click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Prisoner-of-war camp

A prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of enemy combatants captured by a belligerent power in time of war. There are significant differences among POW camps, internment camps, military prisons. Purpose built prisoner-of-war camps appeared at Norman Cross in England in 1797 and HM Prison Dartmoor, both constructed during the Napoleonic Wars, they have been in use in all the main conflicts of the last 200 years; the main camps are used for coast guards, sailors and more airmen of an enemy power who have been captured by a belligerent power during or after an armed conflict. In addition, non-combatants, such as merchant mariners and civilian aircrews, have been imprisoned in some conflicts. With the adoption of the Geneva Convention on the Prisoners of War in 1929 superseded by the Third Geneva Convention, prisoner-of-war camps have been required to be open to inspection by authorized representatives of a neutral power. Not all belligerents have applied the convention in all conflicts.

Before the Peace of Westphalia, enemy combatants captured by belligerent forces were executed, enslaved, or held for ransom. This, coupled with the small size of armies, meant there was little need for any form of camp to hold prisoners of war; the Peace of Westphalia, a series of treaties signed between May and October 1648 that ended the Thirty Years' War and the Eighty Years' War, contained a provision that all prisoners should be released without ransom. This is considered to mark the point where captured enemy combatants would be reasonably treated before being released at the end of the conflict or under a parole not to take up arms; the practice of paroling enemy combatants had begun thousands of years earlier, at least as early as the time of Carthage but became normal practice in Europe from 1648 onwards. The consequent increase in the number of prisoners was to lead to the development of the prisoner of war camps. Following General John Burgoyne's surrender at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777, several thousand British and German troops were marched to Cambridge, Massachusetts.

For various reasons, the Continental Congress desired to move them south. For this purpose, one of the congressmen offered his land outside of Virginia; the remaining soldiers marched south in late 1778—arriving at the site in January 1779. Since the barracks were sufficient in construction, the officers were paroled to live as far away as Richmond and Staunton; the camp was never adequately provisioned. Hundreds escaped Albemarle Barracks because of the shortage of guards; as the British Army moved northward from the Carolinas in late 1780, the remaining prisoners were moved to Frederick, Maryland. No remains of the encampment site are left; the earliest known purpose-built prisoner-of-war camp was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain at Norman Cross, in 1797 to house the increasing number of prisoners from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. Lacking a means for dealing with large numbers of captured troops early in the American Civil War, the Union and Confederate governments relied on the traditional European system of parole and exchange of prisoners.

While awaiting exchange, prisoners were confined to permanent camps. Neither Union or Confederate prison camps were always well run, it was common for prisoners to die of starvation or disease, it is estimated. During a period of 14 months in Camp Sumter, located near Andersonville, Georgia, 13,000 of the 45,000 Union soldiers confined there died. At Camp Douglas in Chicago, Illinois, 10% of its Confederate prisoners died during one cold winter month. During the Boer Wars the British established concentration camps to hold both civilians and prisoners of war. In total 109 camps were constructed for black African internees. However, the majority of prisoners of war were sent overseas; the camps were poorly administered, the food rations insufficient to maintain health, standards of hygiene were low, overcrowding was chronic. Over 26,000 women and children died in the camps during the wars; the first international convention on prisoners of war was signed at the Hague Peace Conference of 1899. It was widened by the Hague Convention of 1907.

The main combatant nations engaged in World War I abided by the convention and treatment of prisoners was good. The situation on the eastern front was worse than the western front, with prisoners in Russia at risk from starvation and disease. In total during the war about eight million men were held in prisoner of war camps, with 2.5 million prisoners in German custody, 2.9 million held by the Russian Empire, about 720,000 held by Britain and France. Permanent camps did not exist at the beginning of the war; the unexpected large number of prisoners captured in the first days of the war by the German army created an immediate problem. By September 1914, the German army had captured over 200,000 enemy combatants; these first prisoners were held in temporary camps until 1915, by which time the prisoner population had increased to 652,000 living in unsatisfactory conditions. In response, the government began constructing permanent camps both in German

Hiddensee

Hiddensee is a car-free island in the Baltic Sea, located west of Germany's largest island, Rügen, on the German coast. The island has about 1,000 inhabitants, it was a holiday destination for East German tourists during German Democratic Republic times, continues to attract tourists today. It is the location of the University of Greifswald's ornithological station. Gerhart Hauptmann and Walter Felsenstein are buried there; the name Hedinsey surfaces as early as the Prose Edda and the Gesta Danorum written by Saxo Grammaticus and means "Island of Hedin". The legendary Norwegian king, was supposed to have fought here for a woman or just for gold. Under Danish rule the name Hedins-Oe was common. In 1880 the island was shown in German maps as Hiddensjö and, in 1929, in German holiday guides as Hiddensöe, its full Germanization to Hiddensee is thus recent. Hiddensee is about 16.8 kilometres long, about 250 metres wide at its narrowest point and about 3.7 kilometres wide at its broadest point. It is the largest island within the Western Pomerania Lagoon Area National Park and belongs to the district of Vorpommern-Rügen in the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.

It lies west of the island of Rügen and is divided into an undulating, over 70-metre-high northern part, a dune and heath landscape in the central area and a flat, only few-metres-high southern part, the Gellen. In the northeast are the two three-kilometre-long spits of Alter Bessin and Neuer Bessin; the island is bounded by the Schaproder Bodden and Vitter Bodden to the east, the Gellenstrom to the south and the open Baltic Sea to the west and north. The island of Hiddensee is, from a geological perspective, a young landscape and was formed during the last ice age about 12,000 years ago; the ice age left behind here a Young Drift landscape. As a result of thawing inland ice, the underlying land rose and the hollows filled with water; as a result, only protruding ridges like the Dornbusch remained visible, as islands. The overall shape of the coast in the southern area of the Baltic Sea was formed during the Littorina Transgression about 7,000 to 2,500 years ago. Around 5,000 years ago, the sea level attained its present level and the Dornbusch and two older island cores became islands.

4,500 years ago the salt water currents from the North Sea were reduced. The Baltic has become less salty since; as a result of coastal erosion the islands changed to their present shapes over the course of time. For example, the former three island cores were joined to one another by accretion; this process still carried sand away from the north of the Dornbusch. In 2000, 60,000 m3 of till twice broke off from the northern tip of the Hiddensee in the area of the Toter Kerl and collapsed into the sea. On average the cliff edges of the Dornbusch recede about 30 cm per year. In mid-March 2004 another 10,000 m3 collapsed into the sea. Geologically seen the Hiddensee is a region undergoing constant change; the landmasses carried away from its northern tip are washed up again at the southern end and on the east side of the Schaproder Bodden. This has caused the formation of two geologically recent spits at the southern end of the Gellen: the Alter Bessin und Neuer Bessin; the Alter Bessin began to appear about 300 to 400 years ago and was over three miles long by the middle of the 19th century.

Since it has grown. On the other hand, the Neuer Bessin which appeared in 1900 is growing by 30 to 60 metres annually and is three kilometres long. Meanwhile, a third Bessin is emerging; the southern tip is growing as a so-called windwatt into the Schaproder Bodden. Hiddensee is dominated macro-climatically by the Baltic Sea coastal climate with frequent alternation between maritime and continental influences. Characteristically it has frequent and changeable winds and long periods of sunshine; this averages 1,850 hours per year. As a result, Hiddensee is one of the sunniest places in Germany. One special feature is so-called transperiod wind circulation, when there are weak, offshore wind conditions, and, caused by the different temperatures over the sea and land; this produces a sea breeze in late morning that abates in the evening. The longstanding annual average temperature on the island is 8 °C; the average wind speed in Kloster is 7 m/s. In comparison to the nearby island of Rügen, the average annual precipitation on Hiddensee is markedly less at 540 millimetres.

In 2008, Hiddensee-Dornbusch was the sunniest place in Germany, as reported by the weather service, with 2,168 hours of sunshine. The data was gathered by Meteomedia's own weather station. Hiddensee is the largest island in the Western Pomerania Lagoon Area National Park and blends an old cultural landscape with the wood pastures of the original dune heathland; the large accumulations of new land in the northeast and south of Hiddensee offer habitats for numerous invertebrates, such as worms and mussels. These in turn provide nourishment for many migrating birds. For example, the area around the island is one of the most important crane roosting areas in Germany; the southern tip of the island is, like the Neuer Bessin was therefore classified as conservation zone I of the national park und is out-of-bounds. On the island are two nature reserves, the Dünenheide auf der Insel Hiddensee Nature Reserve between Neuendorf and Vitte and the Dornbusch und Schwedenhagener Ufer N

Dinesh Trivedi

Dinesh Trivedi is an Indian politician from the All India Trinamool Congress party. He is a former Member of Lok Sabha representing Barrackpore constituency of West Bengal. Prior to that he was Member of parliament, Rajya Sabha for two separate terms, he is the former Union Minister for Railways and the former Union Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare under Manmohan Singh's cabinet. Trivedi was recipient of Outstanding Parliamentarian Award for 2016-2017 period and was felicitated at an event at the central hall of Parliament, he is the Chairman of the Indo-European Union Parliamentary Forum, other Parliamentary Forums. Trivedi is the youngest child of the Gujarati couple and Urmila, who migrated to India from Karachi during India's partition, where all his other siblings were born, his parents lived in a number of places before coming to New Delhi. His father started working for the Hindustan Construction Company in Kolkata. Trivedi attended boarding schools in Himachal Pradesh, before graduating in commerce from St. Xavier's College, Calcutta.

He took a loan of Rs.20,000 and completed his MBA from The University of Texas at Austin. He trained to be a pilot, a result of his childhood dream of flying for the Indian Air Force, he enjoys classical music. He applied to train as an actor at the Film Institute, but did not follow it up as he believed it not to be a serious job, as reported by Rediff.com. He was drawn towards a picture of Swami Vivekananda in an advertisement by the Ramkrishna Mission, decided to be a monk, but did not do so due to strong advice by his family and a Swami in Chicago, he dons rings with sapphire and coral on his right hand to ward off the ill-effects of the mangal griha. After his MBA in 1974, he worked in Chicago for two years for the Detex Company, before returning to India, where he worked for a logistics provider Lee and Muirhead. In 1984, he quit the job to start his own air freight company based in Kolkata, he started a consumer protection centre. Trivedi has filed many petitions, he says, "I was so fed up of corruption then.

I thought. But, my father told me to learn to fight corruption, make your way." Trivedi shot into prominence when he asked the Supreme Court to make the Vohra report on the criminalisation of politics in India public. This petition gave a push to the Right to Information movement. Trivedi joined the Congress party in the 1980s, but switched over to the Janata Dal in 1990. In 1998 he joined Mamata Banerjee when she started the Trinamool Congress party and became its first general secretary, he was a member of the Upper House in the Indian Parliament during years 1990 - 1996 from Gujarat as Janata Dal candidate and during years 2002 - 2008 from West Bengal as AITC candidate. In the 2009 elections he contested for the Trinamool Congress party and won from Barrackpore to join the lower house in the Parliament, he joined the cabinet as the Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare in 2009. In 2011, he offered to resign as a minister in support of Anna Hazare. In 2011, after Mamata Banerjee quit as the railway minister to become the Chief Minister of West Bengal, he was elevated as the Cabinet Minister for Railways.

As the Railway minister, he has advocated instituting a rail regulator to fix rail fares, a policy, diametrically opposite to the one by earlier railway ministers. He has advocated de-politicizing the Railways and would like to restructure the Indian Railway Board, which lacked synergy before he joined. Trivedi believes that the Indian Railways can add 2% to India's GDP and is willing to go against his party's line of not hiking the fares. However, he believes the government must modernise the railways, for which a fare hike would not be able to generate adequate funds, has publicly criticised the Prime Minister for not providing funds.. Trivedi is pushing for a national policy on railways, that would continue irrespective of political changes in the government, he has said that the ministry is open to the idea of privatisation, which would allow more funds to be allocated to help the system cope with capacity. He stepped down as the Railway Minister on 18 March 2012, a couple of days after presenting his first Railway Budget in which he increased passenger fare.

This did not go down well with his political party, Trinamool Congress and in particular its head West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee. Trivedi expressed his interest to start high speed passenger trains in India with Japanese help or French support. In 2011, the script of the James Bond film Skyfall, part of, shot on trains in India, had to be changed when Trivedi insisted that people not be shown travelling on the roofs of trains, illegal. In August 2011, Mamata Banerjee's ministerial room in the Parliament, which has traditionally been allotted to the railway minister, was allotted to another minister as she was his senior colleague in the cabinet. However, before the formal orders could be issued, Trivedi involved the Prime Minister and Mamata Banerjee to get the room allotted to himself to avoid "utter humiliation of the Railway Ministry and 14 lakh Railway employees". According to The Tribune, his party reminded the Prime Minister that the UPA owed this to its biggest ally, the AITC.

On 14 March 2012, Trivedi announced the annual rail budget 2012 that included an all over hike in passenger fares, ranging from 2 paise to 30 paise per kilometre for reasons of safety along with network expansion and modernisation. The fare hike was opposed by Mamata Banerjee. Senior TMC MPs Sudeep Bandyopadhyay and Derek O'Brien both expres

Karen Hækkerup

Karen Angelo Hækkerup is a Danish politician representing the Social Democrats. She was Justice Minister of Denmark from 12 December 2013 to 10 October 2014. Hækkerup resigned her post as Justice Minister in favour of a job as CEO of the Danish Agriculture and Food Council, the largest lobby organisation for the Danish agricultural industry, she has been a member of the Folketing since 2005. She is married to the Social Democrat, Ole Hækkerup, thereby being the daughter-in-law of Hans Hækkerup and the sister-in-law of the Danish Minister for European Affairs, Nick Hækkerup, she has three lives on Amager. Biography on the website of the Danish Parliament

Halberstadt C.V

The Halberstadt C. V was a German single-engined reconnaissance biplane of World War I, built by Halberstädter Flugzeugwerke. Derived from the Halberstadt C. III, with a more powerful supercharged 160 kW Benz Bz. IVü engine, it saw service only in the final months of the war. Cameras were mounted in the observer's cockpit floor; the aircraft had good flight characteristics manoeuvrability and rate of climb, was among best German World War I aircraft in its class. First aircraft appeared in front in late June 1918. EstoniaEstonian Air Force - Postwar. German EmpireLuftstreitkrafte LatviaLatvian Air Force - Postwar. LithuaniaLithuanian Air Force - Postwar, 10 aircraft, used in 1919-1923. PolandPolish Air Force - 11 aircraft, used during Polish-Soviet War in 1919-1920 Soviet UnionSoviet Air Force - Postwar. SwitzerlandSwiss Air Force A single C. V survives at the Musée Royal de d'Histoire Militaire in Brussels, Belgium. Data from German Aircraft of the First World WarGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 6.92 m Wingspan: 13.62 m Height: 3.36 m Wing area: 43 m2 Empty weight: 930 kg Gross weight: 1,635 kg Powerplant: 1 × Benz Bz.

IVü 6-cyl. Water-cooled in-line piston engine, 160 kW Performance Maximum speed: 170 km/h Endurance: 3½ hours Service ceiling: 5,000 m Rate of climb: 10.42 m/s Time to altitude: ** 2,000 m in 3 minutes 12 seconds 5,000 m in 23 minutesArmament Guns: * 1x 7.92 mm LMG 08/15 Spandau machine gun mounted in the forward fuselage port side 1x 7.92 mm Parabellum machine gun on a flexible mounting in the rear cockpit up to 50 kg of bombs Related lists List of military aircraft of Germany Photos by Knut Erik Hagen

Minnesota State Highway 246

Minnesota State Highway 246 is a 18.221-mile-long highway in southeast Minnesota, which runs from its intersection with State Highway 3 in the city of Northfield and continues south and east to its eastern terminus at its intersection with State Highway 56 in Holden Township near Kenyon. Highway 246 serves as an east–west and a north–south route between the communities of Northfield, Dennison and Kenyon in southeast Minnesota, it follows a zigzag route running along section lines. In the city of Northfield, Highway 246 follows Woodley Street W. and Division Street S. Highway 246 passes near the town of Dennison at its junction with County Road 31; the route is known as Main Street in Nerstrand. Nerstrand-Big Woods State Park is located near the junction of Highway 246 and Rice County Road 29 at Nerstrand; the park entrance is located on County Road 29. The route is defined as Routes 246 and 320 in the Minnesota Statutes, it is not marked with the latter number. Highway 246 was authorized in 1949 between then-U.

S. 65 at Northfield and Nerstrand. This original portion of the route was paved in 1956. In 1959, the highway was extended east of Nerstrand to State Highway 56 in Holden Township near Kenyon; this segment was paved in the late 1970s. Highway 246 at the Unofficial Minnesota Highways Page