A printed circuit board mechanically supports and electrically connects electrical or electronic components using conductive tracks and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate. Components are soldered onto the PCB to both electrically connect and mechanically fasten them to it. Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products, they are used in some electrical products, such as passive switch boxes. Alternatives to PCBs include wire wrap and point-to-point construction, both once popular but now used. PCBs require additional design effort to lay out the circuit, but manufacturing and assembly can be automated. Specialized CAD software is available to do much of the work of layout. Mass-producing circuits with PCBs is cheaper and faster than with other wiring methods, as components are mounted and wired in one operation. Large numbers of PCBs can be fabricated at the same time, the layout only has to be done once.
PCBs can be made manually in small quantities, with reduced benefits. PCBs can be double-sided, or multi-layer. Multi-layer PCBs allow for much higher component density, because circuit traces on the inner layers would otherwise take up surface space between components; the rise in popularity of multilayer PCBs with more than two, with more than four, copper planes was concurrent with the adoption of surface mount technology. However, multilayer PCBs make repair and field modification of circuits much more difficult and impractical; the world market for bare PCBs exceeded $60.2 billion in 2014. In 2018, the Global Single Sided Printed Circuit Board Market Analysis Report estimated that the PCB market would reach $79 billion by 2024. A basic PCB consists of a flat sheet of insulating material and a layer of copper foil, laminated to the substrate. Chemical etching divides the copper into separate conducting lines called tracks or circuit traces, pads for connections, vias to pass connections between layers of copper, features such as solid conductive areas for electromagnetic shielding or other purposes.
The tracks function as wires fixed in place, are insulated from each other by air and the board substrate material. The surface of a PCB may have a coating that protects the copper from corrosion and reduces the chances of solder shorts between traces or undesired electrical contact with stray bare wires. For its function in helping to prevent solder shorts, the coating is called solder resist or solder mask. A printed circuit board can have multiple copper layers. A two-layer board has copper on both sides. Conductors on different layers are connected with vias, which are copper-plated holes that function as electrical tunnels through the insulating substrate. Through-hole component leads sometimes effectively function as vias. After two-layer PCBs, the next step up is four-layer. Two layers are dedicated as power supply and ground planes, the other two are used for signal wiring between components. "Through hole" components are mounted by their wire leads passing through the board and soldered to traces on the other side.
"Surface mount" components are attached by their leads to copper traces on the same side of the board. A board may use both methods for mounting components. PCBs with only through-hole mounted. Surface mounting is used for transistors, diodes, IC chips and capacitors. Through-hole mounting may be used for some large components such as electrolytic capacitors and connectors; the pattern to be etched into each copper layer of a PCB is called the "artwork". The etching is done using photoresist, coated onto the PCB exposed to light projected in the pattern of the artwork; the resist material protects the copper from dissolution into the etching solution. The etched board is cleaned. A PCB design can be mass-reproduced in a way similar to the way photographs can be mass-duplicated from film negatives using a photographic printer. In multi-layer boards, the layers of material are laminated together in an alternating sandwich: copper, copper, copper, etc.. Only the outer layers need be coated. FR-4 glass epoxy is the most common insulating substrate.
Another substrate material is cotton paper impregnated with phenolic resin tan or brown. When a PCB has no components installed, it is less ambiguously called a printed wiring board or etched wiring board. However, the term "printed wiring board" has fallen into disuse. A PCB populated with electronic components is called a printed circuit assembly, printed circuit board assembly or PCB assembly. In informal usage, the term "printed circuit board" most means "printed circuit assembly"; the IPC preferred term for assembled boards is circuit card assembly, for assembled backplanes it is backplane assemblies. "Card" is another used informal term for a "printed circuit assembly". For example, expansion card. A PCB may be "silkscreen" printed with a legend identifying the components, test points, or identifying text. An actual silkscreen printing process was used for this purpose, but today other, finer quali
Moviecam is a motion picture equipment company specializing in movie camera systems for 35 mm film. Started in Vienna as an in-house project of Fritz Gabriel Bauer and Walter Kindler's Moviegroup film production company in the late 1960s, the amount of research and development needed to create a new and modern motion picture camera system from scratch led to the formal creation of Moviecam as an independent corporate entity in 1976. Although only three camera models were produced in significant quantities for international usage, the high quality camera design, simplicity of usage compared to the contemporary models of Arri and Panavision, integration of modern and pioneering camera features led to widespread usage in the film industry. Arri subsequently bought the company in the 1990s. At Arri, Bauer developed, together with Walter Trauninger and their camera development team, the Arricam System, which combined the basic movement and design of the Moviecam systems with the precision electronic parts and complement of camera accessories designed by Arri.
The Arricam cameras were released in 2000 and remain the flagship camera line of Arri's 35 mm products. Despite the fact that Moviecam cameras have not been manufactured for ten years, their quality and features have kept them in service to meet their consistent high demand by feature film shoots. In 2010, Moviecam released a camera focusing tool called Moviecam EasyFocus, a high precision measuring system with safe laser, for crane shot usage, etc. Moviecam 1 Moviecam 2 Moviecam 3N Moviecam Super/SuperAmerica Moviecam Compact Moviecam Superlight Moviecam Compact MK2 Moviecam EasyFocus Official site of Moviecam EasyFocus
The March of Carinthia was a frontier district of the Carolingian Empire created in 889. Before it was a march, it had been a principality or duchy ruled by native-born Slavic princes at first independently and under Bavarian and subsequently Frankish suzerainty; the realm was divided into counties which, after the succession of the Carinthian duke to the East Frankish throne, were united in the hands of a single authority as a march of defence against the Slavs of Pannonian Croatia. When the march of Carinthia was raised into a Duchy in 976, a new Carinthian march was created, it became the March of Styria. In 745, Carantania, an independent Slavic principality, with the growth of the Avar threat, submitted to Odilo of Bavaria, himself a vassal of the Franks. With this, the Bavarian frontier was extended and Odilo's son, Tassilo III, began the Christianisation of the Slavic tribes beyond the Enns. In 788, Charlemagne integrated the territory of Carinthia into the Frankish Empire by making it a part of the extended Duchy of Friuli, along with the March of Istria.
Under him, missionary work increased through the Archdiocese of Salzburg. Between 819 and 823, the native Slavic population supported Ljudevit Posavski in revolt against Frankish overlordship. In 827, the Bulgars attacked Carinthia and, in 828, Louis the Pious reorganised Friuli into four counties, the two northernmost of which — Carinthia and Lower Pannonia — were detached from the Italian kingdom and incorporated into Bavaria. Louis, King of Bavaria, reorganised Carinthia into Frankish counties soon after; the division of Carinthia may have occurred as early as before 819 or simultaneously with division of Friuli. Before this, the Carinthians were still ruled by native dukes; the new comital administration was mixed Bavarian-Slavic. The territory remained within the Bavarian kingdom of Louis. In 855, Prefect of the Ostmark was deposed for unfaithfulness and Rastislav of Moravia rebelled against East Frankish suzerainty. In place of Radbod, Louis appointed his eldest son Carloman. Carloman took control of the other eastern marches and Pannonia, in 858 campaigned against Rastislav, forcing him to come to terms.
In 861, margrave of Carinthia, rebelled with his counts and Carloman replaced him with Gundachar. In 863, fearing a filial rebellion, invaded Carinthia, Carloman's home base. Gundachar went over to the king with a large army he had been given to command the defence of the Schwarza. Carloman was captured and deprived of his prefecture, bestowed on Gundachar; when Carloman reconciled with his father and was created King of Bavaria, he granted Carinthia to his son by a Carinthian concubine, Arnulf. Arnulf kept his seat at Moosburg and the Carinthians treated him as their native duke. After Carloman was incapacitated by a stroke in 879, Louis the Younger inherited Bavaria and confirmed Arnulf in Carinthia by an agreement with Carloman. Bavaria, was ruled more or less by Arnulf. Arnulf had ruled Bavaria during the summer and autumn of 879 while his father arranged his succession and he himself was granted "Pannonia," in the words of the Annales Fuldenses, or "Carantanum," in the words of Regino of Prüm.
After he in turn became King of all East Francia, Arnulf created a march of Carinthia. Alongside it were the marches of Istria and Carniola; the southernmost marches and Carniola, were susceptible to Magyar raids. In 901, just two years after their first contact with western Europe, Carinthia was ravaged by the Magyars. In 952, Carinthia was placed under the Duchy of Bavaria, as were Carniola and Friuli; the march's major cities were Villach. In the tenth century, a so-called Carantanian march broke off from Carinthia; the Carantanian march was to become the Duchy of Styria. The only known Carinthian margrave from this period — though many counts are known — is Markward III, a preses de Carinthia. In 976, the Emperor Otto II made his nephew Otto I Duke of Bavaria and separated the Carinthian march and the other marches from the duchy, he made Carinthia a duchy for the Liutpoldinger Henry, who acted as a sort of "chief of the border police," controlling Istria and Carniola. Semple, Ellen Churchill.
"The Barrier Boundary of the Mediterranean Basin and Its Northern Breaches as Factors in History". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 5: 27–59. Doi:10.1080/00045601509357037. Reuter, Timothy The Annals of Fulda. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992. Reuter, Timothy. Germany in the Early Middle Ages 800–1056. New York: Longman, 1991. MacLean, Simon. Kingship and Politics in the Late Ninth Century: Charles the Fat and the end of the Carolingian Empire. Cambridge University Press: 2003
The Northern New South Wales Zone League Three or Zone League Three is an Australian soccer league in the North of New South Wales. It is the sixth and bottom tier of football in the Northern New South Wales Football 6-tier system behind the NPL Northern NSW, Northern NSW State League Division 1, Zone Premier League, Zone League One and Zone League Two. Teams are not promoted or relegated between Northern NSW State League Division 1 and Zone Premier League; the players in the league are amateur. The competition is made up of 8 teams, each playing each other twice and away. Charlestown Junior FC Dudley Redhead United FC B Greta Branxton FC* Kurri Kurri FC* Maitland Junior FC Mayfield United FC B* Minmi SC* West Wallsend FC BAll teams are required to present 2 grades - Reserve Grade and First Grade. Promotion is made from the success of the First Grade team *Team played All Age before joining the League Structure Zone League Competitions Northern NSW Football Federation Newcastle Football Macquarie Football Hunter Valley Football
The Peugeot 206 is a supermini car, produced by the French manufacturer Peugeot from May 1998 to the present day. It was launched in September 1998 in hatchback form, followed by a coupé cabriolet in September 2000, a station wagon in September 2001, a sedan version in September 2005. In November 2006, the Chinese joint venture Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroën launched a derivative version of the Peugeot 206 known as the Citroën C2, but not technically related with the European-market model, its facelifted version was launched in South America in September 2008, in China in November 2008, in hatchback and station wagon body styles, known as the 207 Compact, as the 207 respectively. This version was subsequently launched in Europe in February 2009, only in hatchback form and marketed as the 206+. Though the 206 had finished production in most markets by 2010, in Europe it was available as the 206+, with front and rear styling that resembles the Peugeot 207, until 2013, whereas in South America it continued to be offered under the 207 Compact nameplate, until January 2017, furthermore in China, both under the 207 nameplate and as the Citroën C2.
The 206 is the best-selling Peugeot model of all time with 8,358,217 cars sold in 2012. Until 2016, the Peugeot 206 was still in the top 10 of used car sales in the UK comparing to other new models from other brands. During the early 1990s, Peugeot decided not to directly replace the Peugeot 205, citing the reason that superminis were no longer profitable or worthwhile. Instead, Peugeot followed a unique strategy and decided that its new, supermini, the Peugeot 106, would take sales from the lower end of the 205 range while the lowest models of the Peugeot 306 range, launched in 1993 to replace the Peugeot 309, would take sales from the top-end 205s. Between the 106 and 306, Peugeot hoped that the 205 would not need to be replaced, could be phased out while customers who would plump for the 205 would continue to have a choice with either a smaller or larger car; this strategy did not work. With the 205 phased out, other superminis like the Ford Fiesta and Volkswagen Polo continued to sell well and increased in popularity, without a direct competitor to these cars Peugeot was losing sales fast.
A new supermini was required, the 206 was launched in 1998 as a somewhat belated replacement for the 205. Peugeot hired the world-famous Italian designer Pininfarina to make it the most beautiful against its competitors. With no larger in-house rival from Citroën to base its new supermini on, Peugeot developed an all-new front drive platform for the 206, it was built in France until 18 December 2012, in the United Kingdom until 12 December 2006. The end of British production coincided with the closure of the Ryton plant which Peugeot had taken over when buying Chrysler's European division in 1979. From April 2010, the Peugeot 206 was no longer listed on Peugeot's current UK model range. LHD production finished in June 2010, its eventual successor, the Peugeot 207, was launched in 2006. As of 2010, the twelve-year-old 206 was Peugeot's best-selling car of all time; the 206 was launched as a hatchback with 1.1L, 1.4L, 1.6L petrol engines and a 1.9L diesel engine, an HDi version with common rail coming later.
In 1999 a 2.0L GTi capable of 210 km/h, in 2003 a tuned version of the GTi called the Peugeot 206 RC, were added to the range. It did 0–100 km/h in 7.4 seconds and it reached a top speed of 220 km/h with 177 PS. In 2001, two more versions of the 206 were launched – the 206 CC with a folding steel roof and the 206 SW station wagon. A 4-door notchback sedan version, developed by Iran Khodro, was unveiled in late 2005, it is available in the Iranian, North African, Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian markets; the Peugeot 206 was manufactured in Peugeot's Poissy and Mulhouse factories in France, as well as in Ryton, United Kingdom, whereas outside Europe it is produced in Iran, Argentina, Uruguay, China and Malaysia. In 2003, it received a minor facelift, getting clear headlights, different rear clusters, new side repeater lamps, chrome badges, a new range of colors, as well as other subtle interior revisions; the Peugeot 206 was assembled at its Ryton facility in Coventry, however, with the introduction of the 207 to the range, Peugeot decided to close the Ryton factory and move production to Slovakia, due to the fact that they could produce their vehicles with same or better quality for a lower price there.
The Peugeot 206 proved to be a sales success all over Europe. It was the best-selling car in Europe from 2001 to 2003 and it was the best car of the year in the UK for three consecutive years, between 1998 and 2001; the 1.4-litre XR was the best-selling model. On 26 May 2005, the 206 celebrated the five millionth unit produced since its commercial launch on 10 September 1998. Sales in the United Kingdom were strong from the start, with the 206 being among the nation's five most popular new cars during its first six years on sale. Second hand examples of the 206 traditionally hold their value well, due to high demand. Production in Brazil took place in Porto Real, Rio de Janeiro, starting in 2001 with the hatchback, followed by the station wagon version in 2005; the models produced there featured 1.0-litre 16-valve, 1.4-litre 8-valve and 1.6-litre 16-valve engines, the last two of which are flexible fuel eng
Anwar Nasser al-Awlaki was a Yemeni-American imam. U. S. government officials say that, as well as being a senior recruiter and motivator, he was centrally involved in planning terrorist operations for the Islamist militant group al-Qaeda, but have not released evidence that could support this statement. Al-Awlaki became the first U. S. citizen to be targeted and killed by a U. S. drone strike without the rights of due process being afforded. President Barack Obama ordered the strike, his son, Abdulrahman al-Awlaki, was killed in a U. S. drone strike two weeks later. On January 29, 2017, al-Awlaki's 8-year-old daughter, Nawar al-Awlaki, was killed in a U. S. commando attack in Yemen, ordered by President Donald Trump. With a blog, a Facebook page, the al-Qaeda magazine Inspire, many YouTube videos, al-Awlaki was described by Saudi news station Al Arabiya as the "bin Laden of the Internet". After a request from the U. S. Congress in November 2010, Google removed many of al-Awlaki's videos from YouTube.
According to The New York Times, al-Awlaki's public statements and videos have been more influential in inspiring acts of terrorism in the wake of his killing than before his death. As imam at a mosque in Falls Church, Virginia, al-Awlaki spoke with and preached to three of the 9/11 hijackers, who were al-Qaeda members. In 2001, he presided at the funeral of the mother of Nidal Malik Hasan, an Army psychiatrist, who e-mailed him extensively, in 2008–09 before carrying out the Fort Hood shootings. Al-Awlaki, did not reply to Hasan's many emails. During al-Awlaki's radical period after 2006–07, when he went into hiding, he may have associated with Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, who attempted the 2009 Christmas Day bombing of an American airliner. Al-Awlaki was involved in planning Abdulmutallab's attack; the Yemeni government tried him in absentia in November 2010, for plotting to kill foreigners and being a member of al-Qaeda. A Yemeni judge ordered that he be captured "dead or alive"; some U. S. officials said that in 2009, al-Awlaki was promoted to the rank of "regional commander" within al-Qaeda.
Others felt that Nasir al-Wuhayshi still held this rank and that al-Awlaki was an influential member in the group. He called for jihad against the United States. In April 2010, al-Awlaki was placed on a CIA kill list by President Barack Obama due to his alleged terrorist activities. Al-Awlaki's father and civil rights groups challenged the order in court. Al-Awlaki was believed to be in hiding in southeast Yemen in the last years of his life; the U. S. deployed unmanned aircraft in Yemen to search for and kill him, firing at and failing to kill him at least once. Two weeks al-Awlaki's 16-year-old son, Abdulrahman al-Awlaki, a U. S. citizen, born in Denver, was killed by a CIA-led drone strike in Yemen. Nasser al-Awlaki, Anwar's father, released an audio recording condemning the killings of his son and grandson as senseless murders. In June 2014, a classified memorandum issued by the U. S. Department of Justice was released; some civil liberties advocates have described the incident as "an extrajudicial execution" that breached al-Awlaki's right to due process, including a trial.
Al-Awlaki was born in Las Cruces, New Mexico, in 1971 to parents from Yemen, while his father, Nasser al-Awlaki, was doing graduate work at U. S. universities. His father was a Fulbright Scholar who earned a master's degree in agricultural economics at New Mexico State University in 1971, received a doctorate at the University of Nebraska, worked at the University of Minnesota from 1975 to 1977. Nasser al-Awlaki served as Agriculture Minister in Ali Abdullah Saleh's government, he was President of Sana'a University. Yemen's Prime Minister from 2007 to 2011, Ali Mohammed Mujur, was a relative; the family returned to Yemen in 1978. He lived there for 11 years, studied at Azal Modern School. In 1991, al-Awlaki returned to the U. S. to attend college. He earned a B. S. in Civil Engineering from Colorado State University, where he was president of the Muslim Student Association. He attended the university on a foreign student visa and a government scholarship from Yemen, claiming to be born in that country, according to a former U.
S. security agent. In 1993, while still a college student in Colorado State's civil engineering program, al-Awlaki visited Afghanistan in the aftermath of the Soviet occupation, he spent some time training with the mujahideen. He was depressed by the country's poverty and hunger, "wouldn't have gone with al-Qaeda," according to friends from Colorado State, who said he was profoundly affected by the trip. Mullah Mohammed Omar did not form the Taliban until 1994; when Al-Awlaki returned to campus, he showed increased interest in religion and politics. Al-Awlaki studied Education Leadership at San Diego State University, but did not complete his degree, he worked on a doctorate in Human Resource Development at The George Washington University Graduate School of Education and Human Development from January to December 2001. In 1994, al-Awlaki married a cousin from Yemen, began service as a part-time imam of the Denver Islamic Society. In 1996, he was chastised by an elder for encouraging a Saudi student to fight in Chechnya against the Russians.