A private collection is a owned collection of works. In a museum or art-gallery context, the term signifies that a certain work is not owned by that institution, but is on loan from an individual or organization, either for temporary exhibition or for the long term; this source is an art collector, although it could be a school, bank, or some other company or organization. By contrast, collectors of books if they collect for aesthetic reasons, are called bibliophiles, their collections are referred to as libraries. Art collecting was common among the wealthy in the Ancient World in both Europe and East Asia, in the Middle Ages, but developed in its modern form during the Renaissance and continues to the present day; the Royal collections of most countries were the grandest of private collections but are now in public ownership. However the British Royal Collection remains under the care of the Crown, though distinguished from the private property of the British Royal Family; the cabinet of curiosities was an important mixed form of collection, including art and what we would now call natural history or scientific collections.
These were formed by royalty but smaller ones by merchants and scholars. The tastes and habits of collectors have played a important part in determining what art was produced, providing the demand that artists supply. Many types of objects, such as medals, small plaquettes, modern engraved gems and bronze statuettes were made for the collector's market. By the 18th century all homes of the well-to-do were expected to contain a selection of objects, from paintings to porcelain, that could form part of an art collection, the collections of those who would qualify for the term had to be larger, some were enormous. Collectors tended to specialize in one or two types of work, although some, like George Salting, still had a wide scope for their collections. Apart from antiquities, which were regarded as the highest form of collecting from the Renaissance until recently, books and prints from the late 15th century onwards, until the 18th century collectors tended to collect new works from Europe; the extension of serious collecting to art from all periods and places was an 19th-century development, or at least dating to the Age of Enlightenment.
Trecento paintings were little appreciated until about the 1830s, Chinese ritual bronzes and jades until the 1920s. Collecting of African art was rare until after World War II. In recognition of its importance in influencing the production of new art and the preservation of old art, art collecting has been an area of considerable academic research in recent decades, having been somewhat neglected previously. Famous collections that are now dispersed include the Borghese Collection and Farnese collection in Rome, the Orleans Collection in Paris sold in London; when this happens, it can be a large loss to those interested in art as the initial vision of the collector is lost. The Princely Family of Liechtenstein have works by such artists as Hals, Raphael and Van Dyck, a collection containing some 1,600 works of art, but were unable to show them since 1945 when they were smuggled out of Nazi Germany; the works were displayed in the Liechtenstein Museum after nearly 60 years with most in storage.
The important collection of the Thyssen family kept in the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, which settled in Madrid in 1992, was bought by the Spanish state. Only an exhibited part, the collection of Carmen Cervera, widow of the late Baron Thyssen, remains private but exhibited separately in the museum. Many collections were left to the public in some form, are now museums, or the nucleus of a museum's collection. Most museums are formed around one or more private collection acquired as a whole. Major examples where few or no additions have been made include the Wallace Collection and Sir John Soane's Museum in London, the Frick Collection and Morgan Library in New York, The Phillips Collection in Washington DC, the Museu Calouste Gulbenkian in Lisbon Portugal. Other collections are merged into larger collections in museums; some important 19th/20th examples are: The Waddesdon Bequest of Renaissance objects was bequeathed to the British Museum, where it is displayed in its own room, as is the Percival David Collection of Chinese porcelain.
Many other bequests or purchased collections are split up within the museum's collection. Sergei Shchukin, was an important Russian art collector of French Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art, his collection is now divided between the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow and the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg; the Charles Lang Freer Collection became an important part of The Smithsonian—the Freer Gallery of Art. When the banker Robert Lehman died in 1969, his foundation donated 2,600 works of art to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Housed in the "Robert Lehman Wing," the museum refers to the collection as "one of the most extraordinary private art collections assembled in the United States". To emphasize the personal nature of the Robert Lehman Collection, the Met housed the collection in a special set of galleries which evoked the interior of Lehman's richly decorated townhouse. Unlike other departments at the Met, the Robert Lehman collection does not conce
Alwyn Derek "Ollie" Burton is a former Welsh international footballer, a member of the Norwich City F. C. Hall of Fame. A versatile player at the back or as a centre forward, Burton began his career as a wing-half at Newport County scoring 8 times in 53 appearances, he spent 10 years playing for Newcastle United, but regards being part of the Norwich City side that won the second-ever Football League Cup in 1962 as one of his greatest achievements. Burton made 73 first team appearances for Norwich and scored nine goals, before moving to Newcastle in 1963, for a fee of about £35,000, his move followed an FA Cup tie between the two clubs, which Norwich won 5–0. Burton gained nine caps for Wales. Burton was part of the Newcastle team that won the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1969; the first substitute used by Newcastle, following the introduction of the new law, he retired in 1972
The 1969 New Jersey gubernatorial election was held on November 4, 1969. Republican nominee William T. Cahill defeated Democratic nominee Robert B. Meyner with 59.66% of the vote. Primary elections were held on June 3, 1969. Robert B. Meyner, former Governor William F. Kelly, State Senator Henry Helstoski, U. S. Representative D. Louis Tonti Ned J. Parsekian, State Senator John L. Hennessey William T. Cahill, U. S. Representative Charles W. Sandman Jr. U. S. Representative Harry L. Sears, State Senator Frank X. McDermott, State Senator William E. Ozzard, State Senator Major party candidates William T. Cahill, Republican Robert B. Meyner, DemocraticOther candidates James E. Johnson, Independent Jack D. Alvino, Independent Winifred O. Perry, Conservative Louis Vanderplate, Independent Julius Levin, Socialist Labor Party of America
Charles Stent was a 19th-century English dentist notable for his advances in the field of denture making. In 1847, English dentist Edwin Truman introduced gutta-percha as a material for making dental impressions. In 1856, Stent added several other materials to the gutta-percha, notably stearine, which markedly improved the plasticity of the material as well as its stability, he added talc as an inert filler to give more body to the material, red colouring. The medical device called. Charles Thomas Stent was born at Royal Crescent, Brighton, on 17 October 1807, he was the 6th son of Hannah Stent. He had a daughter, Fanny. In life, Charles Robert added his mother's maiden name of Osborn, to his. Charles Thomas and his wife Caroline are buried in London. How a Dentist's Name Became a Synonym for a Life-saving Device: The Story of Dr. Charles Stent, Journal of the History of Dentistry/Vol. 49, No. 2/July 2001
Čierna Voda is a village and municipality in Galanta District of the Trnava Region of southwest Slovakia. The municipality lies at an elevation of 120 metres and covers an area of 12.142 km². It has a population of about 1410 people. In the 9th century, the territory of Čierna Voda became part of the Kingdom of Hungary. In historical records the village was first mentioned in 1217. After the Austro-Hungarian army disintegrated in November 1918, Czechoslovak troops occupied the area acknowledged internationally by the Treaty of Trianon. Between 1938 and 1945 Čierna Voda once more became part of Miklós Horthy's Hungary through the First Vienna Award. From 1945 until the Velvet Divorce, it was part of Czechoslovakia. Since it has been part of Slovakia; the records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Bratislava, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1777-1892 List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia http://www.statistics.sk/mosmis/eng/run.html Surnames of living people in Cierna Voda
Tajammul Hussain Malik was a 2-star general officer in the Pakistan army and the former General Officer Commanding of the 23rd Division of Pakistan Army, retiring with the rank of major general. He was the commanding officer of Pakistani forces at the Battle of Hilli during the Indo-Pakistani war of 1971, headed a failed coup attempt against the regime of Zia-ul-Haq in 1980 which resulted in a court-martial held by Judge Advocate General Branch of Pakistan Defence Forces headed by General Zia-ul-Haq. Tajammul Hussain Malik, from the Awan tribe, was born on June 13, 1924 in the Chakwal District in the Punjab province and became a career officer in the British Indian Army, 7 Rajput Regiment joining the army of the new state of Pakistan in 1947, he had participated in the 1965 War-Battle of Batapur. In 1969, he was promoted as Brigadier and in October 1971 he was posted as Director of Staff Duties in GHQ, from where at his personal request to volunteer to fight in East Pakistan, he was posted to 205 Brigade deployed on the Hilli-Bogra Front.
He joined the Brigade on November 1971 deployed at Hilli in East Pakistan. During the war, he was cited for a live award of Nishan e Haider, he was the Commander of the Pakistani Forces in the Battle of Hilli. He was the only red tape Pakistani officer who did not surrender as his GOC 16 Division had surrendered, he had been taken from the battle field unconscious, refused to undergo the surrender ceremony and it was his GOC, Major General Nazar Hussain Shah, who went through the surrender ceremony of 205 Brigade to the opposing commander Major General Lachhman Singh. He became a well known war hero in West Pakistan. Malik was the commanding officer of the 3rd Baloch Regiment which had defended Lahore in the 1965 war, he was at the time a Lt Col and had destroyed the Batapur Bridge and defended a vital opening of the grand trunk road to save Lahore on 6 September 1965. A monument has been laid at the site and the day is celebrated in Pakistan as'Defence Day' to remind the nation of General Tajammul's war efforts and those of the other vital commanding officers.
He was a brigadier during the 1971 Pakistan-India War at the Bangladesh scene. He had volunteered to go and fight while he was director of staff duties at the GHQ, a coveted position, he took over command of 203 Infantry Brigade and defended Hilli while he was up against an Indian division and a brigade of Bengali insurgents on the Pakistani soil next to the Indian border. Bogra was surrounded from all sides by the greater numbers of the Mukti Bahini. Brig. Malik continued to resist after the Pakistani Eastern Command surrendered in Dhaka on 16 December. He, in his staff car with flags and stars uncovered, went around the streets of Bogra motivating his soldiers to keep fighting; the Indian army had, by surrounded the city of Bogra. The brigade major along with some 50 other ranks surrendered but Malik, still full of vigour, refused to give up, he ordered the rest of his brigade to break out in small groups to Naogong, where one of his units was still fighting on. However, en route, his jeep was ambushed injuring him and his orderly.
Muktis subjected them to torture. They broke his arms and split his head, after which he was taken semi-conscious to an Indian Army hospital. Major General Nazar Hussain Shah was flown in from Natore for the surrender of this brigade on 18 December 1971, due to the refusal of Malik to surrender. Upon return from captivity, he was the only brigadier, who fought the 1971 War in East Pakistan to have been promoted to the rank of major general. After his release and repatriation to Pakistan and having undergone the Hamoodur Rehman Commission inquiry, he held the command of 23rd Division in Jhelum as a major general. However, he was retired by a military tribunal of the Judge Advocate General Branch headed by Army Chief General Zia-ul-Haq over accusations of attempting to overthrow the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and install a government headed by General Tajammul in its place. Malik organized two coups, first of the two on June 26, 1977. In 1980, he organized yet another coup attempt against the military regime of Zia-ul-Haq, with many other senior army officers, including his son Naveed Tajammul.
The plan was to assassinate Zia-ul-Haq during the Pakistan Day parade on March 23, 1980. However the plot was exposed and Malik, his son and the other conspirators were arrested and sentenced to rigorous life imprisonment. Though offered chances of exile when the risk of being executed was high, General Malik and his son never took the offer to be exiled and preferred their homeland. Malik was released from imprisonment in 1988 following the death of Zia-ul-Haq in a plane crash, he published his autobiography, The Story Of My Struggle, in 1991. He joined the field of politics, twice contested elections for the National Assembly of Pakistan as an independent candidate from Chakwal district, he formed his own Islamic political party in 1977. His two children Naveed Tajammal and Waseem Pasha Tajammal became politicians, after retiring from politics entered the business world in the energy and defense sectors