The Asen dynasty founded and ruled a medieval Bulgarian state, called in modern historiography the Second Bulgarian Empire, between 1187 and 1256. The Asen dynasty rose as the leaders of Bulgaria after a rebellion against the Byzantine Empire at the turn of the year 1185/1186 caused by the increase in the Imperial taxes. Early rulers from the Asen dynasty referred to themselves as "Emperors of Bulgarians and Vlachs". Rulers the successful Ivan Asen II, styled themselves "Tsars of Bulgarians and Greeks"; some members of the Asen family entered Byzantine service in the thirteenth to fourteenth centuries. The name occurs as a family name in modern Greek, could go back to the same name; the origins of the dynasty the ethnic background of the three Asen brothers are still a source of much controversy, debated among historians. There are three main hypothesis regarding their origins: Cuman origin, as some of the names in the dynasty, including Asen, are derived from Cuman language. Groups of Cumans settled and mingled with the local population in many regions of the Balkans between the 10th and 13th centuries and founded other successive Bulgarian dynasties.
Bulgarian origin, a view, common among the Bulgarian historians who reckon that all native sources use predominantly the terms Bulgaria and Bulgarian, that tsar Kaloyan claimed provenance from the rulers of the First Bulgarian Empire. Vlach origin, a view supported by Romanian and some foreign historians who base their claims on Byzantine sources, Western Crusade chronicles, letters between Pope Innocent III and Kaloyan. In their own administrative documents and correspondence, the three rulers viewed themselves as descendants and successors of the Bulgarian Tsars Samuil, Peter I and Simeon I, the state they founded as a continuation of the First Bulgarian Empire. However, this could be just a way to proclaim their legitimacy for the throne of the Empire. In a correspondence, of 1199, the Pope talks about the "Roman descent" of Kaloyan. However, considering the actual text says Nos autem audito quod de nobili urbis Romae prosapia progenitores tui originem traxerint, it is dismissed as a hidden compliment of the Pope to Kaloyan.
Pope Innocent III in his letter to the Bulgarian King Kaloyan in 1204 addressed him "King of Bulgarians and Vlachs". The Bulgarian historiography negate, while the Romanian highlight the role of the Vlachs in the uprising. However, the scientific debate reflects the nationalistic rivality from the 19-20th century, which did not exist in the 12-13th century. Vlachs and Bulgarian Slavs jointly inhabited Bulgaria, both groups in sufferance were united against the common cause under a leader, regardless of the leader "race"; the Asen brothers were associated with the Vlach population of the mountainous regions around Trnovo, Niketas Choniates recorded Vlach shamans during revolt exhibition, but of their ethnicity, it was a joint venture of the Bulgarians and Cumans. The name of the dynasty comes from one of the brothers, namely Asen I; the etymology is most of Cuman Turkic origin, derived from "esen" which meant "safe, healthy" and the Belgun nickname seems to be derived from Turkic "bilgün", which meant "wise".
Further support to this connection can be found in the charters of the Great Lavra of Mt. Athos from the end of the 12th century, which mention the monastery's problems with some of the Cuman stratiotes, where "Asen" is listed as the name of one of those Cumans. Other study shows that the only name that makes sense is änish and the word can be found exclusively in the languages of the Kıpçak Turks The Asens in Byzantium descend from Ivan Asen III, who ruled as Emperor of Bulgaria before fleeing to Constantinople as Ivaylo's uprising was gaining momentum in 1280. A despotes under Michael VIII Palaiologos, Ivan Asen III had been married to the Byzantine Emperor's eldest daughter, Irene Palaiologina; the couple's five sons and two daughters were the progenitors of one of the highest-regarded Byzantine noble families of their time, along with the Palaiologoi. Among the Byzantine Asens, three bore the title of despotes, three that of sebastokrator, two panhypersebastos, one was a megas doux and two were titled megas primikerios.
In Greek, the male form of the family name is rendered as Ἀσάνης and the female as Ασανίνα. A smaller branch descends from Elena Asenina of Bulgaria, wife of Nicaean Emperor Theodore II Laskaris; the Asens of Byzantium intermarried with other prominent noble dynasties, including the Kantakouzenos, Laskaris and Raoul families. Notable members of the Asen family in the Byzantine Empire include: Andronikos Asen, epitropos of the Morea Irene Asanina, Empress Consort of John VI Kantakouzenos Matthew Asen Kantakouzenos, Co-Emperor of Byzantium Matthew Palaiologos Asen, Lord of Corinth From Byzantium, the Asens spread as far as Frankish Greece, the Principality of Theodoro, the Principality of Moldavia, the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of Aragon. Eudoxia Laskarina Asanina, Nicaean princess, Countess of Ventimi
Inkerman is a city in the Crimean peninsula, de facto within the federal city of Sevastopol within the Russian Federation, but de jure within Ukraine. It lies 5 kilometres east of Sevastopol, at the mouth of the Chernaya River which flows into Sevastopol Inlet. Administratively, Inkerman is subordinate to the municipality of Sevastopol which does not constitute part of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Population: 10,348; the name Inkerman is said to mean "cave fortress" in Turkish. During the Soviet era the area was known between 1976 and 1991 as Bilokamiansk or Belokamensk, which means "White Stone City", in reference to the soft white stone quarried in the area and used for construction. In 1991 the Ukrainian authorities restored the pre-1976 name; the area has been inhabited since ancient times. The cave monastery of St. Clement was founded near Inkerman in the 8th century by Byzantine icon-venerators fleeing persecution in their homeland; the monastery was closed during the Soviet era and several of its churches destroyed but is now in restoration and brought back into use.
Kalamita was a medieval fortress built in the 8th-9th century on a strategic cliff overlooking the estuary and expanded in the 14th century. In 1475 Kalamita, along with the rest of the Principality of Theodoro, was taken by the Turks, Kalamita would be renamed Inkerman. After the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca in 1774 the fortress was abandoned and fell into ruin, but a small settlement at the base of the cliff remained; the town became the centre of worldwide attention in 1854 during the Crimean War, when Inkerman was the scene of the Battle of Inkerman and the Battle of Chernaya River, both victorious for the French and the British troops. During the Soviet times, a large underground ammunition warehouse of the Black Sea Fleet was situated under rocky cliffs in the Inkerman area; the storage was abandoned in the 1970s after an explosion that damaged the facility but did not detonate all its stockpiles. However, no efforts to secure the site were made until the 1990s when local residents began salvaging explosives which led to a number of deaths.
Ukrainian Army engineer corps started extracting and decommissioning outdated ammunition in 2000 under a special government program. Inkerman has since returned to its pre-war obscurity, serving as a suburb of Sevastopol linked to the downtown core by commuter ferries. One of the major Crimean wineries featuring the Inkerman label is located in the adjacent area. A popular hiking trail leading into Crimean Mountains begins just east of the town. A horse in the Household Cavalry Blues and Royals has been named after the battle; the left flank company of the 1st Battalion Grenadier Guards, which holds the traditions of the disbanded 3rd Battalion is named after the town and battle. Now known as the Inkerman Company, or by its nickname "The Ribs". Gulf of Kalamita Hicks Withers-Lancashire Official Sevastopol city website Inkerman Panoramas of Inkerman
Republic of Genoa
The Republic of Genoa was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean. The republic began when Genoa became a self-governing commune within the imperial Kingdom of Italy, ended when it was conquered by the French First Republic under Napoleon and replaced with the Ligurian Republic. Corsica was ceded to France in the Treaty of Versailles of 1768; the Ligurian Republic was annexed by the First French Empire in 1805. Before 1100, Genoa emerged as an independent city-state, one of a number of Italian city-states during this period. Nominally, the Holy Roman Emperor was overlord and the Bishop of Genoa was president of the city. Genoa was one of the so-called "Maritime Republics", along with Venice and Amalfi and trade and banking helped support one of the largest and most powerful navies in the Mediterranean; the Adorno and other smaller merchant families all fought for power in this Republic, as the power of the consuls allowed each family faction to gain wealth and power in the city.
The Republic of Genoa extended over modern Liguria and Piedmont, Corsica and had complete control of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Through Genoese participation on the Crusades, Genoese colonies were established in the Middle East, in the Aegean, in Sicily and Northern Africa; the collapse of the Crusader States was offset by Genoa's alliance with the Byzantine Empire. As Venice's relations with the Byzantine Empire were temporarily disrupted by the Fourth Crusade and its aftermath, Genoa was able to improve its position. Genoa took advantage of this opportunity to expand into Crimea. Internal feuds between the powerful families, the Grimaldi and Fieschi, the Doria and others caused much disruption, but in general the republic was run much as a business affair. Between 1218–1220 Genoa was served by the Guelph podestà Rambertino Buvalelli, who introduced Occitan literature to the city, soon to boast such troubadours as Jacme Grils, Lanfranc Cigala, Bonifaci Calvo. Genoa's political zenith came with its victory over the Republic of Pisa at the naval Battle of Meloria in 1284, with a temporary victory over its rival, Venice, at the naval Battle of Curzola in 1298.
This prosperity did not last. The Black Death was imported into Europe in 1347 from the Genoese trading post at Caffa in Crimea, on the Black Sea. Following the economic and population collapse, Genoa adopted the Venetian model of government, was presided over by a doge; the wars with Venice continued, the War of Chioggia —where Genoa managed to decisively subdue Venice—ended with Venice's recovery of dominance in the Adriatic. In 1390 Genoa initiated a crusade against the Barbary pirates with help from the French and laid siege to Mahdia. Though it has not been well-studied, the fifteenth century seems to have been a tumultuous time for Genoa. After a period of French domination from 1394–1409, Genoa came under rule by the Visconti of Milan. Genoa lost Sardinia to Aragon, Corsica to internal revolt and its Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Asia Minor colonies to the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Genoa was able to stabilize its position as it moved into the sixteenth century thanks to the efforts of Andrea Doria, who established a new constitution in 1528, making Genoa a satellite of the Spanish Empire.
Under the ensuing economic recovery, many aristocratic Genoese families, such as the Balbi, Grimaldi and Serra, amassed tremendous fortunes. According to Felipe Fernandez-Armesto and others, the practices Genoa developed in the Mediterranean were crucial in the exploration and exploitation of the New World. Christopher Columbus, for example, was a native of Genoa and donated one-tenth of his income from the discovery of the Americas for Spain to the Bank of Saint George in Genoa for the relief of taxation on foods. At the time of Genoa's peak in the 16th century, the city attracted many artists, including Rubens and Van Dyck; the architect Galeazzo Alessi designed many of the city's splendid palazzi, as did in the decades that followed by fifty years Bartolomeo Bianco, designer of centrepieces of University of Genoa. A number of Genoese Baroque and Rococo artists settled elsewhere and a number of local artists became prominent. At the time of its founding in the early 11th century the Republic of Genoa consisted of the city of Genoa and the surrounding areas.
As the commerce of the city increased, so did the territory of the Republic. By 1015 all of Liguria fell under the Republic of Genoa. After the First Crusade in 1098 Genoa gained settlements in Syria. In 1261 the city of Smyrna in Asia Minor became Genoese territory. In 1255 Genoa established the colony of Caffa in Crimea. In the following years the Genoese established further colonies in Crimea: Soldaia and Cembalo. In 1275 the Byzantine Empire granted the islands of Samos to Genoa. Between 1316 and 1332 Genoa established the Black Sea colonies of La Samsun in Anatolia. In 1355 the Byzantine Emperor John V Palaiologos granted Lesbos to a Genoese lord. At the end of the 14th century the c
Theodore of Amasea
For another Saint Theodore, see: Theodore Stratelates or Saint Theodore. Saint Theodore of Amasea is one of the two recognized saints called Theodore who are venerated as warrior saints and Great Martyrs in the Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches, he is known as Theodore Tyron. The other saint of the same name is Theodore Stratelates known as Theodore of Heraclea, but this second St Theodore may never have had a separate existence; when the epithet is omitted, the reference is to St Theodore of Amasea."Tiro" is a word from classical Latin meaning a "recently enlisted soldier or recruit". The Latin word was transliterated into Greek with various spellings. Nothing reliable is known about St Theodore except; the stories told about his life and martyrdom are all matters of legend. The legends of Theodore of Amasea recount that he was a recruit serving in the Roman army at Amasea, the modern Amasya in Northern Turkey, about 30 miles south of the Black Sea coast at Sinope and Samsun. (Another version says that he was not a recruit but was called "Tyro" because he served in the Cohors Tyronum When he refused to join his fellow soldiers in pagan rites of worship, he was arrested, but set free after a warning.
However, he again protested paganism by setting fire to the temple of Cybele at Amasea. He was condemned to death and, after tortures, was executed by being thrown into a furnace, his remains were said to have been obtained by a woman from Eusebia and interred at Euchaita, where he had been born. This was a Byzantine city which no longer exists but is thought to correspond to the modern Avkhat, about 30 miles from Amasea. A shrine was erected there. Gregory of Nyssa preached in honour of St Theodore in his sanctuary in the late 4th century, this is the earliest source for any information about him, he said nothing about St Theodore's life beyond the basic legend as given above, but he told how he could influence the lives of his hearers and mentioned that he could intervene in battles. This became a important attribute of St Theodore, he was adopted by crusaders as their patron. The sanctuary of the saint was established at Euchaita his birthplace, legends of his life and martyrdom have been developed by hagiographers over the years.
Additions to the story, between the 8th and 10th centuries, told of a dragon, terrorising the district round Amasea, which he was able to vanquish with the aid of a cross. Amasea was by in a district liable to attacks by marauding barbarians, against whom the saint was said to have interceded, his sanctuary continued to be visited until around 1100, although the district was by occupied by the Arabs. In Western Christianity, he is called'Theodore of Amasea' from the ancient city in Pontus where he suffered martyrdom. Sometimes he is called'Theodore Euchaita', from the place where he was born and to which his body had been carried, where his shrine was erected later. In Eastern Christianity, he is more known as Theodore Teron, "Theodore the Recruit". There is much confusion between him and St Theodore Stratelates of Heraclea, sometimes said to have had a shrine at Euchaita, but the shrine of the latter was in fact at Euchaneia, his "lives" are listed in Bibliotecha Hagiographica Graeca 1760-1773.
Iconography of the horseman with spear overcoming evil was widespread throughout the Christian period. Iconographic representations of St Theodore as dragon-slayer are dated to as early as the 7th century by the early 10th century. Theodore is reported as having destroyed a dragon near Euchaita in a legend not younger than the late 9th century; the earliest image of St Theodore as a horseman is from Vinica, North Macedonia and, if genuine, dates to the 6th or 7th century. Here, Theodore is not slaying a dragon; the "Christianisation" of the Thracian horseman iconography can be traced to the Cappadocian cave churches of Göreme, where frescoes of the 10th century show military saints on horseback confronting serpents with one, two or three heads. One of the earliest examples is from the church known as Mavrucan 3 dated to the 10th century, which portrays two "sacred riders" confronting a two serpents twined around a tree, in a striking parallel to the Dioskuroi stela, except that the riders are now attacking the snake in the "tree of life" instead of a boar.
In this example, at least, there appear to be two snakes with separate heads, but other examples of 10th-century Cappadocia show polycephalous snakes. A poorly preserved wall-painting at the Yılanlı Kilise that depicts the two saints Theodore and George attacking a dragon has been tentatively dated to the 10th century, or alternatively to the mid-9th. A similar example, but showing three equestrian saints, Demetrius and George, is from the "Zoodochos Pigi" chapel in central Macedonia in Greece, in the prefecture of Kilkis, near the modern village of Kolchida, dated to the 9th or 10th century. A 12th-century depiction of Theodore as equestrian dragon-slayer is found in four muqarna panels in the nave of the Cappella Palatina in Palermo; the dragon motif was transferred to the George legend from that of his fellow soldier saint, Saint Theodore Tiro. The transfer of the dragon
The Crimean Khanate was a Turkic state of the Ottoman Empire from 1441 to 1783, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde of Mongol origin. Established by Hacı I Giray in 1441, the Crimean khans were the patrilineal descendants of Toqa Temür, thirteenth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan through marriage. Though, according to a well-know Russian historian, Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences Zaitsev Ilya Vladimirovich, the Crimean Khanate was an independent state during all its history; the khanate was located in present-day Russia, Ukraine and Moldova. Ottoman forces under Gedik Ahmet Pasha conquered all of the Crimean peninsula and joined it to the khanate in 1475. In 1774, it was released as a sovereign political entity, following the Russo-Turkish Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, formally annexed by the Russian Empire in 1783, becoming the Taurida Governorate. English-speaking writers during the 18th and early 19th centuries called the territory of the Crimean Khanate and of the Lesser Nogai Horde Little Tartary.
The name "Little Tartary" distinguished the area from Tartary – those areas of central and northern Asia inhabited by Turkic peoples or Tatars. The Khanate included the Crimean peninsula and the adjacent steppes corresponding to the parts of South Ukraine between the Dnieper and the Donets rivers; the territory controlled by the Crimean Khanate shifted throughout its existence due to the constant incursions by the Cossacks, who had lived along the Don since the disintegration of the Golden Horde in the 15th century. The London-based cartographer Herman Moll in a map of c. 1729 shows "Little Tartary" as including the Crimean peninsula and the steppe between Dnieper and Mius River as far north as the Dnieper bend and the upper Tor River. The Crimean Khanate originated in the early 15th century when certain clans of the Golden Horde Empire ceased their nomadic life in the Desht-i Kipchak and decided to make Crimea their yurt. At that time, the Golden Horde of the Mongol empire had governed the Crimean peninsula as an ulus since 1239, with its capital at Qirim.
The local separatists invited a Genghisid contender for the Golden Horde throne, Hacı Giray, to become their khan. Hacı Giray traveled from exile in Lithuania, he warred for independence against the Horde in the end achieving success. But Hacı Giray had to fight off internal rivals before he could ascend the throne of the khanate in 1449, after which he moved its capital to Qırq Yer; the khanate included the Crimean Peninsula as well as the adjacent steppe. The sons of Hacı I Giray contended against each other to succeed him; the Ottomans installed one of the sons, Meñli I Giray, on the throne. Menli I Giray, took the imperial title "Sovereign of Two Continents and Khan of Khans of Two Seas." In 1475 the Ottoman forces, under the command of Gedik Ahmet Pasha, conquered the Greek Principality of Theodoro and the Genoese colonies at Cembalo and Caffa. Thenceforth the khanate was a protectorate of the Ottoman Empire; the Ottoman sultan enjoyed veto power over the selection of new Crimean khans. The Empire annexed the Crimean coast but recognized the legitimacy of the khanate rule of the steppes, as the khans were descendants of Genghis Khan.
In 1475, the Ottomans imprisoned Meñli I Giray for three years for resisting the invasion. After returning from captivity in Constantinople, he accepted the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman sultans treated the khans more as allies than subjects; the khans continued to have a foreign policy independent from the Ottomans in the steppes of Little Tartary. The khans continued to mint coins and use their names in Friday prayers, two important signs of sovereignty, they did not pay tribute to the Ottoman Empire. On, Crimea lost power in this relationship as the result of a crisis in 1523, during the reign of Meñli's successor, Mehmed I Giray, he died that year and beginning with his successor, from 1524 on, Crimean khans were appointed by the Sultan. The alliance of the Crimean Tatars and the Ottomans was comparable to the Polish-Lithuanian Union in its importance and durability; the Crimean cavalry became indispensable for the Ottomans' campaigns against Poland and Persia. In 1502, Meñli I Giray defeated the last khan of the Great Horde, which put an end to the Horde's claims on Crimea.
The Khanate chose as its capital Salaçıq near the Qırq Yer fortress. The capital was moved a short distance to Bahçeseray, founded in 1532 by Sahib I Giray. Both Salaçıq and the Qırq Yer fortress today are part of the expanded city of Bahçeseray; the Crimeans mounted raids into the Danubian principalities, Poland-Lithuania, Muscovy to enslave people whom they could capture. These campaigns by Crimean forces were either sefers declared military operations led by the khans themselves, or çapuls
Crimea is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe, completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast. It is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson, to which it is connected by the Isthmus of Perekop, west of the Russian region of Kuban, from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch though linked by the Crimean Bridge; the Arabat Spit is located to the northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash from the Sea of Azov. Across the Black Sea to its west is Romania and to its south Turkey. Crimea has been at the boundary between the classical world and the Pontic–Caspian steppe, its southern fringe was colonised by the Greeks, the Persians, the Romans, the Byzantine Empire, the Crimean Goths, the Genoese and the Ottoman Empire, while at the same time its interior was occupied by a changing cast of invading steppe nomads and empires, such as the Cimmerians, Sarmatians, Alans, Huns, Kipchaks and the Golden Horde.
Crimea and adjacent territories were united in the Crimean Khanate during the 15th to 18th century. In 1783, Crimea became a part of the Russian Empire as the result of the Russo-Turkish War. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Crimea became an autonomous republic within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in the USSR. During World War II, Crimea was downgraded to the Crimean Oblast after its entire indigenous population, the Crimean Tatars, were deported to Central Asia, an act recognized as a genocide. In 1954, it was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR from the Russian SFSR. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine was formed as an independent state in 1991 and most of the peninsula was reorganized as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, while the city of Sevastopol retained its special status within Ukraine; the 1997 Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea Fleet partitioned the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet and allowed Russia to continue basing its fleet in Crimea: both the Ukrainian Naval Forces and Russian's Black Sea Fleet were to be headquartered in Sevastopol.
Ukraine extended Russia's lease of the naval facilities under the 2010 Kharkiv Pact in exchange for further discounted natural gas. In February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that ousted the Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, pro-Russian separatists and Russian Armed Forces took over the territory. A controversial Crimea-wide referendum, unconstitutional under the Ukrainian and Crimean constitutions, was held on the issue of reunification with Russia which official results indicated was supported by a large majority of Crimeans. Russia formally annexed Crimea on 18 March 2014, incorporating the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol as the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia; the classical name Tauris or Taurica is from the Greek Ταυρική, after the peninsula's Scytho-Cimmerian inhabitants, the Tauri. Strabo and Ptolemy refer variously to the Strait of Kerch as the Κιμμερικὸς Βόσπορος, its easternmost part as the Κιμμέριον Ἄκρον (Kimmerion Akron, Roman name: Promontorium Cimmerium, as well as to the city of Cimmerium and whence the name of the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus.
The earliest recorded use of the toponym “Crimea” for the peninsula occurred between 1315-1329 AD by the Arab writer Abū al-Fidā where he recounts a political fight in 1300-1301 AD resulting in a rival's decapitation and having “sent his head to the Crimea”. The Crimean Tatar name of the peninsula is Qırım and so for the city of Krym, now called Stary Krym which served as a capital of the Crimean province of the Golden Horde; some sources hold that the name of the capital was extended to the entire peninsula at some point during Ottoman suzerainty. The origin of the word Qırım is uncertain. Suggestions argued in various sources: a corruption of Cimmerium. A derivation from the Turkic term qirum, from qori-. Other suggestions either unsupported or contradicted by sources based on similarity in sound, include: a derivation from the Greek Cremnoi. However, Herodotus identifies the port not in Crimea, but as being on the west coast of the Sea of Azov. No evidence has been identified that this name was in use for the peninsula.
The Turkic term is related to the Mongolian appellation kerm "wall", but sources indicate that the Mongolian appellation of the Crimean peninsula of Qaram is phonetically incompatible with kerm/kerem and therefore deriving from another original term. The name "Crimea" is the Italian form, i.e. la Crimea, since at least the 17th century and the "Crimean peninsula" becomes current during the 18th century replacing the classical name of Tauric Peninsula in the course of the 19th century. In English usage since the early modern period the Crimean Khanate is referred to as Crim Tartary; the omission of the definite article in English became common during the 20th century. The classical name was used in 1802 in the name of the Russian
Alexander Vasiliev (historian)
For other persons of a similar name, see Alexander Vasilyev. Alexander Alexandrovich Vasiliev was considered the foremost authority on Byzantine history and culture in the mid-20th century, his History of the Byzantine Empire remains one of a few comprehensive accounts of the entire Byzantine history, on the par with those authored by Edward Gibbon and Fyodor Uspensky. Vasiliev was born in Saint Petersburg, he studied under one of the earliest professional Byzantinists, Vasily Vasilievsky, at the University of St Petersburg and taught Arabic language there. Between 1897 and 1900, he furthered his education in Paris. In 1902, he accompanied Nicholas Marr in his trip to Saint Catherine's Monastery in Sinai. During his stay at the Tartu University, Vasiliev prepared and published a influential monograph and the Arabs, he worked in the Russian Archaeology Institute, established by Fyodor Uspensky in Constantinople. In 1912, he moved to the St Petersburg University as a professor, he was elected to the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1919.
In 1925, during his visit to Paris, Vasiliev was persuaded by Michael Rostovtzeff to emigrate to the West. It was Rostovtzeff. Several decades Vasiliev moved to work in Dumbarton Oaks. Towards the end of his life, he was elected President of the Nikodim Kondakov Institute in Prague and of the Association Internationale des Études Byzantines. Slavs in Greece The Latin Sway in the Levant History of the Byzantine Empire: Vol. 1: Constantine to the Crusades History of the Byzantine Empire: Vol. 2: From the Crusades to the Fall of the Empire Byzantium and the Arabs, Vol. 1: Political relations between Byzantines and Arabs during the Amorian Dynasty Byzantium and the Arabs, Vol. 2: Political relations between Byzantines and Arabs during the Macedonian Dynasty The Goths in the Crimea "The Opening Stages of the Anglo-Saxon Immigration to Byzantium in the Eleventh Century" in Seminarium Kondakovianum The Russian attack on Constantinople in 860 The'Life' of St. Peter of Argos and its historical significance The monument of Porphyrius in the Hippodrome at Constantinople Imperial porphyry sarcophagi in Constantinople "The Historical Significance Of the Mosaic of Saint Demetrius at Sassoferrato", Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 5 p. 29-39 Justin, the First: An Introduction to the Epoch of Justinian the Great The second Russian attack on Constantinople Hugh Capet Of France And Byzantium The iconoclastic edict of the Caliph Yazid II, A. D. 721 A survey of works on Byzantine history The life of St. Theodore of Edessa Medieval ideas of the end of the world: West and East Prester John and Russia Anastos, Milton V..
"Alexander A. Vasiliev: a personal sketch"; the Russian Review. 13: 59–63. JSTOR 125908. Der-Nersessian, Sirarpie. "Alexander Alexandrovich Vasiliev, 1867-1953". Dumbarton Oaks Papers: 1–21. JSTOR 1291090. Works by or about Alexander Vasiliev at Internet Archive