Governorate of Livonia
The Governorate of Livonia was one of the Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire, now divided between the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Estonia. Following the capitulation of Estonia and Livonia in 1710, Peter the Great, on July 28, 1713, created the Riga Governorate which included Smolensk Uyezd, Dorogobuzh Uyezd, Roslavl Uyezd and Vyazma Uyezd of Smolensk Governorate. Smolensk Province was created from territory in Smolensk Governorate at that time, it was incorporated into Smolensk Governorate when it was reformed in 1726. Sweden formally ceded Swedish Livonia to Russia in 1721 with the Treaty of Nystad. In 1722 Tartu County was added to Riga Governorate. In 1726 Smolensk Governorate was separated from Governorate, which now had five provinces: Rīga, Cēsis, Tartu, Pärnu and Saaremaa. In 1783 the Sloka County was added. On July 3, 1783 Catherine the Great reorganized Governorate into Riga Lieutenancy. Only in 1796, after the Third Partition of Poland this territory was renamed as the Governorate of Livonia.
Until the late 19th century the governorate was not ruled by Russian laws but was administered autonomously by the local German Baltic nobility through a feudal Landtag. German nobles insisted on preserving their privileges and use of the German language. In 1816 Tsar Alexander liberated the serfs of Livonia, in a precursor to his plans for the rest of Russia. After the Russian February Revolution in 1917, the northern part of the Governorate of Livonia was combined with the Governorate of Estonia to form a new Autonomous Governorate of Estonia; the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia issued the Estonian Declaration of Independence on 24 February 1918, one day before it was occupied by German troops during World War I. With the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918, Bolshevik Russia accepted the loss of the Livland Governorate and by agreements concluded in Berlin on 27 August 1918, the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia and the Governorate of Livonia were severed from Russia; the Governorate of Livonia was divided into 9 counties.
Note: After the February Revolution based on declaration of the Provisional Government of Russia of 30 March 1917 "About the autonomy of Estland", the Government of Livland was divided: five northern counties with the Estonian population as well as the populated by the Estonians townships of Walk county were all included into the composition of the neighboring Governorate of Estonia. However the new border between the Governments of Estonia and Livland was never properly demarcated. By the Imperial census of 1897. In bold are languages spoken by more people than the state language. Administrative divisions of Russia in 1713-1714 Baltic governorates Courland Governorate Estonia Governorate Livonian Confederation
Swedish Livonia was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1629 until 1721. The territory, which constituted the southern part of modern Estonia and the northern part of modern Latvia, represented the conquest of the major part of the Polish-Lithuanian Duchy of Livonia during the 1600–1629 Polish-Swedish War. Parts of Livonia and the city of Riga were under Swedish control as early as 1621 and the situation was formalized in Truce of Altmark 1629, but the whole territory was not ceded formally until the Treaty of Oliva in 1660; the minority part of the Wenden Voivodeship retained by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was renamed the Inflanty Voivodeship, which today corresponds to the Latgale region of Latvia. Riga was the second largest city in the Swedish Empire at the time. Together with other Baltic Sea dominions, Livonia served to secure the Swedish dominium maris baltici. In contrast to Swedish Estonia, which had submitted to Swedish rule voluntarily in 1561 and where traditional local laws remained untouched, the uniformity policy was applied in Swedish Livonia under Karl XI of Sweden: serfdom was abolished, peasants were offered education as well as military, administrative or ecclesiastical careers, nobles had to transfer domains to the king in the Great Reduction.
The territory in turn was conquered by the Russian Empire during the Great Northern War and, following the Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia in 1710, formed the Governorate of Livonia. Formally, it was ceded to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad in 1721, together with Swedish Estonia and Swedish Ingria; the dominion retained its own diet. Jacob De la Gardie Gustaf Horn Johan Skytte Nils Assersson Mannersköld Bengt Oxenstierna Herman Wrangel Erik Eriksson Ryning Gabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie Gustaf Horn Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie Axel Lillie Bengt Oxenstierna Clas Åkesson Tott Fabian von Fersen Krister Klasson Horn Jacob Johan Hastfer Erik Dahlberg Carl Gustaf Frölich Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt Henrik Otto Albedyll Niels Jonsson Stromberg af Clastorp Infantry regiments Garnisonsregementet i Riga Guvenörsregementet i Riga Livländsk infanteribataljon I Livländsk infanteribataljon II Livländsk infanteribataljon III Livländsk infanteribataljon IV Livländskt infanteriregemente I Livländskt infanteriregemente II Livländskt infanteriregemente III Livländskt infanteriregemente IV Livländskt infanteriregemente V Cavalry regiments Laurentzens fridragoner Lewenhaupts frikompani Adelsfanan i Livland och Ösel Livländsk dragonskvadron I Livländsk dragonskvadron II Livländskt dragonregemente I Livländskt dragonregemente II Öselska lantdragonskvadronen Temporary cavalry regiments: Livländska ståndsdragonbataljonen Öselska ståndsdragonbataljonen Heikki Pihlajamäki.
Conquest and the Law in Swedish Livonia, ca. 1630-1710: A Case of Legal Pluralism in Early Modern Europe. Northern World Series. Leiden: Brill Academic Publisers, 2017. Rise of Sweden as a Great Power Swedish Empire Realm of Sweden Duchy of Estonia Estonia under Swedish rule Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek Andrejs Plakans, A Concise History of the Baltic States, Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 105ff
A principality can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title considered to fall under the generic meaning of the term prince. Most of these states have been a polity, but in some occasions were rather territories in respect of which a princely title is held; the prince's estate and wealth may be located or wholly outside the geographical confines of the principality. Recognised surviving sovereign principalities are Liechtenstein and the co-principality of Andorra. Extant royal primogenitures styled as principalities include Asturias; the Principality of Wales existed in the northern and western areas of Wales between the 13th and 16th centuries. Since that time, the title Prince of Wales has traditionally been granted to the heir to the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom, but it confers no responsibilities for government in Wales, it is one of four countries in the United Kingdom.
The Principality of Catalonia existed in the north-eastern areas of Spain between 14th and 18th centuries, as the term for the territories ruled by the Catalan courts, until the defeat of the Habsburgs in the Spanish succession war, when these institutions were abolished due to their support for the Habsburg pretender. Principality of Asturias is the official name of autonomous community of Asturias; the term principality is sometimes used generically for any small monarchy for small sovereign states ruled by a monarch of a lesser rank than a king, such as a Fürst, as in Liechtenstein, or a Grand Duke. No sovereign duchy exists, but Luxembourg is a surviving example of a sovereign grand duchy. There have been sovereign principalities with many styles of ruler, such as Countship and Lordship within the Holy Roman Empire. While the preceding definition would seem to fit a princely state the European historical tradition is to reserve that word for native monarchies in colonial countries, to apply "principality" to the Western monarchies.
Though principalities existed in antiquity before the height of the Roman Empire, the principality as it is known today developed in the Middle Ages between 750 and 1450 when feudalism was the primary economic and social system in much of Europe. Feudalism increased the power of local princes within a king's lands; as princes continued to gain more power over time, the authority of the king was diminished in many places. This led to political fragmentation as the king's lands were broken into mini-states ruled by princes and dukes who wielded absolute power over their small territories; this was prevalent in Europe, with the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire. During the Late Middle Ages from 1200 to 1500, principalities were at war with each other as royal houses asserted sovereignty over smaller principalities; these wars caused. Episodes of bubonic plague reduced the power of principalities to survive independently. Agricultural progress and development of new trade goods and services boosted commerce between principalities.
Many of these states became wealthy, expanded their territories and improved the services provided to their citizens. Princes and dukes established new ports and chartered large thriving cities; some used their new-found wealth to build palaces and other institutions now associated with sovereign states. While some principalities prospered in their independence, less successful states were swallowed by stronger royal houses. Europe saw consolidation of small principalities into larger empires; this had happened in England in the first millennium, this trend subsequently led to the creation of such states as France and Spain. Another form of consolidation was orchestrated in Italy during the Renaissance by the Medici family. A banking family from Florence, the Medici took control of governments in various Italian regions and assumed the papacy, they appointed family members as princes and assured their protection. Prussia later expanded by acquiring the territories of many other states. However, in the 17th to 19th centuries within the Holy Roman Empire, the reverse was occurring: many new small sovereign states arose as a result of transfers of land for various reasons.
Notable principalities existed until the early 20th century in various regions of Italy. Nationalism, the belief that the nation-state is the best vehicle to realise the aspirations of a people, became popular in the late 19th century. A characteristic of nationalism is an identity with a larger region such as an area sharing a common language and culture. With this development, principalities fell out of favour; as a compromise, many principalities united with neighbouring regions and adopted constitutional forms of government, with the monarch acting as a mere figurehead while administration was left in the hands of elected parliaments. The trend in the 19th and 20th centuries was the abolition of various forms of monarchy and the creation of republican governments led by popularly elected presidents. Several principalities where genealogical inheritance is replaced by succession in a religious office have existed in the Roman Catholic Church, in each case consisting o
The Singing Revolution is a used name for events between 1987 and 1991 that led to the restoration of the independence of Estonia and Lithuania. The term was coined by an Estonian activist and artist, Heinz Valk, in an article published a week after the 10–11 June 1988, spontaneous mass evening singing demonstrations at the Tallinn Song Festival Grounds. After World War II, the Baltic states had been incorporated into the USSR after military occupation and annexation first in 1940 and again in 1944. Mikhail Gorbachev introduced "glasnost" and "perestroika" in 1985, hoping to stimulate the failing Soviet economy and encourage productivity in the areas of consumer goods, the liberalisation of cooperative businesses and the service economy. Glasnost rescinded limitations on political freedoms in the Soviet Union which led to problems within the non-Russian nations occupied in the build-up to war in the 1940s. Hitherto unrecognised issues kept secret by the Moscow government were admitted to in public, causing dissatisfaction within the Baltic states.
Combined with the war in Afghanistan and the nuclear fallout in Chernobyl, grievances were aired in a publicly explosive and politically decisive manner. Estonians were concerned about the demographic threat to their national identity posed by the influx of individuals from foreign ethnic groups to work on such large Soviet development projects as phosphate mining. Access to Western émigré communities abroad and in Estonia, informal relations with Finland and access to Finnish TV showing the Western lifestyle contributed to widespread dissatisfaction with the Soviet system and provoked mass demonstrations as repression on dissidents, religious communities and ordinary consumers eased towards the end of the 1980s. Massive demonstrations against the Soviet regime began after widespread liberalisation of the regime failed to take into account national sensitivities, it was hoped by Moscow that the non-Russian nations would remain within the USSR despite the removal of restrictions on freedom of speech and national icons.
However, the situation deteriorated to such an extent that by 1989 there were campaigns aimed at freeing the nations from the Soviet Union altogether. The Soviet government's plan to excavate phosphorite in the Lääne-Viru County with catastrophic consequences for the environment and society was revealed in February 1987; that started the Phosphorite War public environmental campaign. The MRP-AEG group held the Hirvepark meeting in the Old Town of Tallinn at the anniversary of Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact on 23 August 1987, demanding to disclose and condemn its secret protocol; the "Five Patriotic Songs" series by Alo Mattiisen premiered at the Tartu Pop Festival in May 1988. In June the Old Town Festival was held in Tallinn, after the official part of the festival, the participants moved to the Song Festival Grounds and started to sing patriotic songs together spontaneously; the Baltic Way, a human chain of two million people, spanned from Tallinn to Vilnius on 23 August 1989. Mattiisen's "Five Patriotic Songs" were performed again at the Rock Summer festival in Tallinn held on 26–28 August 1988.
The Song of Estonia festival was held at the Song Festival Grounds on 11 September. Trivimi Velliste, Chairman of the Estonian Heritage Society, first voiced the public ambition to regain independence; the Supreme Soviet of Estonia issued the Estonian Sovereignty Declaration on 16 November. The Singing Revolution lasted with various protests and acts of defiance. In 1991, as Soviet tanks attempted to stop the progress towards independence, the Supreme Soviet of Estonia together with the Congress of Estonia proclaimed the restoration of the independent state of Estonia and repudiated Soviet legislation. People acted as human shields to protect TV stations from the Soviet tanks. Through these actions Estonia regained its independence without any bloodshed. Independence was declared on the late evening of 20 August 1991, after an agreement between different political parties was reached; the next morning Soviet troops, according to Estonian TV, attempted to storm Tallinn TV Tower but were unsuccessful.
The Communist hardliners' coup attempt failed amidst mass pro-democracy demonstrations in Moscow led by Boris Yeltsin. On 22 August 1991, Iceland became the first nation to recognise the newly restored independence of Estonia. Today, a plaque commemorating this event is situated on the outside wall of the Foreign Ministry, which itself is situated on Islandi väljak 1, or "Iceland Square 1"; the plaque reads. Some other nations did not recognise the annexation of Estonia by the Soviet Union. During the second half of the 1980s as Mikhail Gorbachev introduced glasnost and perestroika in the USSR, which rolled back restrictions to freedom in the Soviet Union, aversion to the Soviet regime had grown into the third Latvian National Awakening, which reached its peak in mid-1988. In 1986, it became known to the public that the USSR was planning to build another hydroelectric power plant on Latvia's largest river Daugava, that a decision had been made to build a metro in Riga. Both of these projects planned by Moscow could have led to the destruction of Latvia's landscape and cultural and historical heritage.
In the press journalists urged the public to protest against these decisions. The public reacted and in response the Environmental Protection Club was founded on 28 February 1987. During the second half of the 1980s the Environmental Protection Club became one
Soviet re-occupation of Latvia in 1944
The Soviet re-occupation of Latvia in 1944 refers to the military occupation of Latvia by the Soviet Union in 1944. During World War II Latvia was first occupied by the Soviet Union in June 1940 and was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1941–1944 after which it was re-occupied by the Soviet Union. Army Group Centre was in tatters, the northern edge of the Soviet assault threatened to trap Army Group North in a pocket in the Courland region. Panzers of Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz had been sent back to the capital of Ostland, Riga and in ferocious defensive battles had halted the Soviet advance in late April 1944. Strachwitz had been needed elsewhere, was soon back to acting as the Army Group's fire brigade. Strachwitz's Panzerverband was broken up in late July. By early August, the Soviets were again ready to attempt to cut off Army Group North from Army Group Centre. A massive Soviet assault sliced through the German lines and Army Group North was isolated from its neighbour.
Strachwitz was trapped outside the pocket, Panzerverband von Strachwitz was reformed, this time from elements of the 101st Panzer Brigade of panzer-ace Oberst Meinrad von Lauchert and the newly formed SS Panzer Brigade Gross under SS-Sturmbannführer Gross. Inside the trapped pocket, the remaining panzers and StuG IIIs of the Hermann von Salza and the last of Jähde's Tigers were formed into another Kampfgruppe to attack from the inside of the trap. On 19 August 1944, the assault, dubbed Unternehmen Doppelkopf got underway, it was preceded by a bombardment by the cruiser Prinz Eugen's 203mm guns, which destroyed forty-eight T-34s assembling in the square at Tukums. Strachwitz and the Nordland remnants meet on the 21st, contact was restored between the army groups; the 101. Panzerbrigade was now assigned to the army detachment "Narwa active at the Emajõgi River Front, bolstering the defenders' armour strength. Disaster had been averted. Army Group North was vulnerable to being cut off. In 1944, the Red Army lifted the siege of Leningrad and re-conquered the Baltic area along with much of Ukraine and Belarus.
However, some 200,000 German troops held out in Courland along with Latvian forces resisting Soviet reoccupation. They were besieged with their backs to the Baltic Sea; the Red Army failed to take the Courland Pocket. Colonel-General Heinz Guderian, the Chief of the German General Staff insisted to Adolf Hitler that the troops in Courland should be evacuated by sea and used for the defence of the Third Reich, he believed them necessary to protect German submarine bases along the Baltic coast. On January 15, 1945, Army Group Courland was formed under Colonel-General Dr. Lothar Rendulic; until the end of the war, Army Group Courland defended the Latvian peninsula. It held out until May 8, 1945, when it surrendered under Colonel-General Carl Hilpert, the army group's last commander, he surrendered to Marshal Leonid Govorov, the commander of opposing Soviet forces on the Courland perimeter. At this time the group still consisted of some 31 divisions of varying strength. After May 9, 1945 203,000 troops of Army Group Courland began moving to Soviet prison camps in the East.
The Soviet Union reoccupied Latvia as part of the Baltic Offensive in 1944, a twofold military-political operation to rout German forces and the "liberation of the Soviet Baltic peoples" beginning in summer-autumn 1944, lasting until the capitulation of German and Latvian forces in Courland pocket in May 1945, they were absorbed into Soviet Union. After World War II, as part of the goal to more integrate Baltic countries into the Soviet Union, mass deportations were concluded in the Baltic countries and the policy of encouraging Soviet immigration to Latvia continued. On January 12, 1949 the Soviet Council of Ministers issued a decree "on the expulsion and deportation" from Latvia of "all kulaks and their families, the families of bandits and nationalists", others. More than 200,000 people are estimated to have been deported from the Baltic in 1940–1953. In addition, at least 75,000 were sent to Gulag. 10 percent of the entire adult Baltic population was sent to labor camps. Many soldiers evaded capture and joined the Latvian national partisans' resistance that waged unsuccessful guerilla warfare for several years.
The precedent under international law established by the earlier-adopted Stimson Doctrine, as applied to the Baltics in U. S. Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles's declaration of July 23, 1940, defined the basis for non-recognition of the Soviet Union's forcible incorporation of Latvia. Despite Welles's statement, the Baltics soon reprised their centuries-long role as pawns in the conflicts of larger powers. After visiting Moscow in the winter of 1941–1942, British Foreign Minister Anthony Eden advocated sacrificing the Baltics to secure Soviet cooperation in the war; the British ambassador to the U. S. Lord Halifax, reported, "Mr. Eden cannot incur the danger of antagonizing Stalin, the British War Cabinet have... agree to negotiate a treaty with Stalin, which will recognize the 1940 frontiers of the Soviet Union." By 1943 Roosevelt had consigned the Baltics and Eastern Europe to Stalin. Meeting with Archbishop Spellman in New York on September 3, U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt stated, "The European people will have to endure Russian domination, in the hope that in ten or twenty years they will be able to live well with the Russians."
Meeting with Stalin in Tehran on December 1, Roosevelt "said that he f
Livonian Brothers of the Sword
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga, in 1202. Pope Innocent III sanctioned the establishment in 1204 for the second time; the membership of the order comprised German "warrior monks" who fought Baltic and Finnic pagans in the area of modern-day Estonia and Lithuania. Alternative names of the Order include Christ Knights, Sword Brethren, The Militia of Christ of Livonia; the seal reads: +MAGISTRI ETFRM MILICIE CRI DE LIVONIA. Following their defeat by the Samogitians and Semigallians in the Battle of Schaulen in 1236, the surviving Brothers merged into the Teutonic Order as an autonomous branch and became known as the Livonian Order. Albert, Bishop of Riga, founded the Brotherhood in 1202 to aid the Bishopric of Livonia in the conversion of the pagan Livonians and Selonians living across the ancient trade routes from the Gulf of Riga eastwards. From its foundation, the undisciplined Order tended to ignore its supposed vassalage to the bishops.
In 1218, Albert asked King Valdemar II of Denmark for assistance, but Valdemar instead arranged a deal with the Brotherhood and conquered northern Estonia for Denmark. The Brotherhood had its headquarters at Fellin in present-day Estonia, where the walls of the Master's castle still stand. Other strongholds included Wenden and Ascheraden; the commanders of Fellin, Marienburg and the bailiff of Weißenstein belonged to the five-member entourage of the Order's Master. Pope Gregory IX asked the Brothers to defend Finland from the Novgorodian attacks in his letter of November 24, 1232. However, no known information regarding the knights' possible activities in Finland has survived; the Order was decimated in the Battle of Schaulen in 1236 against Lithuanians and Semigallians. This disaster led the surviving Brothers to become incorporated into the Order of Teutonic Knights in the following year, from that point on they became known as the Livonian Order, they continued, however, to function in all respects as an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, headed by their own Master.
Wenno 1204–1209 Volkwin 1209–1236 Teutonic Order Battle of Saule Livonian Crusade Northern Crusades Order of Dobrin
1934 Latvian coup d'état
The 1934 Latvian coup d'état, known in Latvia as the May 15 Coup or Ulmanis' Coup, was a self-coup by the veteran Prime Minister Kārlis Ulmanis against the parliamentary system in Latvia. His regime lasted until the Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940. On the night of May 15-16 Ulmanis, with the support of Minister of War Jānis Balodis and the paramilitary Aizsargi organization took control of the main state and party offices, proclaimed a State of War in Latvia, suspended the Constitution, dissolved all political parties and the Saeima. Ulmanis established an executive non-parliamentary authoritarian regime in which he ruled as the Prime Minister. Laws continued to be promulgated by the acting government; the incumbent President of Latvia Alberts Kviesis, from Ulmanis Latvian Farmers' Union, accepted the coup and served out the rest of his term until 10 April 1936. Ulmanis illegally assumed the office of State President and was known as Valsts un Ministru Prezidents, but in publications was called Tautas Vadonis or Vadonis.
Ulmanis was unique among European dictators of the time, as he did not create one ruling party and did not introduce a new constitution. Instead, Ulmanis created state-controlled Chambers of Professions, based on the corporatist models of the authoritarian regimes of Konstantin Päts in Estonia and António de Oliveira Salazar in Portugal; the regime was based on the authority and personality cults of Ulmanis and Balodis as founders of Latvia during the Latvian War of Independence who it was claimed had freed the nation from multi-party chaos. The bloodless coup was carried out by the army and units of the national guard Aizsargi loyal to Ulmanis, they moved against key government offices and transportation facilities. Many elected officials and politicians were detained, as were any military officers that resisted the coup; some 2,000 Social Democrats were detained by the authorities, including most of the Social Democratic members of the disbanded Saeima, as were members of various right-wing radical organisations, such as Pērkonkrusts.
In all, 369 Social Democrats, 95 members of Pērkonkrusts, pro-Nazi activists from the Baltic German community, a handful of politicians from other parties were interned in a prison camp established in the Karosta district of Liepāja. After several Social Democrats, such as Bruno Kalniņš, had been cleared of weapons charges by the courts, most of those imprisoned began to be released over time, some deciding to go into exile; those convicted by the courts of treasonous acts, such as the leader of Pērkonkrusts Gustavs Celmiņš, remained behind bars for the duration of their sentences, three years in the case of Celmiņš