Kazuyo Sejima is a Japanese architect. She is known for designs with clean modernist elements such as slick and shiny surfaces made of glass and she uses squares and cubes, which can be found in her designs in various degrees. Large windows allow light to enter a space and create a fluid transition between interior and exterior. It is this connection of two spaces from which she draws her inspiration, Kazuyo Sejima, along with and Ryue Nishizawa, has worked on several projects in Germany, France, the Netherlands, United States, and Spain. Such design elements can be found abundantly in their designs, in 2010, Sejima was the second woman to receive the Pritzker Prize, which was awarded jointly with Ryue Nishizawa. Sejima was born on 29 October 1956 in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, in 1981, after graduating from Japan Womens University with a masters degree in Architecture, she joined Toyo Ito and Associates. After apprenticing with Toyo Ito, Sejima established Kazuyo Sejima & Associates in 1987, one of her first hires was Ryue Nishizawa, a student who had worked with Sejima at Toyo Ito and Associates.
After working for Sejima for several years, Sejima asked him to form a partnership, in 1995, the two founded the Tokyo-based firm SANAA. In 2010, Sejima was appointed director of architecture sector for the Venice Biennale and she was the first woman ever selected for this position. In 2010, she was awarded the Pritzker Prize, together with Ryue Nishizawa, when describing Sejimas work, a viewer would notice that she mostly uses glass in all of her work. She likes slick surfaces such as marble, and her buildings mainly display an arrange of curves within the architecture of the building as well as on the surface, Kazuyo successfully combines the building with the surrounding areas. Sejima intentionally overturns outmoded stereotypical housing models as they are based on assumptions instead of reality and these assumptions include housing models that illustrate the proper living condition for a nuclear family, etc. Her idea is not to initiate a complete rejection to tradition, instead of unconsciously applying assumptions to a design, she tries to confront them consciously as best as she can.
She thinks it is impossible to let a building based on a fictional idea or theory of what something should be. S. A. Sejima teaches as a Visiting Professor, both at Tama Art University and Japan Womens University in Tokyo, Kazuyo Sejima has taught at the Polytechnique de Lausanne and Keio University. Women in architecture SANAA Official Website Kazuyo Sejima appointed as Director of the Architecture Sector for the Biennale di Venezia, Kazuyo Sejima + Ryue Nishizawa / SANAA Works 1995–2003. Sejima Kazuyo + Nishizawa Ryue Dokuhon, GA ARCHITECT18 Sejima Kazuyo + Nishizawa Ryue. Kazuyo Sejima + Ryue Nishizawa / SANAA, Kazuyo Sejima + Ryue Nishizawa, SANAA
The Glass House or Johnson house, is a historic house museum at 798-856 Ponus Ridge Road in New Canaan, Connecticut. Built in 1949, it was designed by Philip Johnson as his own residence, Johnson curated an exhibit of Mies van der Rohe work at the Museum of Modern Art in 1947, featuring a model of the glass Farnsworth House. It was an important and influential project for Johnson and for modern architecture, the building is an essay in minimal structure, geometry and the effects of transparency and reflection. The estate includes buildings designed by Johnson that span his career. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1997 and it is now owned by the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and is open to the public for guided tours, which begin at a visitors center at 199 Elm Street in New Canaan. The house is an example of use of industrial materials such as glass. The house is hidden from the street. It is behind a wall at the edge of a crest in Johnson’s estate overlooking a pond.
Visitors walk over grass and gravel strips as they approach the building, the building is 56 feet long,32 feet wide and 10½ feet high. The kitchen and sleeping areas were all in one glass-enclosed room, the exterior sides of the Glass House are charcoal-painted steel and glass. The brick floor is 10 inches above the ground, the interior is open with the space divided by low walnut cabinets, a brick cylinder contains the bathroom and is the only object to reach floor to ceiling. The house builds on ideas of German architects from the 1920s, in a house of glass, the views of the landscape are its “wallpaper” Johnson was inspired by the design of Mies van der Rohes Farnsworth House. Glass House contains several pieces of furniture designed by Mies, in part, the landscape was a reflection of a landscape painting, The Funeral of Phocion by Nicolas Poussin placed in a seating area of Glass House. The view through the walls to the landscaped grounds was strikingly similar. The estate overlooks the valley of the small Rippowam River to the west, to the north and south are sloping scenery that particularly mimic the painting.
The collection of structures vary between rectangular and circular, the rectangularity of the Glass House itself is complemented with a circular brick fireplace. Three other existing houses on the estate were remodeled by Johnson. The red and black Da Monsta gatehouse, built without right angles, near it is a 20-foot -high entrance gate, fashioned out of a sailboat boom
Seeley Historical Library
The Seeley Historical Library is the history library of the University of Cambridge, England. It is housed within the History Faculty building on the Sidgwick Site off West Road, since October 2003, incoming books have been classified according to the Library of Congress scheme, before that a unique system was used. The library is open to university students only, seven days a week in term between 9am and 7. 15pm, the history library was established in 1807 with a collection of a thousand books donated by the will of John Symonds, professor of modern history. After some years of neglect, the library became a priority in 1884. It was moved from the gallery of the Philosophical Library to Kings College in 1890, in 1897, it was renamed in honour of the historian Sir John Seeley. After a few moves, the library finally ended up on the Sidgwick site in 1968. Today it accommodates over 300 students and houses more than 95,000 volumes, the skylight over the reading room is a crucial part of the design, although it is difficult to see from outside the building and contributes nothing to its silhouette.
Although the building was admired by students of architecture it is well regarded by those who have to work in it. A1968 review noted that environmental controls might be difficult to operate by humanities-oriented occupants, expensive modifications were necessary to render it usable, and in 1984 the university came close to pulling the whole building down. The remodelling of Stirlings attempt to create a sustainable structure was announced in 2004. The project was headed by John McAslan, who said that The main problem with the building is that it leaks, it’s too bright, too hot in summer and too cold in winter
Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild
Nathaniel Charles Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild, OM GBE FBA is a British investment banker and a member of the prominent Rothschild banking family. He is Honorary President of the Institute for Jewish Policy Research, born in 1936, he is the eldest son of Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild by his first wife Barbara Judith Rothschild. His father was born into a Jewish family, while his mother converted to Orthodox Judaism when they married, Rothschild was educated at Eton College and at Christ Church, where he gained a First in history, tutored by Hugh Trevor-Roper. From 1963 Rothschild worked for the family bank N M Rothschild & Sons in London and he sold his minority stake in the bank, but took independent control of Rothschild Investment Trust, an investment trust listed on the London Stock Exchange. After resigning from the bank in 1980, Jacob Rothschild went on to found J. Rothschild Assurance Group with Sir Mark Weinberg in 1991, in 1989, he joined forces with Sir James Goldsmith and Kerry Packer, in an unsuccessful bid for British American Tobacco.
Rothschild is Chairman of RIT Capital Partners plc, one of the largest investment trusts quoted on the London Stock Exchange with a net value of about £2 billion. He is Chairman of J Rothschild Capital Management, a subsidiary of RIT Capital Partners plc and he is a Member of the Council for the Duchy of Cornwall for HRH The Prince of Wales and a member of the International Advisory Board of The Blackstone Group. He retains many other venture capital and property interests, from November 2003 until his retirement in 2008, he was Deputy Chairman of BSkyB Television and until 2008 he was a Director of RHJ International. In 2003 Rothschild came under scrutiny when Russian oil industrialist Mikhail Khodorkovskys shares in YUKOS passed to him under a deal they concluded prior to Khodorkovskys arrest. In November 2010, an entity affiliated with Rothschild purchased a 5. 0% equity interest in Genie Energy. In 2013, Genie Energy was granted exclusive oil and gas rights to a 153-square mile radius in the southern part of the Golan Heights.
He was a personal friend of Diana, Princess of Wales and maintains strong personal. His country estate has been a venue for visiting heads of state including Presidents Ronald Reagan. Margaret Thatcher received French President François Mitterrand there at a summit in 1990 and he owns the 2015 RIBA Award winner Flint House in Buckinghamshire, UK. Jacob Rothschild has played a prominent part in Arts philanthropy in Britain. He was Chairman of Trustees of the National Gallery from 1985 to 1991, in 2014, he received the J. Paul Getty Medal for extraordinary achievement in the fields of museology, art historical research, philanthropy and conservation science. He was especially active in the project to restore Somerset House in London, for which he helped secure the Gilbert Collection and ensured the long-term future of the Courtauld Institute of Art. As a private project, he carried out the restoration of Spencer House, one of the finest surviving 18th century London townhouses, the cellars at Waddesdon Manor house his personal collection of 15,000 bottles of Rothschild wines dating as far back as 1870.
Open to the public, Waddesdon attracts over 300,000 visitors annually and has won awards over the last 15 years, including Museum of the Year Award
Dame Zaha Mohammad Hadid, DBE, RA was an Iraqi-born British architect. She was the first woman to receive the Pritzker Architecture Prize and she received the UKs most prestigious architectural award, the Stirling Prize, in 2010 and 2011. In 2012, she was made a Dame by Elizabeth II for services to architecture and she was described by the The Guardian of London as the Queen of the curve, who liberated architectural geometry, giving it a whole new expressive identity. Her major works include the centre for the London 2012 Olympics, Michigan State Universitys Broad Art Museum in the US. Hadid was born on 31 October 1950 in Baghdad and her father, Muhammad al-Hajj Husayn Hadid, was a wealthy industrialist from Mosul. He co-founded the left-liberal al-Ahali group in 1932, a significant political organisation in the 1930s and 1940s and he was the co-founder of the National Democratic Party in Iraq. Her mother, Wajiha al-Sabunji, was an artist from Mosul, in the 1960s Hadid attended boarding schools in England and Switzerland.
Hadid studied mathematics at the American University of Beirut before moving, in 1972, there she studied with Rem Koolhaas, Elia Zenghelis and Bernard Tschumi. Her former professor, described her at graduation as a planet in her own orbit, Zenghelis described her as the most outstanding pupil he ever taught. ‘We called her the inventor of the 89 degrees, nothing was ever at 90 degrees. All the buildings were exploding into tiny little pieces and he recalled that she was less interested in details, such as staircases. The way she drew a staircase you would smash your head against the ceiling, and the space was reducing and reducing and she couldn’t care about tiny details. Her mind was on the broader pictures – when it came to the joinery she knew we could fix that later. She was right. ’ Her fourth-year student project was a painting of a hotel in the form of a bridge, Hadid became a naturalised citizen of the United Kingdom. She earned her reputation with her lecturing and colorful and radical early designs and projects.
Her ambitious but unbuilt projects included a plan for Peak in Hong Kong, and her reputation in this period rested largely upon her teaching and the imaginative and colorful paintings she made of her proposed buildings. In 1989 Fehlbaum had invited Frank Gehry, little-known, to build a museum at the Vitra factory in Weil-am-Rhein. In 1993, he invited Hadid to design a small station for the factory
James Stirling (architect)
Sir James Frazer Stirling RA was a British architect. Stirling worked in partnership with James Gowan from 1956 to 1963 and his year of birth is widely quoted as 1926 but his longstanding friend Colin St John Wilson stated it was 1924. Stirling went to school at Quarry Bank High School, during World War II, he joined the Black Watch before transferring to the Parachute Regiment. He was parachuted behind German enemy lines before D-Day and wounded twice, Stirling studied architecture from 1945 until 1950 at the University of Liverpool, where Colin Rowe was a tutor. In 1956 he and James Gowan left their positions as assistants with the firm of Lyons and their first built project – the Langham House Close – was regarded as a landmark in the development of brutalist residential architecture, although this was a description both architects rejected. The project brought Stirling to a global audience, in 1963, Stirling and Gowan separated, Stirling set up on his own, taking with him the office assistant Michael Wilford.
Stirling oversaw two prestigious projects, the History Faculty Library at the University of Cambridge and the Florey Building accommodation block for The Queens College, during the 1970s, Stirlings architectural language began to change as the scale of his projects moved from small to very large. His architecture became more overtly neoclassical, though it remained deeply imbued with modernism and this produced a wave of large-scale urban projects, most notably three museum projects for Düsseldorf and Stuttgart. Winning the design competition for the Neue Staatsgalerie, it came to be seen as an example of postmodernism, among unrealized projects in the US are designs for Columbia University and a competition proposal for the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles. In 1981, Stirling was awarded the Pritzker Prize, Stirling received a series of important commissions in England – the Clore Gallery for the Turner Collection at the Tate Britain, the Tate Liverpool, and No 1 Poultry in London.
In June 1992, Stirling was awarded a knighthood, after consulting with Michael Wilford, he accepted the award on the grounds that it might help their practice. Three days after the announcement of his knighthood, Stirling was hospitalised in London with a painful hernia and he died on 25 June 1992 on the operating table due to bungled anaesthesis. In accordance with his wishes, his ashes were buried near to his memorial at Christ Church Spitalfields, after Stirlings death, Michael Wilford continued the practice. The Stirling Prize, a British annual prize for architecture since 1996, was named after him, many architects admire Stirlings work, but opinion has been divided. After Stirlings death Italian architect and critic Vittorio Gregotti wrote that from now on, rather more cuttingly, Jonathan Meades says that His buildings, like their bombastic maker, looked tough but were perpetual invalids, basket cases
Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, colloquially the Met, is located in New York City and is the largest art museum in the United States, and is among the most visited art museums in the world. Its permanent collection contains two million works, divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the edge of Central Park along Manhattans Museum Mile, is by area one of the worlds largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains a collection of art, architecture. On March 18,2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue in the Upper East Side, it extends the museums modern, the Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian, Byzantine and Islamic art. The museum is home to collections of musical instruments and accessories, as well as antique weapons. Several notable interiors, ranging from first-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries, the Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870.
The founders included businessmen and financiers, as well as leading artists and thinkers of the day and it opened on February 20,1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian, the museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments and accessories, and antique weapons and armor from around the world. A number of interiors, ranging from 1st century Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Mets galleries. In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the Met organizes and hosts traveling shows throughout the year. The director of the museum is Thomas P. Campbell, a long-time curator and it was announced on February 28th,2017 that Campbell will be stepping down as the Mets director and CEO, effective June. On March 1st,2017 the BBC reported that Daniel Weiss shall be the acting CEO until a replacement is found, Beginning in the late 19th century, the Met started to acquire ancient art and artifacts from the Near East.
From a few tablets and seals, the Mets collection of Near Eastern art has grown to more than 7,000 pieces. The highlights of the include a set of monumental stone lamassu, or guardian figures. The Mets Department of Arms and Armor is one of the museums most popular collections. Among the collections 14,000 objects are many pieces made for and used by kings and princes, including armor belonging to Henry VIII of England, Henry II of France, Rockefeller donated his more than 3, 000-piece collection to the museum. The Mets Asian department holds a collection of Asian art, of more than 35,000 pieces, the collection dates back almost to the founding of the museum, many of the philanthropists who made the earliest gifts to the museum included Asian art in their collections
In addition to the library, the institution houses an extensive art collection with a focus in 18th and 19th-century European art and 17th to mid-20th-century American art. The property includes approximately 120 acres of specialized botanical landscaped gardens, most notably the Japanese Garden, the Desert Garden, as a landowner and visionary, Henry Edwards Huntington, played a major role in the growth of southern California. Huntington was born in 1850, in Oneonta, New York, in 1892, Huntington relocated to San Francisco with his first wife, Mary Alice Prentice, and their four children. He was one of the founders of the City of San Marino, before his death in 1927, Huntington amassed far and away the greatest group of 18th-century British portraits ever assembled by any one man. In accordance with Huntingtons will, the collection, worth $50 million, was opened to the public in 1928. On October 17,1985, a fire erupted in a shaft of the Huntington Art Gallery. After a year-long, $1 million refurbishing project, the Huntington Gallery reopened in 1986, with its artworks cleaned of soot and stains.
Most of the funds for the cleanup and refurbishing of the Georgian mansion and its artworks came from donations from the Michael J. Connell Foundation and individuals. Both the Federal art-supporting establishment of the National Endowment for the Arts, the Library building was designed in 1920, by the southern California architect Myron Hunt in the Mediterranean Revival style. Hunts previous commissions for Mr. and Mrs. Huntington included the Huntingtons residence in San Marino in 1909, and the Huntington Hotel in 1914. The library contains a collection of rare books and manuscripts, concentrated in the fields of British and American history, art. Spanning from the 11th century to the present, the librarys holdings contain 7 million items, over 400,000 rare books, and over a million photographs and other ephemera. Highlights include one of 11 vellum copies of the Gutenberg Bible known to exist,1410, and letters and manuscripts by George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and Abraham Lincoln.
The Librarys Main Exhibition Hall showcases some of the most outstanding rare books and manuscripts in the collection, the Dibner Hall of the History of Science is a permanent exhibition on the history of science with a focus on astronomy, natural history and light. Use of the collection for research is restricted to qualified scholars, generally requiring a degree or at least candidacy for the PhD. Through a rigorous program, the institution awards approximately 150 grants to scholars in the fields of history, art. Through the Huntington Library Press, the produces the Huntington Library Quarterly. Scholarly pursuits lead to best-selling books, Pulitzer prizes, acclaimed documentary films, the Huntington hosts numerous scholarly events, lectures and workshops
Herzog & de Meuron
Herzog & de Meuron Basel Ltd. or Herzog & de Meuron Architekten, BSA/SIA/ETH, is a Swiss architecture firm with its head office in Basel, Switzerland. The careers of founders and senior partners Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron closely paralleled one another and they are perhaps best known for their conversion of the giant Bankside Power Station in London to the new home of Tate Modern. Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron have been visiting professors at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design since 1994, Herzog & de Meuron was founded in Basel in 1978. In 2001, Herzog & de Meuron were awarded the Pritzker Prize, jury chairman J. Carter Brown commented, One is hard put to think of any architects in history that have addressed the integument of architecture with greater imagination and virtuosity. This was in reference to HdMs innovative use of materials and treatments. In 2006, the New York Times Magazine called them one of the most admired architecture firms in the world, HdMs early works were reductivist pieces of modernity that registered on the same level as the minimalist art of Donald Judd.
However, their recent work at Prada Tokyo, the Barcelona Forum Building, HdMs commitment of articulation through materiality is a common thread through all their projects. Their formal gestures have generally progressed from the purist simplicity of forms to more complex. The architects often cite Joseph Beuys as an artistic inspiration. Their success can be attributed to their skills in revealing unfamiliar or unknown relationships by utilizing innovative materials. Jakob-Park, Switzerland 2003 Laban Dance Centre, Deptford Creek, London, UK2003 Prada Aoyama, Japan 2004 Forum Building, Barcelona 2004 IKMZ, Germany 2005 M. H
Henry Spencer Moore OM CH FBA was an English artist. He is best known for his monumental bronze sculptures which are located around the world as public works of art. As well as sculpture, Moore produced many drawings, including a series depicting Londoners sheltering from the Blitz during the Second World War and his forms are usually abstractions of the human figure, typically depicting mother-and-child or reclining figures. Moores works are usually suggestive of the body, apart from a phase in the 1950s when he sculpted family groups. His forms are generally pierced or contain hollow spaces, many interpreters liken the undulating form of his reclining figures to the landscape and hills of his birthplace, Yorkshire. Moore was born in Castleford, the son of a coal miner and he became well-known through his carved marble and larger-scale abstract cast bronze sculptures, and was instrumental in introducing a particular form of modernism to the United Kingdom. His ability in life to fulfill large-scale commissions made him exceptionally wealthy, despite this, he lived frugally, most of the money he earned went towards endowing the Henry Moore Foundation, which continues to support education and promotion of the arts.
Henry Moore was born in Castleford, West Riding of Yorkshire, England, to Mary Baker and his father was of Irish origin and became pit deputy and under-manager of the Wheldale colliery in Castleford. He was an autodidact with an interest in music and literature, determined that his sons would not work in the mines, he saw formal education as the route to their advancement. Henry was the seventh of eight children in a family often struggled with poverty. He attended infant and elementary schools in Castleford, where he began modelling in clay and he professed to have decided to become a sculptor when he was eleven after hearing of Michelangelos achievements at a Sunday School reading. On his second attempt he was accepted at Castleford Grammar School, which several of his siblings had attended, where his headmaster soon noticed his talent and interest in medieval sculpture. His art teacher broadened his knowledge of art and, with her encouragement, he determined to make art his career, despite his early promise, Moores parents had been against him training as a sculptor, a vocation they considered manual labour with few career prospects.
After a brief introduction as a student teacher, Moore became a teacher at the school he had attended, upon turning eighteen, Moore volunteered for army service. He was the youngest man in the Prince of Wales Own Civil Service Rifles regiment and was injured in 1917 in a gas attack, on 30 November at Bourlon Wood, during the Battle of Cambrai. After recovering in hospital, he saw out the remainder of the war as a training instructor. He recalled later, for me the war passed in a haze of trying to be a hero. And I still have that feeling, after the Great War Moore received an ex-servicemans grant to continue his education and in 1919 he became a student at the Leeds School of Art, which set up a sculpture studio especially for him
The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes in 1895, the prizes in Chemistry, Peace and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 carat gold, between 1901 and 2016, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 579 times to 911 people and organisations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 23 organisations, the prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden. Each recipient, or laureate, receives a medal, a diploma. The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in the fields of literature, physics, chemistry and economics. The prize is not awarded posthumously, however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, though the average number of laureates per prize increased substantially during the 20th century, a prize may not be shared among more than three people.
Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden and he was a chemist and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill and this invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives, especially the British smokeless powder cordite. As a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was eventually involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite, Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous. In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, as it was Alfreds brother Ludvig who had died, the obituary was eight years premature. The article disconcerted Nobel and made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered and this inspired him to change his will. On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime. He composed the last over a year before he died, signing it at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895, Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets,31 million SEK, to establish the five Nobel Prizes.
Because of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that it was approved by the Storting in Norway. The executors of Nobels will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobels fortune, Nobels instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organisations were designated or established and these were Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the prizes should be awarded, and, in 1900, in 1905, the personal union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved