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Privy Council of Sweden

The Council of the Realm, or The Council, was a cabinet of medieval origin, consisting of magnates which advised, at times co-ruled with, the King of Sweden. The 1634 Instrument of Government, Sweden's first written constitution in the modern sense, stipulated that the King must have a council, but he was free to choose whomever he might find suitable for the job, as long as they were of Swedish birth. At the introduction of absolutism, Charles XI had the equivalent organ named as Royal Council. In the Age of Liberty, the medieval name was reused, but after the bloodless revolution of Gustav III, the old organ was abolished; the 1809 Instrument of Government, created a Council of State known as the King in Council which became the constitutionally mandated cabinet where the King had to make all state decisions in the presence of his cabinet ministers. Throughout the 19th century and reaching its culmination with the enactment of the 1974 Instrument of Government, this new Council transformed into an executive cabinet of ministers known as The Government and formed by the Prime Minister who since 1975 is elected by the Riksdag, which governs the Realm independently of a purely ceremonial monarch.

During the reign of Magnus III between 1275 and 1290 the meetings of the council became a permanent institution having the offices of Steward and Chancellor. From the reign of King Gustav Vasa, with his efforts of creating a centralised State, the members of the Council became more of courtiers and state officials rather than the semi-autonomous warlords they once were. Following the change of policies upon the death of Gustav II Adolf in action at Lützen in 1632, the 1634 Instrument of Government written by Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna laid the foundation for the administration of modern Sweden. For instance, the roots of the present-day administrative subdivision into counties is a legacy from this time. From 1634, the council was headed by the five Great Officers of the Realm, each leading a branch of the state administration: Lord High Steward Lord High Constable Lord High Admiral Lord High Chancellor Lord High Treasurer The councillors had the highest position in the kingdom after the royal family and were styled "the King's cousins".

From around 1672, the year of the coming of age of Charles XI, the council was assembled less and less and the king ruled autocratically, using an ad hoc group of trusted relations and advisors to discuss a particular matter or group of matters. The Scanian War gave the king the opportunity to establish – with the approval of the Estates – an absolute Monarchy along the lines of Renaissance Absolutism. Council, local government, legal system, Church of Sweden, all were brought within the power of the King and his secretaries; this was the culmination of a long power-struggle between the aristocracy. The first of the Riksdag Acts ratifying the change of system was a declaration that the king was not bound by the 1634 constitution, which no king or queen had consented to freely; the councillors were now titles Royal Councillors, being appointed and dismissed at the king's pleasure. In 1713, the son and successor of Charles XI, Charles XII, issued a new working order for the Chancellery to enable him to conduct government from the battle-field, but his sudden death at the siege of Fredricshald in Norway in 1718 provided the opportunity for the parliament to write a new constitution in 1719 and 1721, that gave Sweden half a century of first renewed conciliatory, parliamentary government.

The first Estate, the nobility, dominated both the council. The council now was chaired by the King; each councillor had one vote. The council was the government of the country, but the supreme judicial authority. From 1738 the Estates could remove councillors to create a majority corresponding to that of the Estates, the Estates appointing the President of the Chancellery, along party lines; the Freedom of the Press Act was passed during this period. This Age of Liberty lasted until the bloodless coup d'état of king Gustav III in 1772, which restored royal sovereignty under the guise of the 1634 Instrument of Government. In 1789, by the Act of Union and Security, an amendment charter to the constitution, the exclusive right of the nobility to high offices was abolished and the Estates of the Burghers and the Peasants received these privileges - a step towards modern democracy. Aristocratic control of state organs ceased, as among other things the Privy Council was able to be abolished altogether by the Act, although the councillors retained their titles for life.

The council's judicial function devolved on the King's Supreme Court composed of an equal number of noble and non-noble members. In the 1789 constitutional amendment Gustav III, having desired to abolish the constitutional power of the Council, had instead received the right to determine the number of councillors, he decided to have zero of them, instead he created the office of Rikets allmänna ärendens beredning, a predecess

Warehouse (nightclub)

The Warehouse was a nightclub established in Chicago, Illinois in 1977 under the direction of Robert Williams. It is today most famous for being what many consider to be the birthplace of house music Chicago house, the genre's center in the United States while under its first musical director, DJ Frankie Knuckles. A broad spectrum of dance music was played there. Knuckles experimented with different possibilities of developing an original expression, mixing disco music with European electronic music. DJ History reports: "The style of music now known as house was so named after a shortened version of club."Located at 206 South Jefferson Street in Chicago, the club was made out of a three storey former factory. The Warehouse drew in around two thousand patrons from midnight Saturday to midday Sunday; the Warehouse was patronized by gay black and Latino men, who came to dance to disco music played by the club's resident DJ, Frankie Knuckles. Admission was four dollars and the club offered free juice and water to dancers.

In the middle floor is where DJ Knuckles began to experiment with editing disco breaks on a reel-to-tape recorder. This mixing would soon become the beginnings of the house music genre; the Warehouse became a hub for the people of Chicago black gay men. It was compared to a spiritual experience. At the time, many black gay men felt excluded from the religious communities that they had been raised in; this contributed to the culture created at Warehouse. Warehouse was a place where people could be open and "this sexual openness enabled the club to be unusually free of aggression”. Chicago house was a black gay genre in many ways for many years and Warehouse was a specific space that cultivated that scene in a safe way. Black music was at the heart of the disco era and it is impossible to separate the roots of disco from the disenfranchised queer people of color that flocked to it. House is connected to disco in that "it mutated the form, intensifying the aspects of the music that most offended white rockers and black funkateers: the machinic repetition, the synthetic and electronic textures, the rootlessness, the ‘depraved’ hypersexuality and ‘decadent’ druggy hedonism."Warehouse was a place that allowed house music to flourish as a continuation of disco under Frankie Knuckles.

It continued the tradition of making music for the club, for people to feel and to create a holy dance atmosphere and experience over just trying to make something that could get hits on the radio or top 40 charts. "The stomping four-to-the-floor kick-drum would become the defining mark of house music." This technique and many more championed were by Frankie Knuckles at Warehouse, such as synthetic handclaps and special hi-hat patterns and bass loops. These have all been influential in pushing the boundaries of how a song is supposed to sound and how a song can be manipulated to fit a club setting. After The Warehouse doubled its admission fee in late 1982, it grew more commercial and Knuckles decided to leave and start his own club, Power House, to which his devoted followers followed. In response, the Warehouse's owners renamed it the Music Box and hired a new DJ named Ron Hardy In 2004, the city of Chicago - which "became notorious in the dance community around the world for passing the so-called'anti-rave ordinance' in 2000 that made property owners and deejays subject to $10,000 fines for being involved in an unlicensed dance party" - named a stretch of street in downtown Chicago after Knuckles, where the old Warehouse once stood, on Jefferson Street between Jackson Boulevard and Madison Street in Chicago's West Loop.

On August 25, 2004, the city renamed the block "Frankie Knuckles Way" and declared August 25 to be Frankie Knuckles Day. Future United States President Barack Obama was among the advocates for the change as an Illinois state senator. Chicago house List of electronic dance music venues Homophobia in the African American community The Warehouse/Music Box, Chicago – Clubbers Guide to Life from Ministry of Sound. Retrieved on September 6, 2007. Cheeseman, Phil. "The History of House Music". TruGroovez History of House Music. TruGroovez. Com. Archived from the original on February 7, 2005. Retrieved 2005-02-07. 41.878956,-87.640536 google maps

Halifax Armoury

The Halifax Armoury is a military structure in central Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. The armoury is the home base of 36 Signal Regiment, The Princess Louise Fusiliers, several other reserve units; the armoury was designed in 1895 by Chief Dominion Architect Thomas Fuller, was opened the next year and work on the structure was completed in 1899. While the sandstone exterior is based on a medieval castle, it was one of the most advanced structures of its day, it was pioneering in its use of a series of Fink trusses to create a large interior space with no columns or walls, is today the oldest surviving example of such a building. It was one of the first buildings in Halifax to be lit by electricity; the plan is similar to that of Fuller's Toronto Armoury, completed in 1894. It has played an important part in many Canadian wars, being an important transit point for soldiers before departing by ship for the Boer War and both World Wars, it was damaged in the Halifax Explosion in 1917, the west wall being displaced by about 60 centimetres.

Still usable after the explosion, the armoury provided shelter for many. The armoury again served as an emergency shelter during the 1945 Bedford Magazine explosions, when thousands of North End residents evacuated toward the Halifax Common; the St. John Ambulance Brigade and the army worked together to shelter the evacuees for about 25 hours following the first explosion; the building was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1989. In 1991, it was designated a Classified Federal Heritage Building. Major renovations were announced in January 2017 to restore the west wall to its original position after being damaged in 1917 by the powerful blast of the Halifax Explosion. Up to 20 per cent of the wall required replacement and it was decided to use stone from the original quarry after the source was located in Beckwith, near Pugwash, Nova Scotia; the first phase of the rehabilitation project centres on restoring the damaged west wall, as a tilt caused by the Halifax Explosion has been increasing.

Reconstruction of the wall is expected to be complete in October 2019. The restoration's second phase is expected to be complete by 2024; the interior will be restored. List of armouries in Canada List of oldest buildings and structures in Halifax, Nova Scotia Military history of Nova Scotia Halifax Armoury Commemorated Halifax Armory History


Yazılıkaya, Eskişehir called Midas City, is a village with Phrygian ruins. Yazılıkaya was a sanctuary of Hattusa, the capital city of the Hittite Empire, today in the Çorum Province, Turkey. Rock reliefs are a prominent aspect of Hittite art, these are regarded as the most important group; this was a holy site for the Hittites, located within walking distance of the gates of the city of Hattusa. It had two main chambers formed inside a group of rock outcrops. Access to the roofless chambers were controlled by gateway and building structures built right in front of them, however only the foundations of those structures survived today. Most impressive today are the rock reliefs of Chambers A and B portraying the gods of the Hittite pantheon. One of the uses of the sanctuary may have involved the New Year's celebrations ceremonies. Indeed, recent work by Rita Gautschy and Eberhard Zangger suggests that the place may have served as a time-keeping device, with the carvings serving as markets for lunar and solar movement.

It was in use at least since late 16th century BCE, but most of the rock carvings date to the reign of the Hittite kings Tudhaliya IV and Suppiluliuma II in the late 13th century BCE, when the site underwent a significant restoration. The most impressive is Chamber A; the left wall shows a procession of male deities, wearing the traditional kilts, pointed shoes and horned hats. Mountain gods are shown with scaled skirts to symbolise the rocky mountains; the right wall shows a procession of female deities wearing crowns and long skirts. The only exception to this divide is the goddess of love and war, Shaushka, shown on the male procession with two female attendants; this is to be because of her male attributes as the goddess of war. The processions lead to a central scene of the supreme couple of the pantheon: the storm-god Teshub and the sun-goddess Hebat. Teshub stands on two mountain gods whilst Hebat stands on a panther. Behind Hebat are shown their son Sharruma, daughter Alanzu and a granddaughter.

The smaller and narrower Chamber B has larger and better preserved reliefs. It may have served as a mortuary mausoleum or memorial for the Hittite king Tudhaliya IV, it is intriguing to note how the Hittite practise of assimilating other cultures' gods into their own pantheon is in evidence at Yazilikaya. The Mesopotamian god of wisdom, Ea is shown in the male procession and the god Teshub was a Hurrian god, syncretized with the Hittite storm-god. Hebat's original consort was changed into her and Teshub's son and she was syncretized with the Hattic sun-goddess of Arinna, it is believed that the wife of the Hittite king Hattusili III, the daughter of a Hurrian priestess played a role in the increasing Hurrian influence on Hittite cult. Yazilikaya and Hattusa Official web site on Hattusa and Yazilikaya of the German Institute of Archaeology Yazılıkaya A 3000-year-old Hittite mystery may be solved Yazilikaya

Tyler Pitlick

Tyler Pitlick is an American professional ice hockey forward. He is playing with the Philadelphia Flyers of the National Hockey League, he was selected by the Edmonton Oilers in the 2nd round of the 2010 NHL Entry Draft. After playing a freshman season with Minnesota State University, Mankato and a single season of major junior hockey with the Medicine Hat Tigers of the Western Hockey League, on April 13, 2011 the Edmonton Oilers signed Pitlick to a three-year entry-level contract. In the first month of the 2013–14 season, on October 22, 2013 the Edmonton Oilers recalled Pitlick up from affiliate, the Oklahoma City Barons of the AHL for the first time; the same day he played in his debut NHL game against the Montreal Canadiens. He scored his first NHL goal against Mike Smith of the Phoenix Coyotes on October 26, 2013. Pitlick was sent back down to the Barons. On July 1, 2017, Pitlick left the Oilers as a free agent after 6 seasons within the organization, signing a three-year, $3 million contract with the Dallas Stars.

In his first season with the Stars in 2017–18, Pitlick responded with a career season, collecting 14 goals and 13 assists for 27 points in 80 regular season games. In the 2018–19 season, Pitlick was limited to 47 games due to a wrist injury, he contributed in a bottom six forward, collecting 12 points. He made his playoff debut in a first-round series against the Nashville Predators, going scoreless in 6 games. Approaching the final year of his contract, Pitlick was traded by the Stars to the Philadelphia Flyers in exchange for Ryan Hartman on June 24, 2019. Pitlick comes from a hockey playing family, his cousin Rem played NCAA hockey for the University of Minnesota and was drafted 76th overall by the Nashville Predators in the 2016 NHL Entry Draft. Another cousin, Rhett Pitlick, the younger brother of Rem, has committed to play NCAA hockey for the University of Minnesota and was drafted 131st overall by the Montreal Canadiens in the 2019 NHL Entry Draft. Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or, or, or The Internet Hockey Database

Protestantism in the United Arab Emirates

Protestantism is a minority religion in the United Arab Emirates. Among the Protestant denominations in the country are the Christian Brethren, the Coptic Evangelical Church, the Evangelical Alliance Church, the Seventh-day Adventists. Adventists have oficiliay operated in the UAE since 1988. Other denominations are the Arab Evangelical Church of Dubai, Dubai City Church and the United Christian Church of Dubai; the Anglican Communion is represented by the Diocese of Cyprus and the Gulf of the Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East. The government does not permit churches to display crosses on the outside of their premises or to erect bell towers. Christian men are not allowed to marry Muslim women; the government does not permit conversion from Islam. Non-Muslim religious leaders reported that customs authorities questioned the entry of religious materials such as Bibles and hymnals into the country. On December 25, 2007, the President's Religious Affairs Advisor al-Hashemi participated in Anglican Church celebrations of Christmas.

Roman Catholicism in the United Arab Emirates Freedom of religion in the United Arab Emirates