click links in text for more info

Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, whose history was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications. Various dynastic lines of the House of Welf ruled Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806; as a result of the Congress of Vienna, its successor state, the Duchy of Brunswick, was created in 1815. After Otto the Child, grandchild of Henry the Lion, had been given the former allodial seat of his family by Emperor Frederick II on 21 August 1235 as an imperial enfeoffment under the name of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the dukedom was divided in 1267/1269 by his sons. Albert I was given the regions around Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Einbeck-Grubenhagen and Göttingen-Oberwald, he thus founded the Old House of Brunswick and laid the basis for what became the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. His brother John founded the Old House of Lüneburg; the town of Brunswick remained under joint rule.

The area of Brunswick was further subdivided in the succeeding decades. For example, the lines of Grubenhagen and Göttingen were split for a while. In a similar way, in 1432 the estates between the Deister hills and the Leine river, gained in the meantime from the Middle House of Brunswick, split away to form the Principality of Calenberg. There were further divisions. In the meanwhile the dukes became weary of the constant disputes with the citizens of the town of Brunswick and, in 1432, moved their Residenz to the water castle of Wolfenbüttel, which lay in a marshy depression of the river Oker about 12 kilometres south of Brunswick; the castle built here for the Brunswick-Lüneburg dukes - together with the ducal chancery, the consistory, the courts and the archives - became the nerve centre of a giant region, from which the Wolfenbüttel-Brunswick part of the overall dukedom was ruled. For a long time it governed the principalities of Calenberg-Göttingen and Grubenhagen, the Prince-Bishopric of Halberstadt, large parts of the Prince-Bishopric of Hildesheim, the counties of Hohnstein and Regenstein, the baronies of Klettenberg and Lohra and parts of Hoya on the Lower Weser.

The importance of this court was signified by the number of craftsmen needed. Hundreds of timber-framed buildings were built for the court, for its citizens and for ducal facilities randomly designed to ducal requirements and for fire protection. In the heyday of the town's development its districts were named after various dukes: the Auguststadt in the west, the Juliusstadt in the east and the Heinrichstadt. Following the twelfth division of the duchy in 1495, whereby the Principality of Brunswick-Calenberg-Göttingen was re-divided into its component territories, Duke Henry the Elder was given the land of Brunswick, to which the name of the new Residenz at Wolfenbüttel was added. From on the name of the principality became "Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel"; the reigns of dukes Henry the Younger and Henry Julius followed, under whose lordship the Residenz of Wolfenbüttel was expanded and the principality gained a Germany-wide standing. In 1500 Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel became part of the Lower Saxon Circle within the Holy Roman Empire.

From 1519 to 1523 the principality went to war with the principalities of Hildesheim and Lüneburg in the Hildesheim Diocesan Feud which, despite a resounding defeat in the Battle of Soltau resulted in large territorial gains accruing to Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. In the Thirty Years War Wolfenbüttel was the strongest fortress in North Germany, but survived the war damaged; the Wolfenbüttel line died out during the war. In 1571 the castle and village of Calvörde became part of the principality thanks to Duke Julius of Brunswick. In 1635 Duke Augustus the Younger, from the collateral line of Lüneburg-Dannenberg, took over the reins of power in the principality and founded the New House of Brunswick. Under his rule Wolfenbüttel reached its cultural zenith. One of his greatest achievements was the building of the Wolfenbüttel Library, the largest in Europe in its day. In 1671 an old pipe dream of the House of Welf dukes came true when the joint armies of the different dynastic lines were able to capture the town of Brunswick and add it to their domain.

In 1735 when the dynastic line died out another collateral line emerged: the Brunswick-Bevern line founded in 1666. In 1753/1754 the residence of the dukes of Wolfenbüttel returned to Brunswick, to the newly built Brunswick Palace; the town thus lost the independence. In the process, the duke followed the trend and did not interfere with anything, including work on the new castle, begun in 1718 by Hermann Korb on the Grauer Hof, still not finished; the effect on Wolfenbüttel was catastrophic, as can be seen from the timber-framed houses built on. 4,000 townsfolk followed the ducal family and Wolfenbüttel's population sank from 12,000 to 7,000. Only the archives, the ecclesiastical office and the library remained as a link to earlier times. From Brunswick there were jibes that Wolfenbüttel had deteriorated into a "widows' residence"; the extensive gardens in front of the three town gates were leased to the former gardeners as an emphyteusis. As a consequence jam factories were established which were characteristic of Wolfenbüttel until the 20th century.

In front of the Herzogtor the number of gardens grew, until they reached the Lechlum Wood. Its southern edge was graced by the little Lustschloss

Astoria Park

Astoria Park is a 59.96-acre park located along the East River in the New York City borough of Queens. The park is maintained by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, it is situated in Astoria and adjacent to the Hell Gate Bridges. The park contains New York City's largest swimming pool; the outdoor 54,450-square-foot pool, planned by parks commissioner Robert Moses and opened in 1936, was used for qualifying events for the 1936 and 1964 Summer Olympics. Other attractions include bocce courts, fourteen tennis courts, two playgrounds, a skatepark, basketball courts, one track for running. One of the playgrounds, Charybdis Playground, is across the Hell Gate from Scylla Point on Wards Island. In 2001, the two features were named after Scylla and Charybdis, two water hazards described in Homer's Odyssey, after Henry Stern petitioned the federal government to rename what was known as "Negro Point"; the names stem from the dangerous whirlpools in the waters of the Hell Gate. The park was the site of a Native American settlement, is close to where the General Slocum caught fire and sunk in 1904.

On Independence Day, the Queens Symphony Orchestra plays in Astoria Park during the fireworks show. Upcoming events are posted on the NYC Parks website. New York City Department of Parks and Recreation: Astoria Park

Sandager's wrasse

Coris sandeyeri, Sandager's wrasse, is a species of wrasse native to the southwestern Pacific Ocean from Australia to New Zealand and the Kermadec Islands. This species can be found on reefs down to depths of about 60 metres, it can reach a length of 25 centimetres TL. It can be found in the aquarium trade; the wrasses live in small shoals consisting of one male and several'attendant' females and juveniles. In the presence of the male, all juveniles will grow into females, but when the male dies or is removed from the shoal, the group's dominant female undergoes physiological changes to convert herself into a male; the male fish has a deeper body, differs in colouration. For example, the male has distinctive bands, whereas the female is paler in colour and only has 2 dark spots; the difference between the spelling of the scientific name and the common name led to a proposal in 1927 to change the specific epithet to "sandageri" on the theory that the original description constituted a misspelling.

In 2011, it was shown that "Sandager" was spelled "Sandeyer" at that time and thus that the original spelling should stand. Greenwood. T. et al. OCR Biology A2 2012, Hamilton: Biozone International Ltd. pg. 155 Tony Ayling & Geoffrey Cox, Collins Guide to the Sea Fishes of New Zealand, ISBN 0-00-216987-8


Aackosoft International B. V. was a Dutch video game developer and publisher that developed games for the MSX home computer, becoming one of the biggest publishers for the MSX platform. It re-released some titles for the ZX Spectrum and Commodore 64, for which it distributed software in their early years. Aackosoft filed for bankruptcy in 1988. Aackosoft released its software under multiple labels. Besides the Aackosoft brand name, software was released as Aackosoft Edusystems, Eurosoft, Methodic Solutions and The ByteBusters; the latest was the name of Aackosoft's programming team. Many of Aackosoft's games are clones of more famous arcade games: Boom!, MacAttack, Oh Shit!, Jet Bomber, Moon Rider, Space Busters, Break In, Time Curb and Robot Wars. Some more original games include Life in the Fast Lane, Kick It!, Skooter, North Sea Helicopter and Ultra Chess. In 1986 Aackosoft released Sprinter. In addition to games, Aackosoft developed accounting and educational software for the MSX

Véronique (operetta)

Véronique is an opéra comique in three acts with music by André Messager and words by Georges Duval and Albert Vanloo. The opera, set in 1840 Paris, depicts a dashing but irresponsible aristocrat with complicated romantic affairs paired with the resourceful heroine. Véronique is Messager’s most enduring operatic work. After its successful premiere in Paris in 1898, it was produced across continental Europe, the US and Australia, it remains part of the operatic repertoire in France. After a fallow period in the mid-1890s, Messager had an international success with Les p'tites Michu. In 1898 his improved fortunes continued when he was appointed musical director of the Opéra-Comique in Paris, his work as a conductor left him little time for composition, Véronique was his last stage work for seven years, despite its being his most successful work thus far. His librettists were his collaborators from Les p'tites Michu. Before working with Messager, Vanloo had collaborated with Offenbach and Chabrier, Duval had written a succession of musical and non-musical comic pieces since the mid-1870s.

The stars of the Théâtre des Bouffes Parisiens company, Mariette Sully and Jean Périer, were well known and popular figures with Paris audiences, among the supporting players were singers familiar from Les p'tites Michu, including Maurice Lamy, Victor Regnard and Brunais. Véronique was first performed at the Bouffes Parisiens on 10 December 1898, it ran until a total of 175 performances. The action takes place in and around Paris during the reign of Louis Philippe, in 1840. A florist's shop under the sign of the ‘Temple de Flore’The lifestyle of Vicomte Florestan, a dashing but feckless young aristocrat, has left him in severe debt, his uncle, tired off paying off Florestan's debts, has made him promise to get married or go to prison as a bankrupt. Florestan has chosen the arranged marriage. Florestan has been having an affair with Agathe Coquenard, the wife of the owner of the florist shop where the action takes place. Old Monsieur Coquenard, who flirts with the flower shop girls, is hoping that, despite his incompetence with a sword, his nomination to be a captain in the Garde Nationale will arrive soon.

Just arrived in Paris, Hélène and her aunt, the Countess Ermerance de Champ d’Azur, now visit the shop to buy their corsages for a ball the countess is giving to celebrate her niece's engagement. Hélène is not pleased to be entering an arranged marriage, their servant Séraphin is eagerly anticipating his marriage and wants to slip away to his wedding feast. Florestan arrives at flirts with the shop girls. Hélène and Ermerance overhear a conversation where Florestan breaks off his liaison with Agathe, in the process learning that he is Hélène's intended husband; when Florestan complains that he must leave Agathe for a simple girl from the provinces, Hélène vows to take revenge on him, although she finds him handsome. To celebrate the last day of his bachelorhood, Florestan invites the entire staff of Coquenard’s shop for a party in Romainville. Hélène and Ermerance disguise themselves as working girls using the names Estelle. Coquenard receives his national guard nomination, in his excitement he hires Véronique and Estelle as shop assistants.

"Véronique" succeeds in gaining Florestan's attention, to the annoyance of Madame Coquenard, whose husband shows interest in the new flower girl. Florestan invites Estelle to join the party; the Tourne Bride restaurant in Romainville that daySéraphin and his bride Denise are celebrating their wedding in a rustic setting. Monsieur Coquenard meanwhile flirts with Hélène's aunt, Loustot is much taken by Agathe; the vicomte passionately expresses his love for Véronique, who mocks him, feigning shyness. Following a donkey ride and courting on a swing, Florestan decides that he is in love with Véronique and that he will not attend the ball that night. Séraphin now recognises "Véronique" and "Estelle". Now, to complete the trick, Hélène and Ermerance borrow their servant's cart to return to Paris, leaving a letter for Florestan from Véronique apologising for her departure and suggesting that they might meet again soon, he swears. Loustot arrests him. A salon in the Tuileries. Ermerance reflects on her wooing by Coquenard, while Hélène looks forward to seeing Florestan again and being introduced to him in her real identity.

Captain Coquenard and his wife have mysteriously been invited to the court ball. They meet Estelle and Véronique, realise who they are. Agathe tells Hélène that, in love with Véronique, Florestan decided on jail rather than marry a stranger. Hélène swiftly pays off his debts to effect his release; when he arrives at the ball, Agathe mocks Florestan and reveals to him that Véronique is Hélène, but his embarrassment makes him reject Hélène. There is soon a reconciliation however, in general rejoicing the marriage is sealed. Act IOuverture Choeur: "Quelle fraîcheur délicieuse" et couplets d'Agathe "Ah! La charmante promenade" – Hélène, Ermerance, Séraphin "Bonjour, Monsieur Séraphin" – Séraphin, choeurs "Vrai Dieu! mes bons amis" – Florestan Couplets: "Quand j'étais Baron de Merlettes" – Loustot "Alors tout est fini" – Hélène, Florestan, Agathe "Petite dinde! Ah quel outrage" – Hélène "Mes voitures sont à la porte" "Allure martiale, Energique maintien" – Florestan "Pardon, je suis indiscrète… Depuis c’matin, cherchant d’l’ouvrage" – Véronique, choeurs Ensemble, "C'est Estelle

Pakkins' Land

Pakkins' Land is an epic all-ages fantasy story created by husband and wife team and Rhoda Shipman. Originating as a critically hailed comic book series, the story was written by the pair with Gary Shipman illustrating the series. Pakkins’ Land tells the tale of Paul, a young boy who finds himself in a magical world filled with talking animals and excitement. 1995 saw the first appearance of Pakkins' Land in the form of black & white xeroxed copied issues called ashcans. Because of the nature of these first three issues being creator-produced, they were low-edition, as such have since become rare. In October 1996 the independent comic book company, Caliber Comics, began publishing the first of the six issue monthly series, Pakkins' Land: Paul's Adventure, as its flagship title in launching an all-ages imprint, Tapestry; the issues consist of black & white interior pages with full-color covers that become the series published format for the entire next decade. In June 1997 Tapestry published the stand-alone Pakkins' Land Issue # 0, to serve as a prologue to the Pakkins' Land series.

With the first six-issue story arc concluded, in August 1997 Caliber began publishing the second six-issue installment of the series, Pakkins' Land: Quest For Kings, which continued the overall story. Issue # 1 was published with two variant covers, one which featured the art of Jeff Smith of Bone fame. Starting in September 1997 the Pakkins' Land saga was further serialized in 17 short offshoot stories as a full-color weekly webcomic strip presented by online comics' retailer, In October 1997 Caliber repackaged the entire six issues of Pakkins' Land: Paul's Adventure and the Pakkins' Land Issue # 0, publishing it as a trade paperback entitled: Pakkins' Land: Paul's Adventure. In November 1997, with Issue # 3, Pakkins' Land: Quest For Kings began a bi-monthly publishing schedule. In April 1998 Caliber began publishing Pakkins' Land: Forgotten Dreams. Caliber published only three issues of the four issue series. In December 1998 Caliber published A Caliber Christmas which featured a seven-page Pakkins' Land story, entitled: Pakkins' Land: Christmas Remembered.

In March 2000 Image Comics published a larger-sized Issue # 4, which wrapped up the Pakkins' Land: Forgotten Dreams story arc. In 2000 Pakkins' Land Volume One: Paul's Adventure, Revised Edition ISBN 0-9700241-1-8 was published as a trade paperback by the Shipman's own self-publishing imprint, Pakkins Presents; the graphic novel features a revised look at the first six-issue series, including additional new art and writing. In 2001 the trade paperbacks Pakkins' Land Volume Two: Quest For Kings ISBN 0-9700241-2-6 and Pakkins' Land Volume Three: Forgotten Dreams ISBN 0-9700241-3-4 were published by Pakkins Presents. In April 2003 the trade paperback Pakkins' Land Volume Four: Tavitah ISBN 0-9700241-4-2 was published by Pakkins Presents. In May 2005, Pakkins' Land was realized for the first time in complete full-color as the independent comic book company, Alias Enterprises 1, began publishing a newly revised edition of the series as a monthly title. In 2011, Pakkins' Land The Complete Series: Volume 1 Presented in the original black-and-white, includes a foreword by comic veteran Jim Krueger, an all-new original painted cover and special features inside.

Volume One was released by Lamp Post Inc.. In 2012, Pakkins' Land The Complete Series: Volume 2 Presented in the original black-and-white, includes a foreword by comic creator Gary Shipman, an all-new original painted cover and special features inside. Volume Two was released by Lamp Post Inc.. In 2013, Pakkins' Land The Complete Series: Volume 3 Presented in the original black-and-white, includes a foreword by writer James Pruett, an all-new original painted cover and special features inside. Volume Three was released by Lamp Post Inc.. In July 2018, Pakkins Land creator Gary Shipman, in a live stream on his YouTube channel, announced he was working on new material to continue the series. By December 2018, Shipman had announced during his live streams that he was working on a Omnibus edition of the series which would feature over 400 pages of art, began drawing new story art for it during those streams. Receiving accolades from both fans and critics alike, the series has been compared to The Wizard of Oz and The Chronicles of Narnia, garnered award recognition.

Cold Cut Distribution called Pakkins' Land a "A charming fantasy full of childlike wonder" and wrote: "'There aren't enough comics out there for younger readers,' say some shop owners.'Or for the child in all of us,' I agree. Luckily, here's one more." The work is composed of 4 volumes: ISBN 0-9700241-1-8 published 2000 Chapter 1: My Adventure Chapter 2: The Long Way! Chapter 3: Cliff Hanger Chapter 4: The Awakening Chapter 5: Death Ridge Issue # 1: Paul's Adventure Issue # 2: The Long Way! Issue # 3: Cliff Hanger Issue # 4: Death Ridge Issue # 5: Stranger In A Strange Land Issue # 6: The Gathering ISBN 0-9700241-2-6 published 2001 Chapter 1: Quest For Kings Chapter 2: The Gathering Chapter 3: The Captive Chapter 4:... And A Little Child Shall Lead Them Chapter 5: Forbidden City Issue # 1: Quest For Kings Issue # 2:... And A Little Child Shall Lead Them Issue # 3: Forbidden City Issue # 4: The Rescuers Issue # 5: The Confrontation Issue # 6: Stand Off! ISBN 0-9700241-3-4 published 2001 Chapter 1: Cave In Chapter 2: The Symbol Chapter 3: Rasha's Dungeon Chapter 4: The Confrontation Chapter 5: The Healer Issue # 1: Forgotten Dreams Issue # 2: Awake Sleeper!

Issue # 3: Strange Dreams Issue # 4: These Dreams ISBN 0-9700241-4-2 published