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Probability

Probability is a numerical description of how an event is to occur or how it is that a proposition is true. Probability is a number between 0 and 1, where speaking, 0 indicates impossibility and 1 indicates certainty; the higher the probability of an event, the more it is that the event will occur. A simple example is the tossing of a fair coin. Since the coin is fair, the two outcomes are both probable; these concepts have been given an axiomatic mathematical formalization in probability theory, used in such areas of study as mathematics, finance, science, artificial intelligence/machine learning, computer science, game theory, philosophy to, for example, draw inferences about the expected frequency of events. Probability theory is used to describe the underlying mechanics and regularities of complex systems; when dealing with experiments that are random and well-defined in a purely theoretical setting, probabilities can be numerically described by the number of desired outcomes divided by the total number of all outcomes.

For example, tossing a fair coin twice will yield "head-head", "head-tail", "tail-head", "tail-tail" outcomes. The probability of getting an outcome of "head-head" is 1 out of 4 outcomes, or, in numerical terms, 1/4, 0.25 or 25%. However, when it comes to practical application, there are two major competing categories of probability interpretations, whose adherents possess different views about the fundamental nature of probability: Objectivists assign numbers to describe some objective or physical state of affairs; the most popular version of objective probability is frequentist probability, which claims that the probability of a random event denotes the relative frequency of occurrence of an experiment's outcome, when repeating the experiment. This interpretation considers probability to be the relative frequency "in the long run" of outcomes. A modification of this is propensity probability, which interprets probability as the tendency of some experiment to yield a certain outcome if it is performed only once.

Subjectivists assign numbers per subjective probability. The degree of belief has been interpreted as, "the price at which you would buy or sell a bet that pays 1 unit of utility if E, 0 if not E." The most popular version of subjective probability is Bayesian probability, which includes expert knowledge as well as experimental data to produce probabilities. The expert knowledge is represented by some prior probability distribution; these data are incorporated in a likelihood function. The product of the prior and the likelihood, results in a posterior probability distribution that incorporates all the information known to date. By Aumann's agreement theorem, Bayesian agents whose prior beliefs are similar will end up with similar posterior beliefs. However, sufficiently different priors can lead to different conclusions regardless of how much information the agents share; the word probability derives from the Latin probabilitas, which can mean "probity", a measure of the authority of a witness in a legal case in Europe, correlated with the witness's nobility.

In a sense, this differs much from the modern meaning of probability, which, in contrast, is a measure of the weight of empirical evidence, is arrived at from inductive reasoning and statistical inference. The scientific study of probability is a modern development of mathematics. Gambling shows that there has been an interest in quantifying the ideas of probability for millennia, but exact mathematical descriptions arose much later. There are reasons for the slow development of the mathematics of probability. Whereas games of chance provided the impetus for the mathematical study of probability, fundamental issues are still obscured by the superstitions of gamblers. According to Richard Jeffrey, "Before the middle of the seventeenth century, the term'probable' meant approvable, was applied in that sense, univocally, to opinion and to action. A probable action or opinion was one such as sensible people would undertake or hold, in the circumstances." However, in legal contexts especially,'probable' could apply to propositions for which there was good evidence.

The earliest known forms of probability and statistics were developed by Middle Eastern mathematicians studying cryptography between the 8th and 13th centuries. Al-Khalil wrote the Book of Cryptographic Messages which contains the first use of permutations and combinations to list all possible Arabic words with and without vowels. Al-Kindi made the earliest known use of statistical inference in his work on cryptanalysis and frequency analysis. An important contribution of Ibn Adlan was on sample size for use of frequency analysis; the sixteenth century Italian polymath Gerolamo Cardano demonstrated the efficacy of defining odds as the ratio of favourable to unfavourable outcomes. Aside from the elementary work by Cardano, the doctrine of probabilities dates to the correspondence of Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal. Christiaan Huygens gave the earliest known scientific treatment of the subject. Jakob Bernoulli's Ars Conjectandi and Abraham de Moivre's Doctrine of Chances treated the subject as a branch of mathematics.

See Ian Hacking's The Emergence of Probability

Atagün Yalçınkaya

Atagün Yalçınkaya is a Turkish boxer in the bantamweight division best known for winning the silver medal in the light-flyweight category at the 2004 Olympics. Yalçınkaya started boxing from a young age and won six titles in the schoolboy and cadet categories in Turkey, he was successful as a teenager at international tournaments with a 2003 1st place win in the Balaton Tournament in Hungary, a 3rd place in Green Hill Cup, Pakistan and a 1st place in European Students Boxing championship, Italy. Yalçınkaya qualified for the 2004 Summer Olympics by ending up in second place at the 4th AIBA European 2004 Olympic Qualifying Tournament in Baku, Azerbaijan, he competed at light-flyweight in Athens and won a silver medal for Turkey on August 29, 2004 by beating Alfonso Pinto and reigning worldchamp Sergey Kazakov. At age 17, he was the youngest medal-winning sportsman in Turkish Olympics history. Defeated Jolly Katongole 22-7 Defeated Jeyhun Abiyev 23-20 Defeated Alfonso Pinto 33-24 Defeated Sergey Kazakov 26-20 Lost to Yan Bhartelemy Varela 16-21He went up to flyweight afterwards and won the Mediterranean Games in Almeria, Spain at the 2005 world championships he defeated Andrzej Rzany 20-13 but lost to Georgy Balakshin 15-36.

At the European Championships 2006 he lost early to Englishman Stuart Langley. He competed at bantamweight. Yalçınkaya, 1.65 m tall, is coached by Enver Yilmaz. In 2008 he signed a contract with German-based Ahmed Öner and turned pro in March 2008. Professional boxing record for Atagün Yalçınkaya from BoxRec

Torre Mapfre

Torre Mapfre is a skyscraper in the Port Olímpic, the maritime neighborhood of the Old City of Barcelona in Spain. It is named after Mapfre, an insurance company. Present in the tower are: Kantox, ExoClick, Europerfil, Madrid Leasing, Condal Grues, URSSA Mondragón Corporación Cooperativa, Flex Multimedia Advertising SL, Oriol Bohigues, Uniland Cementera S. A, Cementos Portland Valderrivas, Zardoya Otis, Texsa S. A, Oliver Wyman, Criteo; this tower holds the title for highest helipad in Spain at 154 m above ground. Unlike its twin, Hotel Arts, this tower is a mixed use tower. List of skyscrapers in Spain Torre Agbar, third-tallest building in Barcelona Building data provided by Emporis

Jake Goodman (footballer)

Jake Phillip Goodman is a professional footballer who plays as a defender and is who plays for Bromley. Goodman signed a professional contract with Millwall in 2012 under manager Kenny Jackett, turning down an offer from Premier League side Newcastle United. On 4 March 2013, Goodman signed on loan for Conference side Luton Town making 11 appearances. Goodman signed on loan for Aldershot Town on 1 August 2013 making 21 appearances and scoring 1 goal. Goodman went on loan to League Two side AFC Wimbledon on 27 November 2014. On 8 January 2015, Goodman extended his loan at Wimbledon until the end of the season. Goodman joined Braintree Town for the 2016–17 season, joined Maidenhead United in June 2017, he joined Bromley for the 2018-19 season. As of match played 26 August 2018 Jake Goodman at Soccerbase Jake Goodman at Soccerway

Ercole Lupinacci

Ercole Lupinacci was an Italian of Arbëreshë ethnicity and Bishop Emeritus of Italo-Albanian Catholic Eparchies of Piana degli Albanesi and Lungro. Ercole Lupinacci was born in San Giorgio Albanese on 23 November 1933, he was ordained an Italo-Albanian Catholic priest on 22 November 1959. He was appointed Bishop of Piana degli Abanesi on 25 March 1981 and ordained bishop on 8 August 1981 by Bishop Giovanni Stamati with principal co-consecrators, Archbishop Saba Youakim, B. S. and Archbishop Miroslav Stefan Marusyn. On 22 November 1987, he was appointed Bishop of Lungro replacing the deceased Bishop Stamati, he retired from the See of Lungro on 10 August 2010 at age 76, died on 6 August 2016, aged 82. Eparch Isaias Papadopoulos Eparch John Mele Eparch Giovanni Stamati Eparch Ercole Lupinacci Intervista a Ercole Lupinacci: Noi cristiani né uniati né ortodossi Bishop Ercole Lupinacci at catholic-hierarchy.org

Over My Head (Better Off Dead)

"Over My Head" is a song by Canadian rock band Sum 41. It was released in June 2003 as the third and final single from their 2002 album Does This Look Infected?. An acoustic version of the song can be found on the Chuck Acoustic EP. Sum 41's lead vocalist Deryck Whibley spoke about the song's meaning, saying, "It's not about being fucked up or drunk," Whibley said. "It's more about the aftermath when you're hearing everything you've just done the night before, you're like, "Ah, fuck, I'm better off dead." I don't regret any of the things I do and I don't mind doing them, I just hate hearing about it. Being told every morning, "Dude, what did you do last night?" Drives me nuts." The video was released in Canada and the UK only. It shows assorted backstage footage and concert clips. Over My Head Mr. Amsterdam Still Waiting The Hell Song "Over My Head" Official music video on YouTube