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Princeton University Library

Princeton University Library is the main library system of Princeton University. With holdings of more than 7 million books, 6 million microforms, 48,000 linear feet of manuscripts, it is among the largest libraries in the world by number of volumes; the main headquarters of the university system is the Harvey S. Firestone Memorial Library building, named after tire magnate Harvey Firestone. Firestone Library opened in 1948, as the first large American university library constructed after World War II. 1.5 million volumes were moved during the summer of 1948 from East Pyne Hall, which until had served as the University's main library. The library building was expanded in 1971 and again in 1988 and has more than 70 miles of bookshelves, making Firestone one of the largest open-stack libraries in existence. Though not the largest university library in the world, the library has more books per enrolled student than that of any other university in the United States; the Firestone building itself does not appear large from the outside, because most of its books are stored in three underground levels that extend beyond the footprint of the main building.

Firestone has four smaller above-ground floors. Princeton's book collection has outgrown Firestone's present capacity. Therefore, volumes relating to many academic subjects are no longer housed at Firestone, but at a dozen other library buildings or spaces located around the campus. Firestone contains many study spaces, most prominently the atrium, it contains a small number of the original carrels reserved for faculty, graduate students, undergraduate seniors working on their theses. Many academic departments maintain seminar and study rooms within Firestone. In addition to its open-stack collections, Firestone houses the Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, which includes The Scheide Library, a now permanent part of the library's collections following the death of William H. Scheide; this marks the largest gift in University's history. It includes the Cotsen Children's Library, an extensive collection presented to the library by its owner Lloyd E. Cotsen in 1997. Included in special collections are the autographed manuscript of F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby, Mario Vargas Llosa's Papers, Toni Morrison's Papers, George F. Kennan's Long Telegram.

Another notable collection is a vellum fragment of an original Gutenberg Bible. Since the 1970s, the library has collected Latin American and Spanish ephemera to document with non-governmental primary sources the political developments, a rare emphasis on systematically acquiring these materials. In early 2015, the Digital Archive of Latin American and Caribbean Ephemera became available, thanks to a grant from the Council on Library and Information Resources; this expands access to some of the items not catalogued in sub-collections and microfilmed. The library contains a social science data center, a variety of library services. Other campus libraries include the following: Architecture Library East Asian Library and Gest Collection Engineering Library Lewis Science Library Marquand Library of Art and Archaeology Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library Furth Plasma Physics Library Mendel Music Library Scheide Library Stokes Library for Public and International Affairs & Population ResearchIn addition, ReCAP and two annexes, the Forrestal Annex and Fine Hall Annex, located at the Princeton University Forrestal campus, are used to store volumes and materials that are less used.

Lewis Science Library, designed by Frank Gehry, is the campus' newest library building, having opened in the Fall of 2008. Lewis consolidates research collections and staff for the physical and life sciences, as well as maps and geospatial information. Only registered students, university faculty, their spouses, domestic partners and dependents, students of Princeton Theological Seminary, the Institute for Advanced Study, visiting faculty are permitted open access and borrowing privileges in the Princeton University library system. Patrons of the Princeton Public Library may borrow daily access to Firestone. In general, non-university patrons may use the library for research but are not given borrowing privileges and must purchase an access card in order to enter and use the library facilities. Google Books Library Project Princeton Papyri The Ocean Full of Bowling Balls – a J. D. Salinger story held only in this library Official website Guide to the Library Princeton University Library History Behind the scenes at Firestone Library

Regulation and licensure in engineering

Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, well-being and other interests of the general public and to define the licensure process through which an engineer becomes authorized to practice engineering and/or provide engineering professional services to the public. As with many other professions, the professional status and the actual practice of professional engineering is defined and protected by law in some jurisdictions. Additionally, some jurisdictions permit only licensed engineers to "practice engineering," which requires careful definition in order to resolve potential overlap or ambiguity with respect to certain other professions which may or may not be themselves regulated. Relatedly, jurisdictions that license according to particular engineering discipline need to define those boundaries as well so that practitioners understand what they are permitted to do. In many cases, only a state or provincial licensed/registered engineer has the authority to take legal responsibility for engineering work or projects.

Regulations may require that only a licensed or registered engineer can sign, seal or stamp technical documentation such as reports, engineering drawings and calculations for study estimate or valuation or carry out design analysis, servicing, maintenance or supervision of engineering work, process or project. In cases where public safety, property or welfare is concerned, it may be required that an engineer be licensed or registered – though some jurisdictions have an "industrial exemption" that permits engineers to work internally for an organization without licensure so long as they are not making final decisions to release product to the public or offering engineering services directly to the public. Expert witness or opinion in courts or before government committees or commissions can be provided by experts in the respective field, sometimes given by a registered or licensed engineer in some jurisdictions. Becoming an engineer is a process that varies around the world. In some regions, use of the term "engineer" is regulated, in others.

Where engineering is a regulated profession, there are specific procedures and requirements for obtaining a registration, charter or license to practice engineering. These are obtained from the government or a charter-granting authority acting on its behalf and engineers are subject to regulation by these bodies. In addition to licensure, there are voluntary certification programs for various disciplines which involve examinations accredited by the Council of Engineering and Scientific Specialty Boards. Due to occupational closure, licensed engineers enjoy significant influence over their regulation, they are the authors of the pertinent codes of ethics used by some of these organizations. Engineers in private practice most find themselves in traditional professional-client relationships in their practice. Engineers employed in government service and government-run industry are on the other side of that relationship. Despite the different focus, engineers in industry and private practice face similar ethical issues and reach similar conclusions.

One American engineering society, the National Society of Professional Engineers, has sought to extend a single professional license and code of ethics for all engineers, regardless of practice area or employment sector. In the United States, registration or licensure of professional engineers and engineering practice is governed by the individual states; each registration or license is valid only in the state. Some licensed engineers maintain licenses in more than one state. Comity known as reciprocity, between states allows engineers who are licensed or registered in one state to obtain a license in another state without meeting the ordinary rigorous proof of qualification by testing; this is accomplished by the second state recognizing the validity of the first state's licensing or registration process. Licensure in the United States began in the State of Wyoming when lawyers and others without engineering training were making poor quality submissions to the state for permission to use state water for irrigation.

Clarence Johnson, the Wyoming state engineer, presented a bill in 1907 to the state legislature that required registration for anyone presenting themselves as an engineer or land surveyor and created a board of examiners. Charles Bellamy, a 52-year-old engineer and mineral surveyor became the first licensed professional engineer in the United States. After enactment, Johnson would wryly write about the effect of the law, saying, "A most astonishing change took place within a few months in the character of maps and plans filed with the applications for permits." Louisiana, followed by Florida and Illinois, would become the next states to require licensure. Montana became the last state to legislate the licensing in 1947. Requirements for licensing vary, but are as follows: Graduate from an Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology -accredited four-year college or university program with a degree in engineering or in some states, graduate from an ABET-accredited four-year college or university program with a degree in engineering technology.

Complete a standard Fundamentals of Engineering written examination, which tests applicants on breadth of understanding of basic engineering principles and, some elements of an engineering speciality. Completion of the first two s

Fovea centralis

The fovea centralis is a small, central pit composed of packed cones in the eye. It is located in the center of the macula lutea of the retina; the fovea is responsible for sharp central vision, necessary in humans for activities for which visual detail is of primary importance, such as reading and driving. The fovea is surrounded by the perifovea outer region; the parafovea is the intermediate belt, where the ganglion cell layer is composed of more than five rows of cells, as well as the highest density of cones. The perifovea contains an more diminished density of cones, having 12 per 100 micrometres versus 50 per 100 micrometres in the most central fovea. That, in turn, is surrounded by a larger peripheral area, which delivers compressed information of low resolution following the pattern of compression in foveated imaging. Half of the nerve fibers in the optic nerve carry information from the fovea, while the remaining half carry information from the rest of the retina; the parafovea extends to a radius of 1.25 mm from the central fovea, the perifovea is found at a 2.75 mm radius from the fovea centralis.

The term fovea comes from the from Latin foves, meaning'pit'. The fovea is a depression in the inner retinal surface, about 1.5 mm wide, the photoreceptor layer of, cones and, specialized for maximum visual acuity. Within the fovea is a region of 0.5mm diameter called the foveal avascular zone. This allows the light to be sensed without any loss; this anatomy is responsible for the depression in the center of the fovea. The foveal pit is surrounded by the foveal rim; this is the thickest part of the retina. The fovea is located in a small avascular zone and receives most of its oxygen from the vessels in the choroid, across the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane; the high spatial density of cones along with the absence of blood vessels at the fovea accounts for the high visual acuity capability at the fovea. The center of the fovea is the foveola – about 0.35 mm in diameter – or central pit where only cone photoreceptors are present and there are no rods. The central fovea consists of compact cones and more rod-like in appearance than cones elsewhere.

These cones are densely packed. Starting at the outskirts of the fovea, rods appear, the absolute density of cone receptors progressively decreases; the anatomy of the foveola was reinvestigated, it was discovered that outer segments from the central foveolar cones of monkeys are not straight and twice as long as those from the parafovea. The size of the fovea is small with regard to the rest of the retina. However, it is the only area in the retina where 20/20 vision is attainable, is the area where fine detail and colour can be distinguished. Anatomical macula / macula lutea / area centralis: Diameter = 5.5mm Demarcated by the superior and inferior temporal arterial arcades. Has an elliptical shape horizontally. Histologically the only region of the retina where GCL has >1 layer of ganglion cells Yellowish appearance = luteal pigments (xanthophyll and beta-carotenoid in the outer nuclear layers inward. Anatomical perifovea: Region between parafovea and edge of macula GCL has 2–4 layers of cells.

12 cones / 100 um Anatomical parafovea: Diameter = 2.5mm. GCL has >5 layers of cells, highest density of cones Anatomical fovea / fovea centralis Area of depression in the centre of the macula lutea. Diameter = 1.5mm Foveal avascular zone Diameter = 0.5mm Approximately equal to the foveola Anatomical foveola Diameter = 0.35mm the central floor of depression of fovea centralis 50 cones / 100 um Highest visual acuity Anatomical umbo Represents the precise center of the macula Diameter = 0.15mm Corresponds to the clinical light reflex In the primate fovea the ratios of ganglion cells to photoreceptors is about 2.5. Therefore, the acuity of foveal vision is limited only by the density of the cone mosaic, the fovea is the area of the eye with the highest sensitivity to fine details. Cones in the central fovea express pigments that are sensitive to red light; these cones are the'midget' pathways that underpin high acuity functions of the fovea. The fovea is employed for accurate vision in the direction.

It takes up over 50 % of the visual cortex in the brain. The fovea sees only the central two degrees of the visual field. If an object is large and thus covers a large angle, the eyes must shift their gaze to subsequently bring different portions of the image into the fovea. Since the fovea does not have rods, it is not sensitive to dim lighting. Hence, in order to observe dim stars, astronomers use averted vision, looking out of the side of their eyes where the density of rods is greater, hence dim objects are more visible; the fovea has a high concentration of the yellow carotenoid pigments zeaxanthin. They are concentrated in the Henle fiber layer an

Longwood, County Meath

Longwood called Moydervy, is a village in southwest County Meath, Ireland. It is located about 15 km south of the town of Trim on the R160 regional road, it is about 50 km from Dublin, off the N4 road. In the early years of the 21st century the population of Longwood increased with the population more than trebling from 480 inhabitants as of the 2002 census, to 1,581 people as of the 2016 census; the 2016 census indicated that 65% of homes in the village were built between 2001 and 2010. The Boyne aqueduct, built in the 19th century where the canal crosses over the River Boyne is located about 3 km from the village. Longwood is recorded as a possession of the Hospital of Crutched Friars of St. John the Baptist, at Newtown Trim, at the dissolution of the monasteries in 1540; the jurors recorded that at Longwood alias Modarvy there was a castle, six houses, 40 acres arable, 60 acres pasture and underwood, valued at 40 shillings sterling. In 1611-1612 James I granted to Christopher Plunkett, knight, a castle, six houses, 40 acres arable land, 60 acres pasture and underwood in Longwood, otherwise called Mordervie or Moydervy.

This grant is consistent with the description of Longwood some seventy years earlier. As important for the development of Longwood is the fact that James 1st granted a fair by patent in 1611. Only the fairs at Athboy, Ballyboggan, Navan and Ratoath are older, some eighteen in Meath are in date of grant; the Down Survey barony map of Moyfenrath outlines the townland of Longwood but does not depict any buildings or features. The Civil Survey, mentions a castle, a mill and a weir, that Longwood is in the possession of Nicholas Plunkett, a Catholic, a descendant of Christopher Plunkett mentioned above. Edward Tyrrell of Lynn County Westmeath, was created a Baronet in 1680. Edward married Eleanor Loftus, the granddaughter of Sir James Ware, auditor-general of Ireland and famous historian, their only child Catherine married Robert Edgeworth of Longwood. Robert Edgeworth was in possession of Longwood from the 1680s if not before; the estates of Edward Tyrrell, attained in 1688 were restored to Robert Edgeworth of Longwood.

Edgeworthstown in County Longford is associated with this family and received more attention and patronage than did Longwood. The location of a fair at Longwood is apparent from its depiction in Larkin's map of 1812, it depicts housing around each side of a triangular green and a wide road leading off the green to the east. The fair green function is confirmed by Carlisle writing in 1810: "The fairs are held 1 July, Whit-Tuesday, 12 July and 11 December"; the population of Longwood was 398 in 1813, dropping to 300 in 1821. This suggests a population of agricultural labourers in Longwood in the early nineteenth century, a demand for their skills following the end of hostilities between England and France; the OS 1st edition map, 1837, depicts a number of houses around the triangular green, the majority on the west and south sides without garden plots to the rear. This suggests a number of cabins, a fact confirmed by the large amount of 4th class housing recorded at Longwood in 1843. Sixty-nine percent of the housing at Longwood consisted of conglomerations of mud cabins inhabited by agricultural and rural labourers.

Places like Stamullen and Bohermeen, by comparison, fared no better. There was more substantial housing along the south side of the street leading to the green – formal plots behind these houses indicates this. In 1837 the police station was located at the east end of the village, at the junction of the Trim to Enfield road with the village. Hidden away on the opposite corner was the Catholic church, well back from the street, an unusual L-shaped plan. Lewis described this church as "a large plain edifice". In 1824 there were two schools in Longwood; those in Longwood were held in mud-walled thatched houses and were attended by 79 Catholics and 10 Protestants in 1824. The present Catholic church has been renovated several times since. Unlike the previous building it faces onto the road behind railings and gates in a north-east south-west orientation. Built in a late-Gothic style, the western bellcote is treated as a buttress; the former parochial house dates to or was remodelled in 1845, when the property was leased from the Edgeworths by the parish priest.

It has two storeys with an advanced central two-bay porch. It is rendered with raised quoins and window surrounds. Raised quoins either in limestone or painted stucco are a feature of several other substantial two-storey hipped-roofed houses in the village. Longwood has second level school. A fair green, located beside its old primary school; the village has a post office and 4 public houses. In recent years the GAA Club has upgraded their facilities, which now include the bar, function room and a floodlit pitch. In Longwood there is an antique store, hair salon, news agents, Chinese take away, funeral directors, hardware store part of Johnny Daragans Public House and a motor bike spare parts shop. There is a Scout Group in Longwood, the 17th Meath Longwood Scout Group which operates out of the parish hall. There is a youth club, located in the local GAA club. One of its main characteristics is a wide main street. In July 2008 Meath County Council placed road markings in Longwood which included designated car parking spots.

In close proximity to the village is the River Blackwater and a little further away is the River


Scaptesyle is a genus of moths in the subfamily Arctiinae first described by Francis Walker in 1854. Palpi upturned reaching vertex of head. Antennae of male minutely ciliated. Tibia with long spurs. Forewings with stalked veins 4 and 5, vein 6 from below angle of cell and stalked veins 7,8 and 9. Hindwings with stalked veins 3,4 and 6,7. Vein 5 from above angle of cell and vein 8 from middle of cell. Scaptesyle aurigena Walker, 1863 Scaptesyle buergersi Gaede, 1926 Scaptesyle bicolor Walker, 1864 Scaptesyle bifasciata Snellen, 1904 Scaptesyle bipartita Rothschild, 1913 Scaptesyle bizone Rothschild, 1912 Scaptesyle dichotoma Meyrick, 1886 Scaptesyle dictyota Meyrick, 1886 Scaptesyle equidistans Lucas, 1890 Scaptesyle fovealis Hampson, 1903 Scaptesyle ixias Hampson, 1900 Scaptesyle luzonica Swinhoe, 1916 Scaptesyle middletoni Scaptesyle mirabilis Hampson, 1900 Scaptesyle monogrammaria Walker, 1862 Scaptesyle plumosus Rothschild, 1912 Scaptesyle sororigena Holloway, 2001 Scaptesyle subtricolor van Eecke, 1927 Scaptesyle tetramita Turner, 1940 Scaptesyle thestias Snellen, 1904 Scaptesyle tricolor Walker, 1854 Scaptesyle violinitens Rothschild, 1912 Scaptesyle aroa Bethune-Baker, 1904 Scaptesyle incerta Semper, 1899 Scaptesyle pseudoblabia Hampson, 1918 Scaptesyle rothschildi Draudt, 1914 Pitkin, Brian & Jenkins, Paul.

"Search results Family: Arctiidae". Butterflies and Moths of the World. Natural History Museum, London

Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica

The Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, or National Gallery of Ancient Art, is an art gallery in Rome, the main national collection of older paintings in Rome. It has two sites: the Palazzo Corsini; the Palazzo Barberini was designed for Pope Urban VIII, a member of the Barberini family, by 16th century Italian architect Carlo Maderno on the old location of Villa Sforza. Its central salon ceiling was decorated by Pietro da Cortona with the visual panegyric of the Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power to glorify the papal Barberini family; the Palazzo Corsini known as Palazzo Riario, is a 15th-century palace, rebuilt in the 18th century by architect Ferdinando Fuga for Cardinal Neri Maria Corsini. For a partial list of artworks, see Palazzo Corsini entry. Paintings in the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica Media related to Galleria nazionale d'arte antica at Wikimedia Commons Palazzo Barberini and Palazzo Corsini Official Websites Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, hosted in the Palazzo Corsini