Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Prince William, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, was a great-grandson of King George II and nephew and son-in-law of King George III of the United Kingdom. Prince William was born on 15 January 1776 at Palazzo Teodoli in via Rome, his father was Prince William, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, the third son of the Prince of Wales. His mother, was the illegitimate daughter of Edward Walpole and granddaughter of Robert Walpole; as a great-grandson of George II he held the title of Prince of Great Britain with the style His Highness, not His Royal Highness, at birth. The young prince was baptized at Teodoli Palace, on 12 February 1776 by a Rev Salter, his godparents were the Duke and Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and the Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach. During his stay in Stockholm in 1802–1803, his interest and rumoured affair with Aurora Wilhelmina Koskull attracted a lot of attention, he had plans to marry her. Queen Charlotte recalled that William said of Koskull: "If she was your daughter, I would marry her!"He was admitted to the University of Cambridge in 1787, granted his MA in 1790.
On 25 August 1805, Prince William's father died, he inherited the titles Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh and Earl of Connaught. From 1811 until his death he was Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, he was offered the position of king of Sweden in 1812 by some members of the Swedish nobility, but the British government would not allow it. Because of the unequal character of his parents' marriage, he was excluded from the House of Hanover, being considered only a British prince. For instance, he and his sister were not listed in the genealogical listing of the electoral house of Hanover in the Königlicher Groß-Britannischer und Kurfürstlicher Braunschweig-Lüneburgscher Staats-Kalender, he was not invited to sign the family compact of the house of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1831, which means that he was not considered an agnate of the royal house in Germany. On 22 July 1816, he married Princess Mary, his cousin and the fourth daughter of George III; the marriage took place at London. On that day, The Prince Regent granted the Duke the style of His Royal Highness by Order in Council.
The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester lived at Bagshot Park in Surrey. They had no children together; the Duke had been encouraged to stay single, so that there might be a suitable groom for Princess Charlotte of Wales, the heiress to the throne if no foreign match proved suitable. He was active in many walks of life, on 27 April 1822 chaired the first Annual General Meeting of London's new United University Club. Politics, was not among them, he did advocate the abolition of slavery, he supported Caroline of Brunswick and the Duke of Sussex against George IV. He kept more state than the King; the general estimate of his capacity is given by his nickname, "Silly Billy". The Duke died on 30 November 1834 at Bagshot Park, was buried in St. George's Chapel, Windsor. KG: Knight of the Garter, 16 July 1794 William was granted use of his father's arms, the whole differenced by a label argent. List of British princes
Sir Edward Walpole KB PC was a British politician, a younger son of Sir Robert Walpole, Prime Minister from 1721 to 1742. The second son of Sir Robert Walpole, he was educated at Eton and King’s College and studied law at Lincoln's Inn, where he was called to the bar in 1727, he undertook a Grand Tour in Italy in 1730. Walpole first entered Parliament as Member for Lostwithiel in a by-election on 29 April 1730, following the death of Sir Edward Knatchbull earlier that month, he was appointed junior Secretary to the Treasury the same year. On 2 May 1734, in the next general election, he succeeded his uncle Horatio Walpole as Member of Parliament for Great Yarmouth in Norfolk, retaining the seat for nearly 34 years until the 1768 election, when his first cousin the Hon. Richard Walpole replaced him. On 7 September 1737 the Duke of Devonshire was named Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Walpole his Chief Secretary, though he continued as Secretary to the Treasury. Walpole was sworn of the Privy Council of Ireland on 8 October that year and stood for Ballyshannon in the Irish House of Commons, a seat he held until 1760.
On 9 May 1739 Edward Walpole's elder brother Robert, Lord Walpole resigned his post of Clerk of the Pells in order to become an Auditor of the Exchequer, Edward was appointed to succeed him, holding the office until his death. On 27 August 1753 Walpole was made a Knight Companion of the Order of the Bath, the order re-founded by his father in 1725. Walpole lived for a time at Frogmore House in Windsor, Berkshire which he bought in 1748 and sold in 1766, he bought a house in Windsor, which he gave to his daughter Laura Keppel in 1778, spent his last years in Isleworth, where he died in 1784. He had never married, but had a son and three daughters by his partner Dorothy Clement: Edward, died 1771 Laura, who married 13 September 1758 the Hon. and Rev. Frederick Keppel and died 27 July 1813, leaving issue. John Burke, A general and heraldic dictionary of the peerages of England and Scotland, dormant and in abeyance and Bentley, 1831 Joseph Haydn and Horace Ockerby, The Book of Dignities, 3rd edition, W.
H. Allen and Co. Ltd, 1894, reprinted 1969 thepeerage.comSpecific
Windsor is a historic market town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England. It is known as the site of Windsor Castle, one of the official residences of the British Royal Family; the town is situated 21.7 miles west of Charing Cross, central London, 5.8 miles southeast of Maidenhead, 15.8 miles east of the county town of Reading. It is south of the River Thames, which forms its boundary with its smaller, ancient twin town of Eton; the village of Old Windsor, just over 2 miles to the south, predates what is now called Windsor by around 300 years. Windlesora is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; the name originates from winch by the riverside. By 1110, meetings of the Great Council, which had taken place at Windlesora, were noted as taking place at the Castle – referred to as New Windsor to indicate that it was a two-ward castle/borough complex, similar to other early castle designs, such as Denbigh. By the late 12th century the settlement at Windelsora had been renamed Old Windsor.
The early history of the site is unknown, although it was certainly settled some years before 1070 when William the Conqueror had a timber motte and bailey castle constructed. The focus of royal interest at that time was not the castle, but a small riverside settlement about 3 miles downstream established from the 7th century. From about the 8th century, high status people started to visit the site and this included royalty. From the 11th century the site's link with king Edward the Confessor is documented, but again, information about his use of the place is scant. After the Norman conquest of England, royal use of the site increased because it offered good access to woodlands and opportunities for hunting – a sport which practised military skills. Windsor Castle is noted in the Domesday Book under the entry for Clewer, the neighbouring manor to Windsor. Although this might seem strange, it occurred because plans for the castle had changed since 1070, more land had been acquired in Clewer on which to site a castle town.
This plan was not actioned until the early 12th century. Henry I – according to one chronicle – had rebuilt it, this followed the Norman kings' actions at other royal sites, such as Westminster, where larger and more magnificent accommodation was thought necessary for the new dynasty. King Henry married his second wife after the White Ship disaster; the settlement at Old Windsor transferred to New Windsor during the 12th century, although substantial planning and setting out of the new town did not take place until c. 1170, under Henry II, following the civil war of Stephen's reign. At about the same time, the present upper ward of the castle was rebuilt in stone. Windsor Bridge is the earliest bridge on the Thames between Staines and Reading, built at a time when bridge building was rare, it played an important part in the national road system, linking London with Reading and Winchester, but by diverting traffic into the new town, it underpinned the success of its fledgling economy. The town of New Windsor, as an ancient demesne of the Crown, was a privileged settlement from the start having the rights of a'free borough', for which other towns had to pay substantial fees to the king.
It had a merchant guild from the early 13th century and, under royal patronage, was made the chief town of the county in 1277, as part of its grant of royal borough status by Edward I's charter. Somewhat unusually, this charter gave no new rights or privileges to Windsor but codified the rights which it had enjoyed for many years. Windsor's position as chief town of Berkshire was short-lived, however, as people found it difficult to reach. Wallingford took over this position in the early 14th century; as a self-governing town Windsor enjoyed a number of freedoms unavailable to other towns, including the right to hold its own borough court, the right of membership and some financial independence. The town accounts of the 16th century survive in part, although most of the once substantial borough archive dating back to the 12th century was destroyed in the late 17th century. New Windsor was a nationally significant town in the Middle Ages one of the fifty wealthiest towns in the country by 1332.
Its prosperity came from its close association with the royal household. The repeated investment in the castle brought London merchants to the town in the late 13th century and provided much employment for townsmen; the development of the castle under Edward III, between 1350–68, was the largest secular building project in England of the Middle Ages, many Windsor people worked on this project, again bringing great wealth to the town. Although the Black Death in 1348 had reduced some towns' populations by up to 50%, in Windsor the building projects of Edward III brought money to the town, its population doubled: this was a'boom' time for the local economy. People came to the town from every part of the country, from continental Europe; the poet Geoffrey Chaucer held the honorific post of'Clerk of the Works' at Windsor Castle in 1391. The development of the castle continued in the late 15th century with the rebuilding of St G
St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle
St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in England, is a chapel designed in the high-medieval Gothic style. It is both a Royal Peculiar, a church under the direct jurisdiction of the monarch, the Chapel of the Order of the Garter. Seating 800, it is located in the Lower Ward of the castle. St. George's castle chapel was established in the 14th century by King Edward III and began extensive enlargement in the late 15th century, it has been the location of many royal ceremonies and burials. Windsor Castle is a principal residence for Queen Elizabeth II; the day-to-day running of the Chapel is the responsibility of the Dean and Canons of Windsor who make up the religious College of St George, directed by a Chapter of the Dean and four Canons, assisted by a Clerk and other staff. The Society of the Friends of St George's and Descendants of the Knights of the Garter, a registered charity, was established in 1931 to assist the College in maintaining the Chapel. In 1348, King Edward III founded two new religious colleges: St Stephen's at Westminster and St George's at Windsor.
The new college at Windsor was attached to the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor, constructed by Henry III in the early thirteenth century. The chapel was rededicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, George the Martyr and Edward the Confessor, but soon after became known only by the dedication to St. George. Edward III built the Aerary Porch in 1353–54, it was used as the entrance to the new college. St George's Chapel became the Mother Church of the Order of the Garter, a special service is still held in the chapel every June and is attended by the members of the order, their heraldic banners hang above the upper stalls of the choir. The period 1475–1528 saw a radical redevelopment of St George's Chapel under the designs of King Henry VII's most prized counsellor Sir Reginald Bray, set in motion by Edward IV and continued by Henry VII and Henry VIII; the thirteenth-century Chapel of Edward the Confessor was expanded into a huge new Cathedral-like chapel under the supervision of Richard Beauchamp, Bishop of Salisbury, the direction of the master mason Henry Janyns.
The Horseshoe Cloister was constructed for the new community of 45 junior members: 16 vicars, a deacon gospeller, 13 lay clerks, 2 clerks epistoler and 13 choristers. The choristers of St George's Chapel are still in existence to this day, although the total number is not fixed and is nearer to 20; the choristers are educated at Windsor Castle. They are full boarders at the school. In term time they attend practice in the castle every morning and sing Matins and Eucharist on Sundays and sing Evensong throughout the entire week, with the exception of Wednesdays. St George's Chapel was a popular destination for pilgrims during the late medieval period; the chapel was purported to contain several important relics: the bodies of John Schorne and Henry VI and a fragment of the True Cross held in a reliquary called the Cross of Gneth. It was taken from the Welsh by Edward II after his conquest along with other sacred relics; these relics all appear to have been displayed at the east end of the south choir aisle.
The Chapel suffered a great deal of destruction during the English Civil War. Parliamentary forces broke into and plundered the chapel and treasury on 23 October 1642. Further pillaging occurred in 1643 when the fifteenth-century chapter house was destroyed, lead was stripped off the chapel roofs, elements of Henry VIII's unfinished funeral monument were stolen. Following his execution in 1649, Charles I was buried in a small vault in the centre of the choir at St George's Chapel which contained the coffins of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour. A programme of repair was undertaken at St George's Chapel following the Restoration of the monarchy; the reign of Queen Victoria saw further changes made to the architecture of the chapel. The east end of the choir was reworked in devotion to Prince Albert. In the 21st century, St George's accommodates 800 persons for services and events. On the roof of the chapel, standing on the pinnacles, on pinnacles on the sides, are seventy-six heraldic statues representing the Queen's Beasts, showing the Royal supporters of England.
They represent fourteen of the heraldic animals: the lion of England, the red dragon of Wales, the panther of Jane Seymour, the falcon of York, the black bull of Clarence, the yale of Beaufort, the white lion of Mortimer, the greyhound of Richmond, the white hart of Richard II, the collared silver antelope of Bohun, the black dragon of Ulster, the white swan of Hereford, the unicorn of Edward III and the golden hind of Kent. The original beasts dated from the sixteenth century, but were removed in 1682 on the advice of Sir Christopher Wren. Wren had condemned the calcareous sandstone of which they were constructed; the present statues date from 1925. Members of the Order of the Garter meet at Windsor Castle every June for the annual Garter Service. After lunch in the State Apartments in the Upper Ward of the Castle they process on foot, wearing their robes and insignia, down to St George's Chapel where the service is held. If any new members have been admitted to the Order they are installed at the service.
After the service, the members of the order return to the Upper Ward by car. The Order had frequent services at the chapel, after becoming infrequent in the 18
Maria, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Maria, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh was Countess Waldegrave from 1759 to 1766 as the wife of James Waldegrave, 2nd Earl Waldegrave, a member of the British royal family from 1766 as the wife of Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh. Maria Walpole was the daughter of Dorothy Clement, her grandfather was Robert Walpole, considered to be the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. She grew up at Frogmore House in Windsor, but her parents were not married, her illegitimate status hindered her social standing despite her family connections. On 15 May 1759, she married 2nd Earl Waldegrave; the Earl Waldegrave died on 28 April 1763. They had three children: Lady Elizabeth Waldegrave who married her paternal first cousin the 4th Earl Waldegrave Lady Charlotte Waldegrave who married the future 4th Duke of Grafton Lady Anna Waldegrave who married Lord Hugh Seymour, son of the 1st Marquess of Hertford. Anna and Hugh were the great-grandparents of Charles Spencer, 6th Earl Spencer, the great-grandfather of Diana, Princess of Wales.
There is a portrait of Maria in 1764–65, shortly after she was widowed, painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, in the Dunedin Public Art Gallery. She commissioned him in 1780 to paint The Ladies Waldegrave, a group portrait of her and Waldegrave's three daughters. On 6 September 1766 she married Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, at her home in Pall Mall, London; the Duke was a brother of King George III. The marriage was conducted in secret as the British Royal Family would not have approved of a marriage between a prince and a widow of non-royal rank and illegitimate birth, they lived at St Leonard's Hill in Clewer, near Windsor, had three children. Princess Sophia of Gloucester Princess Caroline of Gloucester Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh The marriage to a commoner of the Duke's other brother, the Duke of Cumberland, led to the passing of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, which required all the descendants of George II to seek the sovereign's approval before marriage.
It was only in September 1772, five months after the passage of the Act, that the King became aware of Prince William's marriage to Maria. As the Act's provisions could not be applied retroactively and the Duke's marriage was considered valid. Due, however, to the anger of her brother-in-law at the marriage, she was never received at court. Princess Caroline died aged nine months following a smallpox inoculation, intended to protect her from the disease. 10 July 1736 – 15 May 1759: Maria Walpole 15 May 1759 – 28 April 1763: The Right Honourable The Countess Waldegrave 28 April 1763 – 6 September 1766: The Right Honourable The Dowager Countess Waldegrave 6 September 1766 – 25 August 1805: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh 25 August 1805 – 22 August 1807: Her Royal Highness The Dowager Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Louise of Great Britain
Louise of Great Britain was Queen of Denmark and Norway from 1746 until her death, as the first wife of King Frederick V. She was the youngest surviving daughter of King George II of Great Caroline of Ansbach. Princess Louise was born as the fifth daughter and youngest child of the Prince and Princess of Wales, on 7 December 1724, at Leicester House, London, she was baptised "Louisa" there on 22 December. Her godparents were her elder sister and two cousins: Princess Amelia of Great Britain, Princess Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, Frederick, Prince Royal of Prussia Frederick the Great. On 11 June 1727, when Louise was two years old, her grandfather, George I, her father ascended the throne as George II. On 30 August, as a child of the sovereign, Louise was granted use of the arms of the realm, differenced by a label argent of three points, each bearing torteaux gules. In a dynastic marriage, Louise wed Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway on 11 December 1743 in Copenhagen. A first ceremony was conducted on 10 November 1743 in Hanover with her brother, the Duke of Cumberland, as the representative of the groom.
After this, the entourages of Louise and Frederick met at Altona, where Louise exchanged her English retinue for a Danish one, headed by her new chamberlain Carl Juel and her head lady-in-waiting Christiane Henriette Louise Juel. Louise and Frederick traveled together to Copenhagen, where they held their official entry into the capital, followed by a second ceremony with the groom present; the marriage was proposed by Great Britain. At the time of the marriage, both France and Great Britain wished to make an alliance with Denmark, Great Britain had the advantage of being able to make a marriage alliance. Frederick's father, King Christian VI, hoped the marriage would lead to British support for his or his son's claim to the throne of Sweden. On a more personal level, there were hopes that marriage would suppress the frequent drinking and debauched behavior of the Crown Prince; the couple had five children. Although the marriage was arranged, the couple got along quite well, at least during the first years, their relationship was described as happy.
Frederick was comfortable with her, Louise pretended not to notice his adultery with multiple partners, notably with Else Hansen. Though Frederick came to feel high regard for her and always treated her with kindness, however, he was not in love with her and continued to have affairs after their marriage, she made herself popular in the Danish court, her father-in-law remarked that she seemed to him to be kind and agreeable. When her husband ascended the throne, on 6 August 1746, as Frederick V, Louise became Queen of Denmark and Queen of Norway. Queen Louise was popular in Denmark, the great popularity of the royal couple has been attributed to Louise. Interested in music and theatre, the royal court acquired a more easy-going tone than under her religious parents-in-law. Louise had a vivacious personality, allowing her to socialize with others. In 1747, she arranged for the Italian opera company of Pietro Mingotti, whose members included Christoph Willibald Gluck and Giuseppe Sarti, to play at the royal court theater, in 1748, the French Du Londel Troupe was invited for dramatic performances.
Her effort to speak the Danish language, including with her children, was much appreciated, as the royal Danish court spoke German. She studied the Danish language under the court priest Erik Pontoppidan, hired teachers so that her children could learn to speak their country's language, she was described as well educated and good at conversation, not beautiful but dignified and well suited to her role as queen. A Swedish diplomat stationed in Denmark described her as follows: "She has good sense and is easy with words, friendly in tone, knows how to converse on many subjects and can speak several languages, she finds pleasure in reading and music, she plays the clavichord well and teaches her daughters to sing."Queen Louise unsuccessfully opposed the dynastic marriage between her daughter Sophia Magdalena and Crown Prince of Sweden in 1751. The reason was her fear that her daughter would not be well treated by the Queen of Sweden, Louisa Ulrika of Prussia. Louisa Ulrika was known for her anti-Danish views and for being opposed to the match, it was known that she was the real ruler at the Swedish court.
Louise disliked arranged marriages because of her own marriage. While pregnant with her sixth child, Louise died due to complications from a miscarriage on 19 December 1751, a day after her 27th birthday, at Christiansborg Palace, predeceasing her husband by fourteen years, she was buried at Roskilde Cathedral. Bibliography Queen Louise at the website of the Royal Danish Collection at Rosenborg Castle
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814, he was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, never visited Hanover. His life and with it his reign, which were longer than those of any of his predecessors, were marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, places farther afield in Africa, the Americas and Asia. Early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britain's American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence.
Further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the part of his life, George III had recurrent, permanent, mental illness. Although it has since been suggested that he had bipolar disorder or the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established. George III's eldest son, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent until his father's death, when he succeeded as George IV. Historical analysis of George III's life has gone through a "kaleidoscope of changing views" that have depended on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them; until it was reassessed in the second half of the 20th century, his reputation in the United States was one of a tyrant. George was born in London at Norfolk House in St James's Square, he was the grandson of King George II, the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.
As he was born two months prematurely and thought unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker, both Rector of St James's and Bishop of Oxford. One month he was publicly baptised at Norfolk House, again by Secker, his godparents were the King of Sweden, his uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha and his great-aunt the Queen of Prussia. Prince George grew into a healthy but shy child; the family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, were educated together by private tutors. Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight, he was the first British monarch to study science systematically. Apart from chemistry and physics, his lessons included astronomy, French, history, geography, commerce and constitutional law, along with sporting and social accomplishments such as dancing and riding, his religious education was wholly Anglican.
At age 10, George took part in a family production of Joseph Addison's play Cato and said in the new prologue: "What, tho' a boy! It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, in England bred." Historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear "to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated". George's grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales, took little interest in his grandchildren. However, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury at the age of 44, George became heir apparent to the throne, he inherited his father's title of Duke of Edinburgh. Now more interested in his grandson, three weeks the King created George Prince of Wales. In the spring of 1756, as George approached his eighteenth birthday, the King offered him a grand establishment at St James's Palace, but George refused the offer, guided by his mother and her confidant, Lord Bute, who would serve as Prime Minister. George's mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her strict moral values.
In 1759, George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox, sister of the Duke of Richmond, but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. "I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation," he wrote, "and must act contrary to my passions." Attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother. The following year, at the age of 22, George succeeded to the throne when his grandfather, George II, died on 25 October 1760, two weeks before his 77th birthday; the search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, the King married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day. A fortnight on 22 September both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George remarkably never took a mistress, the couple enjoyed a genuinely happy marriage until his mental illness struck, they had 15 children -- six daughters. In 1762, George purchased Buckingham House for use as a family retreat.
His other residences were Windsor Castle. St James's Palace was retained for