Private property

Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities. Private property is distinguishable from public property, owned by a state entity. Private property can be capital goods. Private property is a legal concept enforced by a country's political system. Ideas about and discussion of private property date back at least as far as Plato. Prior to the 18th century, English speakers used the word "property" in reference to land ownership. In England, "property" came to have a legal definition in the 17th century. Private property as commercial property was invented with the great European trading companies of the 17th century; the issue of the enclosure of agricultural land in England as debated in the 17th and 18th centuries, accompanied efforts in philosophy and political thought—by Thomas Hobbes, James Harrington and John Locke, for example—to address the phenomenon of property ownership. In arguing against supporters of absolute monarchy, John Locke conceptualized property as a "natural right" that God had not bestowed on the monarchy.

This stated. Influenced by the rise of mercantilism, Locke argued that private property was antecedent to and thus independent of government. Locke distinguished between "common property", by which he meant common land, property in consumer goods and producer-goods, the latter of which referred to land, his chief argument for property in land was improved land management and cultivation over common land. In the 18th century, during the Industrial Revolution, the moral philosopher and economist Adam Smith, in contrast to Locke, drew a distinction between the "right to property" as an acquired right, natural rights. Smith confined natural rights to "liberty and life". Smith drew attention to the relationship between employee and employer and identified that property and civil government were dependent upon each other, recognizing that "the state of property must always vary with the form of government". Smith further argued that civil government could not exist without property, as government's main function was to safeguard property ownership.

In the 19th century, the economist and philosopher Karl Marx provided an influential analysis of the development and history of property formations and their relationship to the technical productive forces of a given period. Marx's conception of private property has proven influential for many subsequent economic theories and for anarchist and socialist political movements, led to the widespread association of private property with capitalism. Private property is a legal concept enforced by a country's political system; the area of law that deals with the subject is called property law. The enforcement of property law concerning private property is a matter of public expense. Defence of property is a common method of justification used by defendants who argue that they should not be held liable for any loss and injury that they have caused because they were acting to protect their property. Courts have ruled that the use of force may be acceptable. In many political systems, the government requests.

A property tax is an ad valorem tax on the value of a property levied on real estate. The tax is levied by the governing authority of the jurisdiction, it may be imposed annually or at the time of a real estate transaction, such as in real estate transfer tax. Under a property-tax system, the government requires or performs an appraisal of the monetary value of each property, tax is assessed in proportion to that value; the four broad types of property taxes are land, improvements to land, personal property and intangible property. The social and political context in which private property is administered will determine the extent to which an owner will be able to exercise rights over the same; the rights to private property come with limitations. For example, local government may enforce rules about what kind of building may be built on private land, or whether a historical building may be demolished or not. Theft is common in many societies, the extent to which central administration will pursue property crime varies enourmously.

Some forms of private property are uniquely identifiable, may be described in a title or a certificate of ownership. The rights to a property may be transferred from one "owner" to another. A transfer tax is a tax on the passing of title to property from one person to another. An owner may request that, after death, private property be transferred to family members, through inheritance. In certain cases ownership may be lost to the public interest. Private real estate may be used for public purposes, for example to build a road; the legal framework of a country or society defines some of the practical implications of private property. There are no expectations that these rules will define a rational and consistent model of economics or social system. Although contemporary neoclassical economics—currently the dominant school of economics—rejects some of the assumptions of the early philosophers underpinning classical economics, it has been argued that neoclassical economics continues to be influenced by the legacy of natural moral theo

Ángel César Mendoza Arámburo

Ángel César Mendoza Arámburo was a Mexican politician, the first elected governor in the state of Baja California Sur for the period 1975 to 1981. A lawyer for the National Autonomous University of Mexico, he held various positions within the Institutional Revolutionary Party, he was federal deputy in the legislature XLVII Congress and was Secretary for Tax Inspectorate of Ministry of Finance and Public Credit. Acting as governor, founded in 1976, the Autonomous University of Baja California Sur, he was married to Luz Garayzar with whom he had three children: Guadalupe and Cesar Angel. He was born in the city of La Paz on December 15, 1934, the son of Angel Mendoza Sabido and Julia Arámburo, he attended elementary and high school in La Paz, BCS 1951 to 1952 he attended the high schools in the National Preparatory School in 1953, he enrolled at the Faculty of Law at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, where he graduated in 1957. He graduated in 1963 with a thesis on "Reforms Needed to Land Code in force."

Historical and constitutional of Baja California Sur in Virtual law library General History of Baja California Sur in Google Books Google Books Mexican Political Biographies

1983 World Championships in Athletics – Women's 4 × 400 metres relay

The 4 × 400 metres relay at the 1983 World Championships in Athletics was held at the Helsinki Olympic Stadium on August 13 and August 14. Existing records at the start of the event. All times shown are in minutes. United States 3:26.82 Q Canada 3:27.21 Q Czechoslovakia 3:27.60 Q West Germany 3:29.70 q Romania 3:30.96 q Soviet Union 3:28.77 Q East Germany 3:29.05 Q Bulgaria 3:31.11 Q Jamaica 3:34.17 Puerto Rico 3:42.79 East Germany 3:19.73 Czechoslovakia 3:20.32 Soviet Union 3:21.16 Canada 3:27.41 United States 3:27.57 West Germany 3:29.43 Bulgaria 3:30.36 Romania 3:35.61 IAAF results, heats IAAF results, final IAAF Statistics Book Moskow 2013