Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark
Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark was the Queen of Sweden as the spouse of King Charles XI of Sweden. The name Ulrike is a Danish version of the name. Ulrika was the daughter of King Frederick III of Denmark and his spouse Queen Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, she was given a strict upbringing under the supervision of her mother. She was taught several different languages, was a good student in drawing and painting. In 1675 she was betrothed to King Charles XI of Sweden; the purpose of the match, from the Swedish viewpoint, was to prevent Denmark from forming an alliance with the enemies of Sweden. Her brother, the King of Denmark, was not enthusiastic about the match, but he left the decision to her mother, eager to complete it because it would give Ulrika the status of queen; the engagement was announced 13 July 1675. During the Scanian War between Denmark and Sweden in 1675–1679 she was encouraged to break the engagement, her brother the King broke it for her in 1676. She was considered as a possible bride by the Prince of Orange in 1676, by the Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, but she refused a different match.
During the war, she gained a reputation for loyalty to her future home country by exhibiting kindness to Swedish prisoners: she pawned her jewelry her engagement ring, to buy food and medicine for the Swedish prisoners of war. She refused to participate in the celebrations arranged in honor of Danish victories over Sweden. During the peace negotiations between Sweden and Denmark in 1679, the marriage between her and Charles XI was on the agenda, ratified on 26 September 1679; the marriage contract was signed 6 February 1680, when the Swedish representative Johan Göransson Gyllenstierna returned to Sweden, he escorted her to Sweden on his return home. During one of the celebrations in honor of her marriage, her name and the name of her groom was written on the night sky with fire works. One of the spectators pointed out that the person which name died out first, was the one, going to die first; when her name went out first, she stated that she hoped it would be so, for she could not bear to outlive her spouse.
Ulrika Eleonora was popular in Denmark because of her charity. When she left for Sweden, her brother Christian V made his farewell at Frederiksborg, during which he gave her back the jewels she had pawned in favor of the Swedish prisoners of war, including her engagement ring; when she made her farewell to him, she said that she did not think she would see him again, but: "as I am now regarded a pawn of peace between Denmark and Sweden, I ask God for the grace to fulfill such a glorious commitment. In Helsingör, where she said her farewell to her mother and sisters, she thanked the Danes for their farewell greetings with the words: "Thank you! By my heart I thank you! May I be remembered in Denmark with the same tenderness, may God give me the grace to live such, that I by the last separation can be followed by the same love from my subjects!" Ulrika Eleonora arrived in Helsingborg in Sweden 4 May 1680, where she was welcomed by canon salutation and the Queen Dowager, the Swedish court and the local aristocracy.
Two days she met and married Charles at Skottorp Manor on 6 May 1680. The wedding was hasty and a simple affair in the presence of a small circle of courtiers; the reason for this was that the King, at that time in a tense relationship with France, wished to avoid the presence of the French ambassador Feuqiéres and could do so only if the time and place of the ceremony could be kept secret long enough for it to be impossible for the ambassador to attend. The ceremony was to take place in Halmstad, Ulrika Eleonora was only to spend the night at Skottorp on her way there, but when she arrived, she was hastily married instead; the 25 November 1680, she was crowned Queen at Storkyrkan in Stockholm. Charles XI was disappointed in her appearance, asked Johan Gyllenstierna if he could not have been chosen a more beautiful consort, upon which he was given the reply: "Your Majesty will see, that within her there is an angel". Ulrika Eleonora was described as religious, patient and charitable, moderately beautiful and with a simple dignity.
She was received with enthusiasm among the public, because she was seen as a hope and a symbol of lasting peace. Her popularity was increased by her personal merits, she made a favorable impression of courage before her arrival to Stockholm, when spent some time in the royal residences outside of the city awaiting her official enter in the capital and the coronation. Traveling on Mälaren between Köping and Kungsör, the boat Carolus upon hit a rock and sunk. On this occasion, she calmed the panic by saying: "Be still, do not cry out so! If we shall die, it will be the will of God, God's will be done!" Ulrika Eleonora quickly made herself popular by dispatching her entire Danish entourage back to Denmark, stating that she no longer needed anything from Denmark and that her spouse and his ministers would provide for her. Charles XI had provided her with a large allowance from her dower estates; the Danish ambassador Jens Juel, sent to secure her personal interests, protested against her insistence to refuse anything which could be to her advantage.
She did accept being given her own court, though she commented that she
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg
John Sigismund was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from the House of Hohenzollern. He became the Duke of Prussia through his marriage to Duchess Anna, the eldest daughter of Duke Albert Frederick of Prussia who died without sons, their marriage resulted in the creation of Brandenburg-Prussia. John Sigismund was born in Halle an der Saale to Joachim III Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg, his first wife Catherine of Brandenburg-Küstrin, he succeeded his father as Margrave of Brandenburg in 1608. In 1611, John Sigismund traveled from Königsberg to Warsaw, where on 16 November 1611 he gave feudal homage to Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland, he became Duke of Prussia in 1618, although he had served as regent on behalf of the mentally-disturbed Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia, for several years prior. John Sigismund died in the following year. John Sigismund gave the Reichshof Castrop to his teacher and educator Carl Friedrich von Bordelius, whereas he received the territories of Cleves and Ravensberg in the Treaty of Xanten in 1614.
John Sigismund's most significant action was his conversion from Lutheranism to Calvinism, after he had earlier equalized the rights of Catholics and Protestants in the Duchy of Prussia under pressure from the King of Poland. He was won over to Calvinism during a visit to Heidelberg in 1606, but it was not until 1613 that he publicly took communion according to the Calvinist rite; the vast majority of his subjects in Brandenburg, including his wife Anna of Prussia, remained Lutheran, however. After the Elector and his Calvinist court officials drew up plans for mass conversion of the population to the new faith in February 1614, as provided for by the rule of Cuius regio, eius religio within the Holy Roman Empire, there were serious protests, with his wife backing the Lutherans. Resistance was so strong that in 1615, John Sigismund backed down and relinquished all attempts at forcible conversion. Instead, he allowed his subjects to be either Lutheran or Calvinist according to the dictates of their own consciences.
Henceforward, Brandenburg-Prussia would be a bi-confessional state. On 30 October 1594, John Sigismund married Anna of Prussia, daughter of Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia, they were parents to eight children: George William. His successor. Anne Sophia of Brandenburg. Married Frederick Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. Married Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, they were parents of Christina of Sweden. Catherine of Brandenburg. Married first Gabriel Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania and secondly Franz Karl of Saxe-Lauenburg. Joachim Sigismund of Brandenburg. Agnes of Brandenburg. John Frederick of Brandenburg. Albrecht Christian of Brandenburg. Theodor Hirsch, "Johann Sigismund", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 14, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 169–175 Settlement of Dortmund between Brandenburg and Palatinate-Neuburg and the conflict of succession in Jülich, in full text "Brandenburg, Confession of". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920
John George IV, Elector of Saxony
John George IV was Elector of Saxony from 1691 to 1694. He belonged to the Albertine line of the House of Wettin and was the eldest son of the Elector John George III and Anna Sophie of Denmark. John George succeeded his father as Elector when he died, on 12 September 1691. At the beginning of his reign his chief adviser was Hans Adam von Schöning, who counselled a union between Saxony and Brandenburg and a more independent attitude towards the emperor. In accordance with this advice certain proposals were put before Leopold I to which he refused to agree. Although John George was unable to procure his minister's release, Leopold managed to allay the elector's anger, early in 1693 the Saxon soldiers rejoined the imperialists. In Leipzig on 17 April 1692, John George married Eleonore Erdmuthe of Saxe-Eisenach, Dowager Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach; the young Elector was forced to marry by his mother, the Dowager Electress Anna Sophie to produce legitimate heirs to the Electorate. The real reason for the marriage was to end the liaison between John George and Magdalena Sibylla of Neidschutz.
John George III, the late Elector had tried to separate the lovers because he was aware of a close blood relationship between them — for Magdalena Sybilla may have been his own illegitimate daughter by Ursula Margarethe of Haugwitz, therefore John George IV's half-sister. By order of the Elector, Ursula had married Colonel Rudolf of Neidschutz, who appears as the father of her daughter. John George may never have known of his possible blood relationship to Magdalena Sibylla or regarded the claim as a rumor spread by ill-wishers. After he assumed the Electorate, he lived with her, she became the first Official Mistress of an Elector of Saxony; the Electress, Eleonore Erdmuthe, humiliated every day since her wedding, was relegated to the Hofe. John George moved into another palace with Magdalena Sybilla. Desperate to marry his mistress, John George tried to murder his wife, but was prevented by his younger brother, Frederick August; when John George tried to stab Eleonore with a sword, the unarmed Frederick stopped the weapon with his hand, injuring it and leaving him with a lifelong handicap.
After a substantial bribe from the Elector, on 20 February 1693 Magdalene Sybille was created Countess of Rochlitz by Imperial Decree. Shortly before, she gave birth the only daughter of Wilhelmina Maria, but the happiness ended soon: Magdalene Sybille contracted smallpox and died on 4 April 1694, in the arms of the Elector, infected with the disease. John George died twenty-three days on 27 April, he was buried in the Freiberg Cathedral. Because he died without legitimate issue—Electress Eleonore suffered two miscarriages during their marriage, in August 1692 and February 1693—he was succeeded as Elector by his brother Frederick Augustus I; the new Elector took the guardianship of the little orphan Wilhelmina Maria, raised in the court. He gave her a dowry when she was married to a Polish Count. Karlheinz Blaschke: Johann Georg IV.. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie. Band 10, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1974, ISBN 3-428-00191-5, S. 527 f.. Heinrich Theodor Flathe: Johann Georg IV. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie.
Band 14, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1881, S. 384–386. Jürgen Helfricht: Die Wettiner - Sachsens Könige, Herzöge, Kurfürsten und Markgrafen, Sachsenbuch Leipzig 4. Aktualisierte Auflage 2007 ISBN 3-89664-044-5 Frank-Lothar Kroll: Die Herrscher Sachsens: Markgrafen, Kurfürsten, Könige 1089–1918, Verlag C. H. Beck, München 2007, S. 160 ff. Wolfgang Sommer: Die lutherischen Hofprediger in Dresden, Frank Steiner Verlag Stuttgart 2006, S. 236 Franz Otto Stichart: Das Königreich Sachsen und seine Fürsten, Leipzig 1854, S. 221 ff. Hans-Joachim Böttcher: Johann Georg IV. von Sachsen & Magdalena Sibylla von Neitschütz - Eine tödliche Liaison, Dresden 2014, ISBN 978-3-941757-43-1 John George IV in the Mad Monarchs Series: http://www.madmonarchs.nl/ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "John George I.". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 459–460
Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg
Joachim Frederick, of the House of Hohenzollern, was Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1598 until his death. Joachim Frederick was born in Cölln to John George, Elector of Brandenburg, Sophie of Legnica, he served as administrator of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg from 1566 to 1598 succeeded his father as Elector of Brandenburg in 1598. Joachim Frederick was succeeded at his death by his son John Sigismund. Joachim Frederick's first marriage on 7 March 1570 was to Catherine of Brandenburg-Küstrin, daughter of John, Margrave of Brandenburg-Küstrin, Catherine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Joachim Frederick's second marriage, on 23 October 1603, was to Eleanor of Prussia, born 12 August 1583, daughter of Albert Frederick and Marie Eleonore of Cleves, he became regent of the Duchy of Prussia in 1605. His titles included "duke of Stettin, Cassubia and Crossen", according to the terms of the Treaty of Grimnitz, although the Pomeranian titles were only nominal. Joachim Frederick and Catherine of Brandenburg-Küstrin had these children: John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg Anne Catherine, married King Christian IV of Denmark Girl John George, Duke of Jägerndorf married Eva Christina of Württemberg, daughter of Frederick I, Duke of Württemberg and Sibylla of Anhalt.
Elected Bishop of Strasbourg 1592. Herrenmeister of the Order of Saint John from 1616 until his death. August Frederick Albert Frederick Joachim Ernest Barbara Sophie, married John Frederick, Duke of Württemberg Girl Christian William Joachim Frederick and Eleanor of Prussia had only one child: Marie Eleonore, married Louis Philip, Count Palatine of Simmern-Kaiserslautern Joachim-Freidrich Strasse in Berlin is named after him
Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel
Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel was queen-consort of Denmark and Norway by marriage to King Christian V. Charlotte Amalie was born in Kassel, Germany, her parents were his consort Hedwig Sophia of Brandenburg. Charlotte Amalie was raised in the Reformed faith, she was well educated in French, Italian and philosophy. French was to be her preferred written language, while she spoke German with her more intimate friends, her mother was a religiously a strict adherent of the Reformed church, politically oriented toward Brandenburg, both views, to be shared by her daughter. On 15 June 1667 in Nykøbing Slot, Charlotte Amalie married the Crown Prince Christian of Denmark; the marriage was arranged by Queen Sophie Amalie of Denmark, who desired a daughter-in-law that she could control and expected this to be the case for a princess of Hesse elevated to the status of queen, a member of the reformed church, who would be religiously isolated in Lutheran Denmark. Christian was sent to meet her in Hesse in 1665, but the negotiations was drawn out because of religious concerns.
In the marriage contract, she was not required to convert and secured the right to keep her faith after her wedding to Christian, who as ruler of Denmark would become the head of the state Lutheran Church, a term, contested and met some resistance before it was accepted. She did keep her faith after wedding. Charlotte Amalie was appreciated for learning the Danish language, not a given thing for a queen consort in that era and which she mastered prior to becoming queen, it was said of her that she: "...willingly and love not only our people but our language, that she has learned to speak to our people before ascending the throne, while bringing shame on those, eating our bread for thirty years and not bothered to learn thirty Danish words." Charlotte Amalie became queen of Denmark upon the accession of Christian to the throne in 1670. Her Reformed faith caused the Lutheran clergy to oppose her anointing as queen, she could not be anointed as a member of the Reformed faith because the ceremony would require a Lutheran communion, which she refused.
As queen, she chose the motto L'homme propose. King Christian V did not wish his wife to play a political role in government similar to his mothers during his father's reign, further more disliked her Pro-Brandenburg sympathies, therefore took care to remove Charlotte Amalie from exerting any influence in state affairs, she was regarded as a potential power holder at court, the French ambassador noted: "While the queen has little influence, the favorite ministers does fear her, as the know how much she despise them". Her main political enemies, after the fall of Peder Griffenfeld in 1676, was represented by her mother-in-law, who worked to maintain her political influence, as well as the Hahn party under the leadership of the courtier Vincens Hahn, who belonged to the circle around the royal mistress Sophie Amalie Moth. A spy, Justine Cathrine Rosenkrantz, was placed among her ladies-in-waiting by the Hahn party to ascertain that she did not involve herself in politics, she made attempts to participate in political issues on her own if she could achieve little without the support of the king.
During the Scanian War, her husband allied with her uncle the Elector of Brandenburg against Sweden, Charlotte Amalie worked to preserve the alliance and benefited Brandenburg interests in Denmark "also in occasions when this would not have been expected by a queen of Denmark". It is noted how she protected the Brandenburgian military Tromp and disfavored his Danish rival Niels Juel. Christian V did allow her to play a political role in one issue, when she obtained a certain degree of religious freedom for the followers of her faith in Denmark. Charlotte Amalie was pious, she protected the members of the Reformed church in Denmark, the Huguenots where benefited by her protection. She was supported in her tolerance by business people who saw the need of the qualifications of the immigrants, while she was opposed by the conservative church, who regarded all non Lutherans as an affront to the king and God, a view which the king did lean somewhat towards himself; the law of 1685, in which immigrants of Protestant of churches where granted the privilege of a certain degree of freedom of religion, are attributed to the efforts of Charlotte Amalie.
She was in effect the spokesperson of the foreign Protestant non-Lutherans, supported the foundation of one French and one German Protestant church with her own funds. Charlotte Amalie are described as a lively and independent woman; the English ambassador Robert Molesworth, 1st Viscount Molesworth called her "A Princess worthy of being described with honor if she did not have such a high position. Very winning and unconstrained," while the French ambassador described her: "This lady has pale skin and brown hair. While not beautiful, nether is there anything ugly about her, she has a pleasant personality. She speaks quite good French, her conversation shows that she has plenty of mind."She was not a meek person, made her pleasure and displeasure quite known, though her anger was quickly subdued. The relationship between Charlotte Amalie and Christian V are de
Christian V of Denmark
Christian V was king of Denmark and Norway from 1670 until his death in 1699. Well-regarded by the common people, he was the first king anointed at Frederiksborg Castle chapel as absolute monarch since the decree that institutionalized the supremacy of the king in Denmark-Norway, he fortified the absolutist system against the aristocracy by accelerating his father's practice of allowing Holstein nobles but Danish and Norwegian commoners into state service; as king he wanted to show his power as absolute monarch through architecture, dreamed of a Danish Versailles. He was the first to use the 1671 Throne Chair of Denmark made for this purpose, his motto was: Pietate et Justitia. Christian was elected successor to his father in June 1650; this was not a free choice, but de facto automatic hereditary succession. Escorted by his chamberlain Christoffer Parsberg, Christian went on a long trip abroad, to Holland, England and home through Germany. On this trip, he saw absolutism in its most splendid achievement at the young Louis XIV's court, heard about the theory of the divine right of kings.
He returned to Denmark in August 1663. From 1664 he was allowed to attend proceedings of the State College. Hereditary succession was made official by Royal Law in 1665. Christian was hailed as heir in Copenhagen in August 1665, in Odense and Viborg in September, in Christiania, Norway in July 1666. Only a short time before he became king, he was taken into the Council of the Realm and the Supreme Court, he became king upon his father's death on 9 February 1670, was formally crowned in 1671. He was the first hereditary king of Denmark-Norway, in honor of this, Denmark-Norway acquired costly new crown jewels and a magnificent new ceremonial sword, it is argued that Christian V's personal courage and affability made him popular among the common people, but his image was marred by his unsuccessful attempt to regain Scania for Denmark in the Scanian War. The war exhausted Denmark's economic resources without securing any gains. Part of Christian's appeal to the common people may be explained by the fact that he allowed Danish and Norwegian commoners into state service, but his attempts to curtail the influence of the nobility meant continuing his father's drive toward absolutism.
To accommodate non-aristocrats into state service, he created the new noble ranks of count and baron. One of the commoners elevated in this way by the king was Peder Schumacher, named Count Griffenfeld by Christian V in 1670 and high councillor of Denmark in 1674. Griffenfeld, a skilled statesman, better understood the precarious situation Denmark-Norway placed itself by attacking Sweden at a time when the country was allied with France, the major European power of the era; as Griffenfeld predicted, Sweden's stronger ally France was the party that dictated the peace with Denmark's ally Holland, in spite of Danish victory at sea in the battles against Sweden in 1675–1679 during the Scanian War, Danish hopes for border changes on the Scandinavian Peninsula between the two countries were dashed. The results of the war efforts financially unremunerative for Denmark-Norway; the damage to the Danish-Norwegian economy was extensive. At this point, Christian V no longer had his most experienced foreign relations counsel around to repair the political damage — in 1676 he had been persuaded to sacrifice Griffenfeld as a traitor, to the clamour of his adversaries, Griffenfeld was imprisoned for the remainder of his life.
After the Scanian War, his sister, Princess Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark, married the Swedish king Charles XI, whose mother was a stout supporter of the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. In spite of the family ties, war between the brothers-in-law was close again in 1689, when Charles XI nearly provoked confrontation with Denmark-Norway by his support of the exiled Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp in his claims to Holstein-Gottorp in Schleswig-Holstein. Like Charles XI of Sweden, who had never been outside Sweden, Christian V spoke only German and Danish and was therefore considered poorly educated due to his inability to communicate with visiting foreign diplomats. Christian V was often considered dependent on his councillors by contemporary sources; the Danish monarch did nothing to dispel this notion. In his memoirs, he listed "hunting, love-making and maritime affairs" as his main interests in life. Christian V introduced Danske Lov in the first law code for all of Denmark, he introduced the similar Norske Lov of 1687 to replace Christian IVs Norwegian Code from 1604 in Norway.
He introduced the land register of 1688, which attempted to work out the land value of the united monarchy in order to create a more just taxation. During the reign of Christian V, Denmark’s trade in cattle that had declined due to catastrophic fires and wars has been restored, livestock and crop exports have surpassedFrederick III, with thousands of cattle entering and leaving Jutland through the Oxen Way. After entering and fattening in the Danish King’s German enclave County of Oldenburg，the castle reached the big market in Wedel. From there, cattle are resold to all parts of North Germany via Hamburg and Lübeck; as the population continues to soar at the end of the seventeenth century, demand for beef and fish is increasing, both throughout North Germany and on the Baltic coast alone. In terms of the number of livestock shipped to the South, in 1680 each market had reached 40,000 cattle. Traditional export commodities, including fish and grains, have increased their exports since the beginning of the seventeenth century.
The agricultural products exported by Denmark cattle, have made a lot of money fr