fort, but this was given up because of the Delhi-Calcutta trunk line that passed through the fort. Construction began after World War I and was completed by 1931; the city, dubbed "Lutyens' Delhi" was inaugurated in ceremonies beginning on 10 February 1931 by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy. Lutyens designed the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial aspirations. Soon Lutyens started considering other places. Indeed, the Delhi Town Planning Committee, set up to plan the new imperial capital, with George Swinton as chairman, John A. Brodie and Lutyens as members, submitted reports for both North and South sites.
However, it was rejected by the Viceroy when the cost of acquiring the necessary properties was found to be too high. The central axis of New Delhi, which today faces east at India Gate, was meant to be a north-south axis linking the Viceroy's House at one end with Paharganj at the other. Owing to space constraints and the presence of a large number of heritage sites in the North side, the committee settled on the South site. A site atop the Raisina Hill Raisina Village, a Meo village, was chosen for the Rashtrapati Bhawan known as the Viceroy's House; the reason for this choice was that the hill lay directly opposite the Dinapanah citadel, considered the site of Indraprastha, the ancient region of Delhi. Subsequently, the foundation stone was shifted from the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911–1912, where the Coronation Pillar stood, embedded in the walls of the forecourt of the Secretariat; the Rajpath known as King's Way, stretched from the India Gate to the Rashtrapati Bhawan. The Secretariat building, the two blocks of which flank the Rashtrapati Bhawan and houses ministries of the Government of India, the Parliament House, both designed by Baker, are located at the Sansad Marg and run parallel to the Rajpath.
In the south, land up to Safdarjung's Tomb was acquired to create what is today known as Lutyens' Bungalow Zone. Before construction could begin on the rocky ridge of Raisina Hill, a circular railway line around the Council House, called the Imperial Delhi Railway, was built to transport construction material and workers for the next twenty years; the last stumbling block was the Agra-Delhi railway line that cut right through the site earmarked for the hexagonal All-India War Memorial and Kingsway, a problem because the Old Delhi Railway Station served the entire city at that time. The line was shifted to run along the Yamuna river, it began operating in 1924; the New Delhi Railway Station opened in 1926, with a single platform at Ajmeri Gate near Paharganj, was completed in time for the city's inauguration in 1931. As construction of the Viceroy's House, Central Secretariat, Parliament House, All-India War Memorial was winding down, the building of a shopping district and a new plaza, Connaught Place, began in 1929, was completed by 1933.
Named after Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught, it was designed by Robert Tor Russell, chief architect to the P
Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale
Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, was the eldest child of the Prince and Princess of Wales and grandson of the reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria. From the time of his birth, he was second in the line of succession to the British throne, but never became king because he died before his father and grandmother. Albert Victor was known to his family, many biographers, as "Eddy"; when young, he travelled the world extensively as a naval cadet, as an adult he joined the British Army, but did not undertake any active military duties. After two unsuccessful courtships, he was engaged to be married to Princess Mary of Teck in late 1891. A few weeks he died during an influenza pandemic. Mary married his younger brother, who became King George V in 1910. Albert Victor's intellect and mental health have been the subject of speculation. Rumours in his time linked him with the Cleveland Street scandal, which involved a homosexual brothel, but there is no conclusive evidence that he went there or was homosexual.
Some authors have argued that he was the serial killer known as Jack the Ripper, but contemporary documents show that Albert Victor could not have been in London at the time of the murders, the claim is dismissed. Albert Victor was born two months prematurely on 8 January 1864 at Frogmore House, Berkshire, he was the first child of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, his wife Alexandra of Denmark. Following his grandmother Queen Victoria's wishes, he was named Albert Victor, after herself and her late husband, Albert; as a grandchild of the reigning British monarch in the male line and a son of the Prince of Wales, he was formally styled His Royal Highness Prince Albert Victor of Wales from birth. He was christened Albert Victor Christian Edward in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 10 March 1864 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Longley, but was known informally as "Eddy", his godparents were Queen Victoria, King Christian IX of Denmark, King Leopold I of Belgium, the Dowager Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Landgrave of Hesse, the Crown Princess of Prussia and Prince Alfred.
When Albert Victor was just short of seventeen months old, his brother, Prince George of Wales, was born on 3 June 1865. Given the closeness in age of the two royal brothers, they were educated together. In 1871, the Queen appointed John Neale Dalton as their tutor; the two princes were given a strict programme of study, which included games and military drills as well as academic subjects. Dalton complained that Albert Victor's mind was "abnormally dormant". Though he learned to speak Danish, progress in other languages and subjects was slow. Sir Henry Ponsonby thought. Albert Victor never excelled intellectually. Possible physical explanations for Albert Victor's inattention or indolence in class include absence seizures or his premature birth, which can be associated with learning difficulties, but Lady Geraldine Somerset blamed Albert Victor's poor education on Dalton, whom she considered uninspiring. Separating the brothers for the remainder of their education was considered, but Dalton advised the Prince of Wales against splitting them up as "Prince Albert Victor requires the stimulus of Prince George's company to induce him to work at all."
In 1877, the two boys were sent to HMS Britannia. They began their studies there two months behind the other cadets as Albert Victor contracted typhoid fever, for which he was treated by Sir William Gull. Dalton accompanied them as chaplain to the ship. In 1879, after a great deal of discussion between the Queen, the Prince of Wales, their households and the Government, the royal brothers were sent as naval cadets on a three-year world tour aboard HMS Bacchante. Albert Victor was rated midshipman on his sixteenth birthday, they toured the British Empire, accompanied by Dalton, visiting the Americas, the Falkland Islands, South Africa, Fiji, the Far East, Ceylon, Egypt, the Holy Land and Greece. They acquired tattoos in Japan. By the time they returned to Britain, Albert Victor was eighteen; the brothers were parted in 1883. At Bachelor's Cottage, Albert Victor was expected to cram before arriving at university in the company of Dalton, French instructor Monsieur Hua, a newly chosen tutor/companion James Kenneth Stephen.
Some biographers have said that Stephen was a misogynist, although this has been questioned, he may have felt attached to Albert Victor, but whether or not his feelings were overtly homosexual is open to question. Stephen was optimistic about tutoring the prince, but by the time the party were to move to Cambridge had concluded, "I do not think he can derive much benefit from attending lectures at Cambridge... He hardly knows the meaning of the words to read". At the start of the new term in October, Albert Victor and Lieutenant Henderson from Bacchante moved to Nevile's Court at Trinity College, generally
Windlesham is a village in the Surrey Heath borough of Surrey and civil parish that covers Bagshot and Lightwater in the same borough. Its name derives from the Windle Brook which runs south of the village into Chobham and the common suffix'ham', the Old English word for'homestead'. Today Windlesham has a main clustered community with various clubs; the main public parkland is linked by footpath across the M3 motorway cutting across the south of the parish, Windlesham Arboretum. Passing through its north is the A30, two nearby train stations and Heathrow Airport make the settlement economically a commuter village, it has St John the Baptist, the Windlesham Club and Theatre and six public houses. A few large companies of late-20th-century origin have based themselves in Windlesham, including Rainbow Play Systems and the Linde Group; the neighbourhood has yielded bronze implements, now in the Archaeological Society's Museum, a certain number of neolithic flints. Windlesham was once a small community within Windsor Great Park, built as a remote farming settlement around undulating heath, similar to Sunninghill.
At Ribs Down in the north in private Updown Court and adjoining gardens land reaches 99 metres above sea level with a minimum descent of 31 metres, ranking 35th of 36 Surrey hills listed in the national hill-climbing database and the tallest private hill in Surrey. This corner of the county appears, from absence of notice in Domesday, to have been sparsely inhabited. Of Windlesham, Malden wrote: The old road had been the source of great prosperity in Bagshot till it was superseded by the railway. Thirty coaches a day passed through, there were many inns, since closed; the most interesting history of the place is in connexion with Windsor Forest, its bailiwick in Surrey. The tenure of Bagshot in the Red Book of the Exchequer is per serjentiam veltrariae, i.e. providing a leash of hounds. The history is full of the exploits of highwaymen, who found the wild country hereabouts specially favourable for their purposes; the Inclosure Act of 1812 inclosed much of Bagshot Heath, inclosed the common fields of Windlesham.
Inclosure had begun before, for in 1768 the lords of the manors and the freeholders gave land inclosed from the waste for charitable purposes. Windlesham Manor appears among the manors granted to Westminster by Edward the Confessor in his foundation charter, it was transferred to the small local Broomhall Convent at an unknown date. Newark Priory had a grant of land in Windlesham in 1256, had the advowson of the church. Joan Rawlyns, Prioress of Broomhall, made a voluntary surrender of the property of her house in 1522 before the 1538 Dissolution of the Monasteries. In the next year Windlesham was granted to St. John's College, who still held it in 1911In 1911 the village was, due to Surrey Heath, described as entirely modern, in much the same way as Wentworth, Surrey's landscape was tamed at the turn of the 20th century, being heather and fern and ideal for grass and laid out evergreen trees; the village is known for the Lilly Research Centre, built to the north of the village. The BOC Group was based in the village, but was bought by Linde plc in September 2006.
There are four schools in the Windlesham area, two of which are in the village itself: Windlesham Village Infants School. Woodcote House School is in the area; the Field of Remembrance is owned and run by the village community. The land was purchased from Admiral Cochrane in 1950 as a permanent memorial to the men and women of the village who lost their lives in the two World Wars, it includes a play area. Many village events take place on the field, one of the most well known being the annual Windlesham Village Fete; the field is used by Windlesham Football Club. In the summer months it is used by local cricket clubs. A Remembrance day service is hosted at the field with the Windlesham branch of the Royal British Legion. Children from Windlesham Village Infant School attend and lay a wreath, along with a member of the Royal British Legion and the Chair of the Windlesham Field of Remembrance Committee; the WFoR committee are raising funds to replace the current dilapidated pavilion building. Windlesham is known for its annual pram race in which teams race around the village stopping at every pub.
This happens every Boxing Day. The race starts at 10:30am at the old headquarters of The BOC Group now Linde Group; the finish and prize giving is held at the Windlesham Theatre. Funds raised though entry fees and coin collections on the day are distributed to local charities and good causes. Windlesham has Windle Valley Runners, suitable for all standards of runner; the club meets every Tuesday and Sunday for group training sessions and group runs, which take place in Windlesham and the surrounding areas. Windle Valley Runners compete in the winter Thames Valley Cross Country League, they organise a monthly 10K race for members. Windlesham Drama Group is based at Theatre. There are three shows a year including a pantomime and two plays. In April 2017, the village was set to become a hedgehog friendly village, reported to be one of a handful of such villages in the United Kingdom. Valley End is a hamlet and chapelry in the Borough of Surrey Heath in Surrey, England 0.5 miles east of Windlesham, so is about 15 minutes drive from the South West Main Line at Woking to the southeast and from Sunningdale on t
Embassy of Germany, London
The Embassy of Germany in London is the diplomatic mission of Germany in the United Kingdom. The embassy is located in Belgravia, it occupies three of the original terraced houses in Belgrave Square and a late 20th-century extension. The Prussian Consul-General was housed at 9 Carlton House Terrace in the so-called Prussia House. After World War II Prussia House was requisitioned as enemy property and the Federal Republic of Germany moved its consulate and diplomatic operations to Belgrave Square, still operating as a Consulate General; the Consulate became a functional Embassy in June 1951, the FRG leasing the building for 99 years in 1953. In the 1970s, office space in the embassy was tight so an extension was erected at Chesham Place, inaugurated in 1978, it won the Westminster City Council prize for architecture. In 1990, after German reunification, the East German embassy building at 34 Belgrave Square became part of the German embassy. 1701–1703 Balthasar Heinrich von Nischwitz 1714–1718 Georg Sigismund Nostitz Karl Georg Friedrich von Flemming 1702 Ernst August von Platen-Hallermund 1713–1714 Gerhard Nath 1714–1719 Hermann von Petkum 1715–1716 Franz Ludwig Viktor Effern 1715 Hermann Beveren 1692: Opening of diplomatic mission 17??–1739: Johann Franz von Haslang 1739–1783: Joseph Franz Xaver von Haslang 1783–1803: Siegmund von Haslang 1800–1801: Franz Gabriel von Bray 1804–1814: Interruption of diplomatic relations, due to alliance with France during Napoleonic Wars 1814–1822: Christian Hubert Pfeffel von Kriegelstein 1822–1833: August Baron de Cetto 1833–1835: Franz Oliver von Jenison-Walworth 1835–1867: August Baron de Cetto 1868–1871: Ferdinand von Hompesch-Bollheim 1871: Closure of Legation 1604 Hans von Bodeck 1651–1655: 1655–16??: Johann Friedrich Schlezer 1671–1675: Lorenz Georg von Krockow 1675–1678: Otto von Schwerin 1678–1682: 1682–1685: Pierre de Falaiseau 1685–1686: Johann von Besser 16??–16??: Wolfgang von Schmettau 16??–1688: Samuel von Schmettau 1688–1697: Thomas Ernst von Danckelmann 1697–1698: Friedrich Bogislaw Dobrženský von Dobrženitz 1698–1699: Christoph I. zu Dohna-Schlodien 1700–1700: David Ancillon the Younger 1707–1710: Ezechiel von Spanheim 1711–1712: Johann August Marschall von Bieberstein 1712–1719: Ludwig-Friedrich Bonnet de Saint-Germain 1719–1726: Johann Christoph Julius Ernst von Wallenrodt 1726–1730: Benjamin Friedrich von Reichenbach 1730–1733: Christoph Martin von Degenfeld-Schonburg 1733–1737: Caspar Wilhelm von Borcke 1737–1742: 1742–1744: Count Karl-Wilhelm Finck von Finckenstein 1744–1748: 1748–1750: Joachim Wilhelm von Klinggräff 1750–1758: Abraham Louis Michell, Geschäftsträger 1758–1760: Dodo Heinrich zu Innhausen und Knyphausen 1760–1764: Abraham Louis Michell 1764-1766: 1766–1780: Joachim Carl von Maltzan 1780–1788: Spiridion von Lusi 1788–1790: Philipp Karl von Alvensleben 1790–1792: Sigismund Ehrenreich Johann von Redern 1792–1807: Constans Philipp Wilhelm von Jacobi-Klöst 1807–1815: 1815–1817: Constans Philipp Wilhelm von Jacobi-Klöst 1817–1818: Wilhelm von Humboldt 1818–1821: vacant 1821–1824: Heinrich von Werther 1824–1827: Bogislaw von Maltzan 1827–1841: Heinrich von Bülow 1841–1854: Christian Charles Josias Bunsen 1854–1861: Albrecht von Bernstorff 1861–1862: vacant 1862–1873: Albrecht von Bernstorff Albrecht von Bernstorff Albrecht von Bernstorff Georg Herbert zu Münster Paul von Hatzfeldt Paul Wolff Metternich Adolf Marschall von Bieberstein Karl Max, Prince Lichnowsky diplomatic relations disrupted due to World War I Friedrich Sthamer Konstantin von Neurath Leopold von Hoesch Leopold von Hoesch Joachim von Ribbentrop Herbert von Dirksen diplomatic relations disrupted due to World War II 1959 Kurt Wolf 1963 1963 Jost Prescher 1965 Representative at the Chamber of Commerce 1965 Erich Rennstein 1967 1967 Dieter Butters 1971 1971 Erich Albrecht 1971 Karl Heinz Kern 1980 1984 Gerhard Lindner 1989 Joachim Mitdank 1990 Hans Schlange-Schöningen Hans Heinrich Herwarth von Bittenfeld Hasso von Etzdorf Herbert Blankenhorn Karl-Günther von Hase Hans Helmut Ruethe Jürgen Ruhfus Rüdiger von Wechmar Hermann von Richthofen Peter Hartmann Jürgen Oesterhelt Gebhardt von Moltke Hans-Friedrich von Ploetz Thomas Matussek Wolfgang Ischinger Georg Boomgaarden Peter Ammon Peter Wittig Official site German Foreign Office
This is a list of those who have held the title Princess of the United Kingdom from the accession of George I in 1714. This article deals with both princesses of the blood royal and women who become princesses upon marriage; the use of the title of Princess of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is at the will of the sovereign. Individuals holding the title of princess are styled "Her Royal Highness". Since George V's Letters Patent of 30 November 1917, the title "Princess" and the use of the style "Royal Highness" has been restricted to the following persons: the legitimate daughters of a British sovereign, the legitimate male line granddaughters of a British sovereign, the wife of a British prince. On 31 December 2012, Elizabeth II issued letters patent enabling all children of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales to enjoy the princely title and style of Royal Highness, as opposed to only the eldest son. Under the current practice, princesses of the blood royal are the legitimate daughters and the legitimate male line granddaughters of a British Sovereign.
They are dynasts, potential successors to the throne. For these individuals, the title "Princess of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" and the style "Her Royal Highness" is an entitlement for life; the title Princess and the style Royal Highness is prefixed to the Christian name, before another title of honour. From 1714 until 1917, the male-line great granddaughters of the Sovereign were titled "Princess of Great Britain and Ireland" with the style "Highness". Since 1917, the male-line great granddaughters of the Sovereign have held "the style and title enjoyed by the children of dukes". For example, the daughters of the current Duke of Gloucester, a male line grandson of George V, are styled The Lady Davina Lewis and The Lady Rose Gilman. Princesses by marriage are the recognised wives of the Sovereign's sons and male-line grandsons; these women are entitled to the style "Royal Highness" by virtue of marriage, retain the style if widowed. However, Queen Elizabeth II issued Letters Patent dated 21 August 1996 stating that any woman divorced from a Prince of the United Kingdom would no longer be entitled to the style "Royal Highness".
This has so far applied to Diana, Princess of Wales, Sarah, Duchess of York. Since the passage of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, there have been several instances in which princes of the blood contracted marriages in contravention of that act and several instances in which the Sovereign withheld the style "Her Royal Highness" from a prince's wife deemed to be unsuitable. For example, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, a male-line grandson of George III, married Sarah Louisa Fairbrother, in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act. Although morganatic marriage did not exist in British law, the duke's wife was never titled the Duchess of Cambridge or accorded the style "Her Royal Highness". Instead, she was known as "Mrs FitzGeorge". Most famously, George VI issued Letters Patent dated 27 May 1937 that entitled The Duke of Windsor "to hold and enjoy for himself only the title style or attribute of Royal Highness so however that his wife and descendants if any shall not hold the said title style or attribute".
The wife of a prince of the blood takes her husband's Christian name in her title as do all married royal women. For example, upon her marriage to Prince Michael of Kent in 1978, Baroness Marie-Christine von Reibnitz assumed the title and style of "Her Royal Highness Princess Michael of Kent". Upon her marriage to Prince Richard of Gloucester, the former Birgitte van Deurs assumed the title and style of "Her Royal Highness Princess Richard of Gloucester"; the situation is different when a woman is married to a prince who happens to be a peer or the Prince of Wales. Upon marriage, the wife of the Prince of Wales becomes "Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales". Upon marriage, the wife of a royal duke becomes "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of X"; when Prince Richard of Gloucester succeeded to his father's dukedom in 1974, his wife became "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Gloucester". It has been traditional, is still technically the case, that a princess by marriage cannot be called Princess followed by her first name.
Diana, Princess of Wales, was referred to as "Princess Diana" by fans and the media but the use of this title is erroneous as she was not the child of a monarch nor the child of a son of a monarch. However, this tradition was broken once in the past century with Queen Elizabeth's aunt, Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester being referred to in official sources as such following the death of her husband; the use of the titles prince and princess and the styles of Highness and Royal Highness for members of the Royal Family is of recent usage in the British Isles. Before 1714, there was no settled practice regarding the use of the titles prince and princess other than the heir apparent and his wife. From 1301 onward, the eldest sons of the Kings of England have been created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, their wives were titled Princess of Wales. The title Princess Royal came into being in 1642 when Queen Henrietta Maria, the French-born wife of Charles I, wished to imitate the way the eldest daughter of the French King was styled.
However, there was no settled practice on the use of the title princess for the Sovereign's younger daughters or male-line granddaughters. For example, as late as the time of Charles II, the daughters of his brother James, Duke of York, both of whom became Queens regnant, were called "The Lady Mary" and "The Lady Anne"; the future Queen Anne was styled